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Streamflow In The Upper Mississippi River Basin As Simulated By Swat Driven By 20th Century Contemporary Results Of Global Climate Models And Narccap Regional Climate Models, Eugene S. Takle, Manoj K. Jha, Er Lu, Raymond W. Arritt, William J. Gutowski 2017 Iowa State University

Streamflow In The Upper Mississippi River Basin As Simulated By Swat Driven By 20th Century Contemporary Results Of Global Climate Models And Narccap Regional Climate Models, Eugene S. Takle, Manoj K. Jha, Er Lu, Raymond W. Arritt, William J. Gutowski

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

We use Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) when driven by observations and results of climate models to evaluate hydrological quantities, including streamflow, in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB) for 1981–2003 in comparison to observed streamflow. Daily meteorological conditions used as input to SWAT are taken from (1) observations at weather stations in the basin, (2) daily meteorological conditions simulated by a collection of regional climate models (RCMs) driven by reanalysis boundary conditions, and (3) daily meteorological conditions simulated by a collection of global climate models (GCMs). Regional models used are those whose data are archived by the ...


Origins And Transformations Of Dissolved Organic Matter In Large Arctic Rivers, Karl Kaiser, Maria Canedo-Oropeza, Rachel McMahon, Eainer M. W. Amon 2017 Old Dominion University

Origins And Transformations Of Dissolved Organic Matter In Large Arctic Rivers, Karl Kaiser, Maria Canedo-Oropeza, Rachel Mcmahon, Eainer M. W. Amon

OEAS Faculty Publications

Arctic river watersheds are important components of the global climate system and show an amplified response to climate change. Here, we characterize origins and transformations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in five major Arctic rivers (Kolyma, Lena, Yenisei, Ob, Mackenzie) over 3 years with seasonal sampling periods using measurements of carbohydrates, amino acids, bacterial biomarkers (D-amino acids), and plant protein biomarkers (hydroxyproline). A strong seasonal cycle of bioavailable DOM export was observed that correlated with discharge, vegetation, river morphology and water residence time. The chemical composition of bioavailable DOM was different among rivers reflecting unique characteristics of Arctic river watersheds ...


Final Report: Evaluation Of The Morphoedaphic Index And Sediment Diatoms For Inference Of Pre-European Settlement Total Phosphorus Concentration In Epa Region 10 Lakes, Rich Miller, Aaron Hook, Richard Petersen, Mark D. Sytsma 2017 Portland State University

Final Report: Evaluation Of The Morphoedaphic Index And Sediment Diatoms For Inference Of Pre-European Settlement Total Phosphorus Concentration In Epa Region 10 Lakes, Rich Miller, Aaron Hook, Richard Petersen, Mark D. Sytsma

Mark D. Sytsma

Water quality in many Northwest lakes has declined over the past century due, in part, to increased anthropogenic nutrient loading (Edmonson and Lehman, 1981). Under the Clean Water Act, resource managers such as the Washington Department of Ecology, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, and tribes are responsible for restoring and protecting the integrity of these waters. Targets for restoration or criteria for impairment are not well defined, however, and may naturally vary by geology, hydrology, morphometry, and climate. One way to determine whether lakes are impaired and to identify restoration targets is to assess lake reference conditions (EPA 2000). Reference ...


Forecasted Range Shifts Of Arid-Land Fishes In Response To Climate Change, James E. Whitney, Joanna B. Whittier, Craig Patrick Paukert, Julian D. Olden, Angela L. Strecker 2017 University of Missouri

Forecasted Range Shifts Of Arid-Land Fishes In Response To Climate Change, James E. Whitney, Joanna B. Whittier, Craig Patrick Paukert, Julian D. Olden, Angela L. Strecker

Angela L. Strecker

Climate change is poised to alter the distributional limits, center, and size of many species. Traits may influence different aspects of range shifts, with trophic generality facilitating shifts at the leading edge, and greater thermal tolerance limiting contractions at the trailing edge. The generality of relationships between traits and range shifts remains ambiguous however, especially for imperiled fishes residing in xeric riverscapes. Our objectives were to quantify contemporary fish distributions in the Lower Colorado River Basin, forecast climate change by 2085 using two general circulation models, and quantify shifts in the limits, center, and size of fish elevational ranges according ...


