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Nitrogen Fixation Rates In Forested Mountain Streams: Are Sediment Microbes More Important Than Previously Thought?, Erica A. H. Bakker, Carmella Vizza, Clay Arango, Sarah S. Roley 2022 Washington State University

Nitrogen Fixation Rates In Forested Mountain Streams: Are Sediment Microbes More Important Than Previously Thought?, Erica A. H. Bakker, Carmella Vizza, Clay Arango, Sarah S. Roley

Biology Faculty Scholarship

  1. Biological nitrogen (N) fixation, the microbial conversion of N2 gas to ammonia, makes N available to food webs. Low-N streams often have a high relative abundance of N-fixing taxa, suggesting that N fixation is an important N source in these systems. Despite this potential, stream N fixation has not been well-characterised, particularly compared to lakes and marine environments. One unknown is the relative contributions of various N-fixing organisms, particularly heterotrophic microbes.
  2. In low-N streams in the Cascade Mountains (Washington, USA), three groups of N-fixers predominate: cyanobacteria (Nostoc paramelioides) colonies that house a midge symbiont (Cricotopus spp.), cyanobacteria without a ...


Developing A Miniature Smart Boat For Marine Research, Michael Isaac Eirinberg 2022 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Developing A Miniature Smart Boat For Marine Research, Michael Isaac Eirinberg

Computer Engineering

This project examines the development of a smart boat which could serve as a possible marine research apparatus. The smart boat consists of a miniature vessel containing a low-cost microcontroller to live stream a camera feed, GPS telemetry, and compass data through its own WiFi access point. The smart boat also has the potential for autonomous navigation. My project captivated the interest of several members of California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo’s (Cal Poly SLO) Marine Science Department faculty, who proposed a variety of fascinating and valuable smart boat applications.


Inter-Annual Variability In Growth And Maturation Of The Swordtip Squid Uroteuthis Edulis In Yilan Bay Off Northeastern Taiwan, Jing-Yu Chen, Tzu-Yun Ching, Chih-Shin Chen 2022 Institute of Marine Affairs and Resource Management, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan

Inter-Annual Variability In Growth And Maturation Of The Swordtip Squid Uroteuthis Edulis In Yilan Bay Off Northeastern Taiwan, Jing-Yu Chen, Tzu-Yun Ching, Chih-Shin Chen

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

The swordtip squid Uroteuthis edulis, distributed in the temperate and tropical neritic waters in the Indo-Pacific region, is a crucial component of marine ecosystems and is a target species of fisheries in the Northwest Pacific. Although studies have elucidated the growth and maturation of the squid in the southern East China Sea (ECS) shelf, few have assessed the population biology of the squid in waters in the vicinity of the southern ECS. We collected samples of swordtip squid from a trawler in Yilan Bay (YLB) between January 2011 and December 2012 to examine the growth and maturation of the squid ...


Study On The Improved Radiation Boundary Conditions Based On The Quadratic B-Spline Rankine Panel Method, Ming-Chung Fang, Chun-Hsien Wu 2022 Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronic Engineering, National Cheng Kung University

Study On The Improved Radiation Boundary Conditions Based On The Quadratic B-Spline Rankine Panel Method, Ming-Chung Fang, Chun-Hsien Wu

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

This study presents a higher-order Rankine source method that is based on a biquadratic B-spline scheme with an improved radiation boundary condition. This method solves flow problems under all conditions, where , including the undercritical condition ( < 0.25); this condition is present when a ship undergoes slow translational motion. The proposed method is thus more flexible than the many Rankine-source models in the literature that are applicable only to the overcritical condition ( > 0.25). Specifically, the improved radiation boundary condition is derived from upstream Seto radiation boundary conditions and by incorporating the Rayleigh damping distribution over a free surface; the improved condition is explicit and efficient for solving flow problems. In evaluations, the proposed method yields accurate solutions for unsteady flows, which are produced by an oscillating, translationally moving submerged singularity. The method is also compared against ...


Sensitive Analysis Of The Static Response Of Compliant Vertical Access Risers, Fuheng Li, Haiyan Guo, Xiaomin Li, Honglu Gu 2022 College of Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, 266100, China

Sensitive Analysis Of The Static Response Of Compliant Vertical Access Risers, Fuheng Li, Haiyan Guo, Xiaomin Li, Honglu Gu

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Compliant vertical access risers (CVARs) are considered as efficient and robust alternative options to achieve cost efficiency and safety. Design uncertainties emerge owing to the limited understanding of the effects of various parameters related to the structural properties and marine loads. In this paper, a reasonable three-dimensional (3D) numerical model of CVAR with internal flow is presented based on the slender rod theory. Accordingly, the finite element method combined with a Newton-Raphson scheme is employed to discretize and solve the equations. A sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the influence of the structural and external load parameters on the static ...