Watershed Features And Stream Water Quality: Gaining Insight Through Path Analysis In A Midwest Urban Landscape, U.S.A., Jiayu Wu, Timothy W. Stewart, Janette R. Thompson, Randall K. Kolka, Kristie J. Franz 2017 Iowa State University

Watershed Features And Stream Water Quality: Gaining Insight Through Path Analysis In A Midwest Urban Landscape, U.S.A., Jiayu Wu, Timothy W. Stewart, Janette R. Thompson, Randall K. Kolka, Kristie J. Franz

Timothy W. Stewart

Urban stream condition is often degraded by human activities in the surrounding watershed. Given the complexity of urban areas, relationships among variables that cause stream degradation can be difficult to isolate. We examined factors affecting stream condition by evaluating social, terrestrial, stream hydrology and water quality variables from 20 urban stream watersheds in central Iowa, U.S.A. We used path analysis to examine and quantify social and ecological factors related to variation in stream conditions. Path models supported hypotheses that stream water quality was influenced by variables in each category. Specifically, one path model indicated that increased stream water ...


Economic Evaluation Of Coastal Land Loss In Louisiana, Stephen R. Barnes, Craig Bond, Nicholas Burger, Kate Anania, Aaron Strong, Sarah Weilant, Stephanie Virgets 2017 Louisiana State University

Economic Evaluation Of Coastal Land Loss In Louisiana, Stephen R. Barnes, Craig Bond, Nicholas Burger, Kate Anania, Aaron Strong, Sarah Weilant, Stephanie Virgets

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

Louisiana has lost approximately 1,880 square miles of land over the past eighty years. Projections suggest that in a future without action, the next fifty years could result in the loss of 1,750 additional square miles of land area. As land loss continues, a large portion of the natural and man-made capital stocks of coastal Louisiana will be at greater risk of damage, either from land loss or from the associated increase in storm damage. We estimate the replacement cost of capital stock directly at risk from land loss ranges from approximately $2.1 billion to $3.5 ...


Micro-Spi Sediment Profile Imaging Micro-Inspector, Andrew P. Corvin, Caleb T. Davies, Matt R. Ferrari 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Micro-Spi Sediment Profile Imaging Micro-Inspector, Andrew P. Corvin, Caleb T. Davies, Matt R. Ferrari

Mechanical Engineering

This project was proposed by Dr. Brian Paavo through a desire to more easily study the benthic sediment layers of the ocean. To do so, he asked us to build a simple and compact machine for use in sediment profile imagery (SPI). Although devices like this already exist, they are all large scale devices that require a ship with a crane to deploy, which is expensive and time consuming. Instead, he desired a “micro” SPI, which is capable of being deployed from a small vessel that can easily navigate shallow waters. Our interpretation of these requirements was as follows: a ...


Long-Term Records Of Climate-Induced Changes In The Zooplankton Of West-Greenland Lakes, Helen Schlimm 2017 Dickinson College

Long-Term Records Of Climate-Induced Changes In The Zooplankton Of West-Greenland Lakes, Helen Schlimm

Student Honors Theses By Year

Recent research documents climate-induced changes in the algal communities of West Greenland lakes; however, less is known about the response of zooplankton to climate change effects in this region. Zooplankton are predominantly the top predator in these lakes, and thus may be changing due to direct climate effects on physical lake habitat and chemistry or indirect effects on their food source. Cladoceran remains from two lake sediment cores were collected in the Kangerlussuaq region of southwest Greenland: SS1341, located midway between the Greenland ice sheet and the coast, and SS901, close in proximity to the ice sheet. Modern zooplankton data ...


Forecasted Range Shifts Of Arid-Land Fishes In Response To Climate Change, James E. Whitney, Joanna B. Whittier, Craig Patrick Paukert, Julian D. Olden, Angela L. Strecker 2017 University of Missouri

Forecasted Range Shifts Of Arid-Land Fishes In Response To Climate Change, James E. Whitney, Joanna B. Whittier, Craig Patrick Paukert, Julian D. Olden, Angela L. Strecker

Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations

Climate change is poised to alter the distributional limits, center, and size of many species. Traits may influence different aspects of range shifts, with trophic generality facilitating shifts at the leading edge, and greater thermal tolerance limiting contractions at the trailing edge. The generality of relationships between traits and range shifts remains ambiguous however, especially for imperiled fishes residing in xeric riverscapes. Our objectives were to quantify contemporary fish distributions in the Lower Colorado River Basin, forecast climate change by 2085 using two general circulation models, and quantify shifts in the limits, center, and size of fish elevational ranges according ...


Ecological Importance Of Invader Source Population And Disturbance In Aquatic Invasions, Nicole Elizabeth Graham 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Ecological Importance Of Invader Source Population And Disturbance In Aquatic Invasions, Nicole Elizabeth Graham

Theses and Dissertations

Invasive species are a global problem and their effects on recipient ecosystems may be mediated by disturbance and intraspecific variation. Crayfish can substantially influence stream structure and function, and invasive crayfish often have differential impacts than native crayfish in aquatic ecosystems. Since species traits often vary across a distribution, it is possible that invasive crayfish from different source populations may have distinct impacts on recipient ecosystem structure and function. In the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri, USA, invasive O. neglectus (the Ringed Crayfish) may be leading to the displacement of native O. eupunctus (the Coldwater Crayfish). The objective of ...