Influence Of Boundary Conditions And Internal Fluid Types On Dynamic Characteristics Of A Deepwater Riser, Lei Guo, Zong-Ming Zhu, Zhong-Jian Pan, Zhi-Ming Guo 2022 College of Electromechanical Engineering, Changsha University, Changsha, China.

Influence Of Boundary Conditions And Internal Fluid Types On Dynamic Characteristics Of A Deepwater Riser, Lei Guo, Zong-Ming Zhu, Zhong-Jian Pan, Zhi-Ming Guo

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Deepwater Steel Catenary Riser (DSCR) is the key structure of oil and gas production system in the ocean. To design an optimized DSCR system, the dynamic characteristics of the DSCR are analyzed by setting some different boundary condi-tions and internal fluid types. The main vibration mode of the DSCR is found orthogonal to both mass and stiffness according to the normalization condition of the main mode, and then the regular mode function and the jth order principal stiffness Kpj are obtained. Under different initial conditions, the transverse responses of DSCR represented by regular coordinates under arbitrary excitation are obtained. Then ...


Variance Of Td-Mosaic Dual-Vortex Interactions Between In-Fa And Cempaka (2021) In The North Pacific, Tsorng-Lin Chia, Guang-Yang Pan, Ji-Chyun Liu 2022 Department of Computer and Communication Engineering, Ming Chuan University, Taoyuan, Taiwan 333, R.O.C.

Variance Of Td-Mosaic Dual-Vortex Interactions Between In-Fa And Cempaka (2021) In The North Pacific, Tsorng-Lin Chia, Guang-Yang Pan, Ji-Chyun Liu

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

A study of the different types of dual-vortex interactions or “Fujiwara effects” between two storms is crucial for considerably improving weather forecasts. This study combined remote sensing images, empirical formulas based on the possibility of storm interaction (Liou–Liu formula), and vector addition techniques to accurately analyze In-Fa and Cempaka typhoons and the surrounding weather patterns during the 2021 typhoon season in the North Pacific. Although the distance separating the typhoons In-Fa and Cempaka was 1,800–2,040 km, the influence of middle air flow and a tropical depression (TD) caused a "vector superposition TD-mosaic double-vortex" interaction between the ...


Optimal Deployment Of Flood Emergency Response Materials Under Stochastic Demands, Shangyao Yan, Jenn-Rong Lin, Chia-Fu Ku 2022 Department of Civil Engineering, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan

Optimal Deployment Of Flood Emergency Response Materials Under Stochastic Demands, Shangyao Yan, Jenn-Rong Lin, Chia-Fu Ku

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

This study aims to develop a planning model for the deployment of flood emergency response materials under stochastic demands. For ease of modeling, a deterministic demand model is first proposed, from which the stochastic model is further extended. These models are used to determine the allocation of materials the transport truck routes and distribution of the stockpiled materials to emergency sites. The models are formulated as multiple integer network flow problems with special side constraints which are characterized as NP-hard in terms of optimization. To solve the complicated stochastic model efficiently, we also develop a solution algorithm based on a ...


Exploring The Effects Of Varied Land Use On Elemental Concentrations Within Streams, Logan Jennings 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Exploring The Effects Of Varied Land Use On Elemental Concentrations Within Streams, Logan Jennings

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

It is well documented that human activity influences the chemistry of surrounding waters. As such, it is possible that there is a link between land use within a watershed and the chemical composition of the stream. The objectives of this study are to determine if varied land use does affect the concentrations of macronutrients and trace elements present in the streams of Northwest Arkansas, and if so, to determine what extent urban and agricultural development are responsible for these changes. Water samples were collected across 19 streams in the Northwest Arkansas region between January and March of 2022. Water samples ...


How Flow Regime Affects Predator-Prey Relationships Of Stream Darter And Shiner Species, Anna E. Richardson 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

How Flow Regime Affects Predator-Prey Relationships Of Stream Darter And Shiner Species, Anna E. Richardson

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Analysis of the interactions between abiotic and biotic factors of environments and ecosystems is a highly valued area of research. This study focuses on the interactions between the biotic component of predation and foraging of certain stream fish species and the abiotic component of the flow regime that those species reside in. Gut content analysis followed by statistical calculations in the form of t-tests and chi -quared tests were performed on two fish species who both inhabited a stream with a groundwater flashy flow regime as well as a stream with a runoff flashy flow regime. The research showed that ...