Determining Sources Of Nitrate In The Semi-Arid Rio Grande Using Nitrogen And Oxygen Isotopes, Diego Alberto Sanchez Hernandez 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Determining Sources Of Nitrate In The Semi-Arid Rio Grande Using Nitrogen And Oxygen Isotopes, Diego Alberto Sanchez Hernandez

Masters Theses

The Rio Grande, a semi-arid river in the American Southwest, is a major source of surface water for agriculture and drinking supplies in New Mexico and Texas. In addition to increasing salinity, considerable increases of NO3- [nitrate] have been observed in the semi-arid portion of the Rio Grande. It is possible that elevated water salinity inhibits denitrification on irrigated fields and, thus, fails to mediate excess nutrient load from anthropogenic activities. Therefore, two major goals of this project were to 1) characterize and quantify major NO3- sources, and 2) assess whether elevated water salinity affects microbial denitrification. In ...


Understanding N-Nitrosodimethylamine Formation In Water: Chloramine Chemistry, Kinetics, And A Proposed Reaction Pathway, Huong Thu Pham 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Understanding N-Nitrosodimethylamine Formation In Water: Chloramine Chemistry, Kinetics, And A Proposed Reaction Pathway, Huong Thu Pham

Theses and Dissertations

The formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in drinking water systems is a concern because of its potential carcinogenicity and occurrence at toxicologically relevant levels. The postulated mechanism for NDMA formation involves a substitution between dichloramine and amine-based precursors to form an unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), which is then oxidized by ground-state molecular oxygen to form NDMA. However, this latter reaction is spin forbidden, thus likely occurs at a slow rate. It is hypothesized that the reaction between monochloramine and hydroxylamine (a nitrification product) may form an intermediate, which is involved in the NDMA formation pathway. This intermediate may also be generated from ...


Oxidation Of Substituted Catechols At The Air-Water Interface: Production Of Carboxylic Acids, Quinones, And Polyphenols, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Marcelo I. Guzman 2017 University of Kentucky

Oxidation Of Substituted Catechols At The Air-Water Interface: Production Of Carboxylic Acids, Quinones, And Polyphenols, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Anthropogenic activities contribute benzene, toluene, and anisole to the environment, which in the atmosphere are converted into the respective phenols, cresols, and methoxyphenols by fast gas-phase reaction with hydroxyl radicals (HO(•)). Further processing of the latter species by HO(•) decreases their vapor pressure as a second hydroxyl group is incorporated to accelerate their oxidative aging at interfaces and in aqueous particles. This work shows how catechol, pyrogallol, 3-methylcatechol, 4-methylcatechol, and 3-methoxycatechol (all proxies for oxygenated aromatics derived from benzene, toluene, and anisole) react at the air-water interface with increasing O3(g) during τc ≈ 1 μs contact time and contrasts their ...


Spatial And Temporal Distribution And Abundance Microplastics In Lake Champlain Long-Term Monitoring Samples, Susan-Marie Nadeau Hagar, Lindsey E. Austin 2017 SUNY Plattsburgh

Spatial And Temporal Distribution And Abundance Microplastics In Lake Champlain Long-Term Monitoring Samples, Susan-Marie Nadeau Hagar, Lindsey E. Austin

Center for Earth and Environmental Science Student Posters

Microplastics are particles less than 5mm in size, characterized as fibers, fragments, beads, foams, and pellets. Microplastics (MP) arise from four main processes: environmental degradation (UV exposure, mechanical and/or biological), direct release by means of wastewater treatment processing, unintentional loss of raw materials, and discharge of macerated wastes. Microplastics are potentially toxic to aquatic biota and the presence of microplastics in freshwater ecosystems is largely under-researched. The goal of our research was to examine the spatial and temporal distribution of microplastics and pre-production particulate (nurdles) from long-term monitoring (LTM) zooplankton samples within Lake Champlain collected between 1992-2016. Nurdles were ...


A Survey Of Microplastics In Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent In The Lake Champlain Basin, Sadie Brown, Erin Lee, Brandon Buksa, Thomas Niekrewicz 2017 SUNY Plattsburgh

A Survey Of Microplastics In Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent In The Lake Champlain Basin, Sadie Brown, Erin Lee, Brandon Buksa, Thomas Niekrewicz

Center for Earth and Environmental Science Student Posters

Microplastic pollution researchers are beginning to quantify, characterize, and collaborate on finding solutions to this emerging pollution problem. Recent studies have documented consumer care products and laundering of synthetic garments as major sources of microplastics. Most current wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) technologies are unable to capture and remove particulate size; thus, bioaccumulation over time poses a threat to aquatic organisms. In 2015, we began surveying WWTP post-treatment effluent samples from the city of Plattsburgh, NY (n = 31) and in 2016, added 3 other plants in the Lake Champlain watershed, specifically St Albans, VT (n = 8), Ticonderoga, NY (n = 4), and ...