The Effects Of Water With Anti-Inflammatory Capabilities (Wac) On Circulating Inflammatory Biomarkers At Rest And Following Resistance Exercise, Brittany Martin 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effects Of Water With Anti-Inflammatory Capabilities (Wac) On Circulating Inflammatory Biomarkers At Rest And Following Resistance Exercise, Brittany Martin

Health, Human Performance and Recreation Undergraduate Honors Theses

Purpose: To determine the effects of waters with anti-inflammatory capabilities (WAC) influence circulating inflammatory biomarkers at rest and following resistance exercise. Methods: Participants completed a heavy lifting protocol and drank water with anti-inflammatory capabilities for a total of six weeks. Blood samples were taken at different at 9 different time intervals to assess concentrations of anti-inflammatory markers and to quantify inflammatory biomarkers. Those time intervals included pre-AHREP 1 and post-AHREP 1, 24-hr post-AHREP 1, 48-hr post-AHREP 1, 3-week check-up, pre-AHREP 2, post-AHREP 2, 24-hr post-AHREP 2, and 48-hr post-AHREP 2. Background: The biomarkers that were focused on were: IL-6 and ...


Changes In Western U.S. Streamflow Extremes Under Climate Change, Rama Bedri 2022 Chapman University

Changes In Western U.S. Streamflow Extremes Under Climate Change, Rama Bedri

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

We are analyzing streamflow extremes in Western U.S. rivers due to climate change. Global warming causes natural disasters to reach extreme points and affects river volumes, snowfall, and precipitation amounts. We analyze the data for 17 stations in the Colorado River Basin, whose rivers provide Southern California’s drinking water supply. Disruptions in streamflow due to climate change affect the region’s water availability and make it difficult to predict future trends. We compared historical streamflow data to eight possible climate scenarios. The different scenarios are Warm Dry, Cool Wet, Average, and Other at emission levels of RCP 4 ...


Mapping The Impact Of A Trailway System On The Amount Of Trash Present Within Two Watersheds Of Lynchburg City, Virginia, Lillian Smith 2022 University of Lynchburg

Mapping The Impact Of A Trailway System On The Amount Of Trash Present Within Two Watersheds Of Lynchburg City, Virginia, Lillian Smith

Student Scholar Showcase

Transportation of trash debris within water systems is a prominent occurrence which has been linked to natural and artificial processes such as wind, rain, and littering. Recreational areas, such as activities along greenway trails, have been determined to be a source of debris found in waterways. This study examines whether the presence of an established recreational trail system limits trash accumulation in the entirety of a watershed. Trash data collected at Blackwater Creek, which contains an established trail system, was compared to trash data collected at Fishing Creek, containing a non-established trail system, to answer this hypothesis. A distance of ...


Analysis Of Edna To Assess Effects Of Water Quality On Freshwater Fungal Diversity In A Virginia Coastal Watershed, Lauren French 2022 William & Mary

Analysis Of Edna To Assess Effects Of Water Quality On Freshwater Fungal Diversity In A Virginia Coastal Watershed, Lauren French

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Freshwater fungi comprise a phylogenetically and functionally diverse group which contributes to wide-ranging ecosystem processes in aquatic systems. Saprotrophic fungi convert detritus into nutrient-rich food sources for fish and invertebrates, whereas pathogenic and parasitic fungi can cause disease and population declines of other aquatic organisms. With their diverse and important roles, changes in freshwater fungal community structure may have far-reaching impacts on ecosystems. To understand how natural and anthropogenic stressors to freshwater systems impact fungal-mediated ecosystem processes, a greater understanding of the taxonomic and functional composition of freshwater fungal communities is needed. We assessed relationships among freshwater habitat types, water ...


A Non-Iteration Solution For Solving The Backward-In-Time Two-Dimensional Burgers’ Equation With A Large Reynolds Number, Yen-Shen Chang, Yung-Wei Chen, Chein-Shan Liu, Jiang-Ren Chang 2022 Department of Marine Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan, R.O.C.

A Non-Iteration Solution For Solving The Backward-In-Time Two-Dimensional Burgers’ Equation With A Large Reynolds Number, Yen-Shen Chang, Yung-Wei Chen, Chein-Shan Liu, Jiang-Ren Chang

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

This article proposes a noniteration solution based on the Lie-group shooting method (LGSM) to solve the backward-in-time two-dimensional Burgers’ equation with a large Reynolds number. The backward problem is famous for seriously ill-posed cases because the solution is generally unstable and highly dependent on the input data. Small perturbations in the input data, such as random errors inherent to the measurements in the analysis, can cause large oscillations in the solution. To handle a large Reynolds number under long time spans, it is very difficult to integrate towards the time direction. To avoid time integration and numerical iteration, the noniteration ...


Polyketides And Terpenes In Marine Microalgae: Ecological Roles And Mechanisms Of Biosynthesis, Yunxuan Xie, Mohammad Elsheikh 2022 School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University

Polyketides And Terpenes In Marine Microalgae: Ecological Roles And Mechanisms Of Biosynthesis, Yunxuan Xie, Mohammad Elsheikh

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Marine microalgae comprise a large number of polyketides and terpenes identified to date with highly diverse molecular scaffolds and the biological activities (Kalaitzis et al., 2010). These compounds play significant roles in marine food web and nutraceutical supplementation in marine animals. Compounds of this class are often synthesized by gene clusters with dedicated domains responsible for carbon chain extension and modification. The unique molecular structure of these compounds encourages people to investigate their biosynthetic mechanisms in-depth. In this review, we summarize relevant articles to unravel the shared mechanisms of these compounds to further understand the variety of domain organizations and ...


Unbaited Light-Emitting Diode Traps Performance For Catching Orange Mud Crabs, Muhamad Naimullah, Kuo-Wei Lan, Mhd Ikhwanuddin, Adnan Amin-Safwan, Wei-Yu Lee 2022 Department of Environmental Biology Fisheries Science, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung, Taiwan, Republic of China

Unbaited Light-Emitting Diode Traps Performance For Catching Orange Mud Crabs, Muhamad Naimullah, Kuo-Wei Lan, Mhd Ikhwanuddin, Adnan Amin-Safwan, Wei-Yu Lee

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Mud crabs (Scylla spp.) are a vital fishery resource and targeted for a valuable source of income for coastal communities throughout the Indo-Pacific region. Baited traps are a considerable expense in crustacean fishing. Hence, the present study was performed to investigate the catchability of Scylla olivacea in response to light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in captivity and field conditions. We used a new experimental setup in the captivity condition that revealed most S. olivacea were attracted to green, blue, and white LED lights and no attractive effect by red LED lights similar to the controls. Field studies have shown that the catch ...


Catch And Effort Standardization For Taiwanese Swordtip Squid Uroteuthis Edulis Fisheries In The Southern East China Sea, Ke-Yang Chang, Yu-Jie Hsu, Tzu-Yun Ching, Cheng-Hsin Liao, Chih-Shin Chen 2022 Marine Fisheries Division, Fisheries Research Institute, Keelung, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Catch And Effort Standardization For Taiwanese Swordtip Squid Uroteuthis Edulis Fisheries In The Southern East China Sea, Ke-Yang Chang, Yu-Jie Hsu, Tzu-Yun Ching, Cheng-Hsin Liao, Chih-Shin Chen

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

The swordtip squid Uroteuthis edulis is a neritic squid species that is widely distributed within the coastal waters of subtropical and tropical Indo-western Pacific regions. This squid is a commercially important species throughout its distribution range and plays a critical role in marine ecosystems. Stock assessments of the squid in the East China Sea (ECS) are scarce, although it is crucial information for the sustainability of the squid and relevant fisheries. The squid was harvested by various fisheries in the southern ECS, which could restrict methods for catch-effort standardization. In this study, catch-effort data of Taiwanese swordtip squid fisheries in ...


Uniform Torsion Analysis Of Composite Shafts Using Point Collocation Method Based On Pascal Polynomials, Chih-Wen Chang, Jyh-Hong Wu, Ying-Ru Lin, Yu-Feng Lin, Nan-Nong Huang 2022 Department of Mechanical Engineering, National United University, Miaoli, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Uniform Torsion Analysis Of Composite Shafts Using Point Collocation Method Based On Pascal Polynomials, Chih-Wen Chang, Jyh-Hong Wu, Ying-Ru Lin, Yu-Feng Lin, Nan-Nong Huang

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

Torsion bars are important elements in the marine structure applications. The usage of the composite torsion bars has increased recently because it takes advantage of the different material property of each constituent. The current research focuses mainly on the uniform warping analysis of composite torsion shafts by using the point collocation method (PCM). The PCM is based on Pascal's triangle polynomial expansion and coupled with subdomain technique that is indispensable for the analysis of composite bars. In addition to satisfying the field equation (Laplace equation for warping function) and traction-free boundary condition for each component, the continuity conditions in ...


Local Reinforcement Design And Safety Factor Evaluation Of Elliptical Hatch Of Pressure Hull, Guang-Min Luo, Jun-Wei Chen 2022 Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology

Local Reinforcement Design And Safety Factor Evaluation Of Elliptical Hatch Of Pressure Hull, Guang-Min Luo, Jun-Wei Chen

Journal of Marine Science and Technology

A pressure hull is the primary pressure-resistant structure of a submarine. To safeguard the compressive strength of such a hull, local structural reinforcement is required for various hatches on the hull. Hatches are commonly reinforced through increasing the thickness of the hull regions around them; alternatively, hatch nozzle walls are connected with stiffened frames to maintain the continuity of reinforced structures. This study focused on a pressure hull with an elliptical hatch. A PD-5500 cylindrical pressure hull was used to design a cylindrical pressure hull structure, and a model of hatch nozzle reinforcement was designed using the Boiler and Pressure ...


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