Groundwater And Tidal Controls On Wetland Hydrology, Julie J. Metz Wetland Mitigation Bank, Woodbridge, Virginia, Benjamin Stuart Hiza 2017 Old Dominion University

Groundwater And Tidal Controls On Wetland Hydrology, Julie J. Metz Wetland Mitigation Bank, Woodbridge, Virginia, Benjamin Stuart Hiza

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

Julie J. Metz Wetlands Mitigation Bank, a 92-hectare freshwater wetland located in Woodbridge, Virginia, borders the tidally-influenced Neabsco Creek. Seven pods separated by earthen berms were built by Wetland Studies and Solutions Inc. (WSSI) in 1995 and 1997 by removing the toe of small sandy alluvial fans and covering the underlying coarse gravel bed with a low permeability cap. The basal Quaternary gravels were deposited in a creek valley incised into a thick sand-and-clay Cretaceous delta. The alluvial-fan apron developed at the base of steep slopes along the sides of the valley. Pressure transducer data from five monitoring wells along ...


On The Relationship Between Spring Nao And Snowmelt In The Upper Southwestern United States, Boksoon Myoung, Seung Hee Kim, Jinwon Kim, Menas Kafatos 2017 APEC Climate Center

On The Relationship Between Spring Nao And Snowmelt In The Upper Southwestern United States, Boksoon Myoung, Seung Hee Kim, Jinwon Kim, Menas Kafatos

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This study examines the relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and snowmelt in spring in the upper southwestern states of the United States (UP_SW) including California, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado, using SNOTEL datasets for 34 yr (1980–2014). Statistically significant negative correlations are found between NAO averages in the snowmelt period and timings of snowmelt (i.e., positive NAO phases in spring enhance snowmelt, and vice versa). It is also found that correlations between El Niño–Southern Oscillation and snowmelt are negligible in the region. The NAO–snowmelt relationship is most pronounced below the 2800-m level; above this level ...


Key Differences Between Lakes And Reservoirs Modify Climate Signals: A Case For A New Conceptual Model, Nicole M. Hayes, Bridget R. Deemer, Jessica R. Corman, N. Roxanna Razavi, Kristin E. Strock 2017 Dickinson College

Key Differences Between Lakes And Reservoirs Modify Climate Signals: A Case For A New Conceptual Model, Nicole M. Hayes, Bridget R. Deemer, Jessica R. Corman, N. Roxanna Razavi, Kristin E. Strock

Faculty and Staff Publications By Year

Lakes and reservoirs are recognized as important sentinels of climate change, integrating catchment and atmospheric climate change drivers. Climate change conceptual models generally consider lakes and reservoirs together despite the possibility that these systems respond differently to climate-related drivers. Here, we synthesize differences between lake and reservoir characteristics that are likely important for predicting waterbody response to climate change. To better articulate these differences, we revised the energy mass flux framework, a conceptual model for the effects of climate change on lentic ecosystems, to explicitly consider the differential responses of lake versus reservoir ecosystems. The model predicts that catchment and ...


Fisheries & Stream Quality Update For The Kankakee River Basin, Stephen Pescitelli 2017 Illinois Department of Natural Resources

Fisheries & Stream Quality Update For The Kankakee River Basin, Stephen Pescitelli

Kankakee River Watershed Conference

Author keywords: stream quality, index of biotic integrity, walleye stocking

Scholarship domain: community application


2016 Data Collected For Resistivity, Magnetic Susceptibility And Sediment Characterization Of The York River Estuary, Va In Support Of The Empirical Investigation Of The Factors Influencing Marine Applications Of Emi (Year 2 Of Serdp Project Mr-2409), Grace M. Massey, Carl T. Friedrichs 2017 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

2016 Data Collected For Resistivity, Magnetic Susceptibility And Sediment Characterization Of The York River Estuary, Va In Support Of The Empirical Investigation Of The Factors Influencing Marine Applications Of Emi (Year 2 Of Serdp Project Mr-2409), Grace M. Massey, Carl T. Friedrichs

Data

The objective of this component of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) Project MR-2409 was to conduct field measurements to aid in the determination of the electromagnetic induction (EMI) response to the water column and underlying sediments in the York River estuary, which includes water column and sediment properties similar to many underwater environments of interest to unexploded ordinance detection. Data and samples from a standard suite of hydrographic and sedimentological measurements, as well as electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility, were collected and analyzed for each location. These cruises provided opportunities to obtain information that is being used ...


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