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What Is The U.S. Drought Monitor?, National Drought Mitigation Center 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

What Is The U.S. Drought Monitor?, National Drought Mitigation Center

Publications of the National Drought Mitigation Center

The USDA uses the map as a trigger for programs that help agricultural producers recover from drought and other natural disasters:

Livestock Forage Disaster Program (LFP)

Emergency Assistance for Livestock, Honeybees, and Farm Raised Fish Program (ELAP)

Fast-Track Secretarial Disaster Declarations

Emergency Loans Program


The U.S. Drought Monitor Network: Improving Drought Early Warning, THE U.S. DROUGHT MONITOR NETWORK 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The U.S. Drought Monitor Network: Improving Drought Early Warning, The U.S. Drought Monitor Network

Publications of the National Drought Mitigation Center

WHAT IS THE U.S. DROUGHT MONITOR NETWORK?

WHO ARE THE OBSERVERS?

WHAT BENEFITS?

The network in action

HOW DOES IT WORK?

WHO CREATES THE MAP?


Building Adaptive Capacity In Tribal Communities Of The Missouri River Basin To Manage Drought And Climate Extremes: A Case Study From The Wind River Indian Reservation, Crystal J. Stiles, Natalie Umphlett, Mitch Cottenoir 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Building Adaptive Capacity In Tribal Communities Of The Missouri River Basin To Manage Drought And Climate Extremes: A Case Study From The Wind River Indian Reservation, Crystal J. Stiles, Natalie Umphlett, Mitch Cottenoir

HPRCC Personnel Publications

Native American peoples of the Northern and Central Plains have long endured harsh climate conditions, such as floods and droughts, and they possess valuable traditional knowledges that have enhanced their resilience to these extreme events. However, in recent times, limited capacity to adapt to a rapidly changing climate combined with a lack of resources have increased tribes’ vulnerability to climate extremes and their associated impacts. In response, a number of projects have been developed to assist tribes with their self-identified climate- and drought-related needs, particularly in the context of on-reservation decision-making. In this case study, we present an engagement strategy ...


Examining Terrain Effects On Upstate New York Tornado Events Utilizing High-Resolution Model Simulations, Luke Lebel 2020 University at Albany, State University of New York

Examining Terrain Effects On Upstate New York Tornado Events Utilizing High-Resolution Model Simulations, Luke Lebel

Atmospheric & Environmental Sciences

The region at the intersection of the Mohawk and Hudson valleys of New York is characterized by complex terrain. It has been hypothesized that this complex terrain may have an impact on the development and evolution of severe convection in the region. Specifically, previous research has hypothesized that terrain-channeled flow in the Hudson and Mohawk valleys contributed to increased low-level wind shear and instability in the valleys during past severe weather outbreaks. However, a lack of observations in the region prevented this hypothesis from being robustly tested.

The goal of this study is to further examine this hypothesis and complement ...


High-Resolution Simulation Of A Tornado In Bangladesh On 13 May 1996, Katherine Hollinger 2020 University at Albany, State University of New York

High-Resolution Simulation Of A Tornado In Bangladesh On 13 May 1996, Katherine Hollinger

Atmospheric & Environmental Sciences

The country of Bangladesh has been known to experience some of the deadliest tornado outbreaks in the world. The severe weather season in this region only spans from late March to early May, but can produce significant severe weather outbreaks in that short time. Even with these outbreaks occurring, there has not been extensive analysis completed to evaluate the environmental parameters on these tornado event days in this region.

The goal of this project is to use a Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model simulation to evaluate a significant tornado that occurred in the Tangail and Jamalpur districts in Bangladesh ...


The Rapid Weakening Of Hurricane Fred (2009), Christina Talamo 2020 University at Albany, State University of New York

The Rapid Weakening Of Hurricane Fred (2009), Christina Talamo

Atmospheric & Environmental Sciences

This research project discusses the rapid weakening of Hurricane Fred, a major Category 3 hurricane that occurred in the Atlantic basin during the 2009 Atlantic hurricane season. Between the days of 9 September and 13 September, Fred remained stationary off the coast of Africa in the Atlantic Ocean and never made landfall, all the while consistently weakening over open ocean from a major Category 3 hurricane to a tropical storm. In the Atlantic basin, I will define the rapid weakening, or RW, of a tropical cyclone as a decrease in the storm’s maximum sustained winds by 10.3 m ...


Learning Set Representations For Lwir In-Scene Atmospheric Compensation, Nicholas M. Westing, Kevin C. Gross, Brett J. Borghetti, Jacob A. Martin, Joseph Meola 2020 Resonant Sciences

Learning Set Representations For Lwir In-Scene Atmospheric Compensation, Nicholas M. Westing, Kevin C. Gross, Brett J. Borghetti, Jacob A. Martin, Joseph Meola

Faculty Publications

Atmospheric compensation of long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral imagery is investigated in this article using set representations learned by a neural network. This approach relies on synthetic at-sensor radiance data derived from collected radiosondes and a diverse database of measured emissivity spectra sampled at a range of surface temperatures. The network loss function relies on LWIR radiative transfer equations to update model parameters. Atmospheric predictions are made on a set of diverse pixels extracted from the scene, without knowledge of blackbody pixels or pixel temperatures. The network architecture utilizes permutation-invariant layers to predict a set representation, similar to the work performed ...


Sulfur Dioxide From The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Satellite, Doug Cameron 2020 Old Dominion University

Sulfur Dioxide From The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Satellite, Doug Cameron

College of Sciences Posters

The version 4.0 dataset from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment – Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) on SCISAT, released in March of 2019, has sulfur dioxide (SO2) volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles as a routine data product. From this dataset, global SO2 distributions between the altitudes of 10.5 km and 23.5 km are analyzed. The global distribution of all SO2 VMR data by altitude is broken down into 30° and 5° latitude zones. Seasonality of the global SO2 distribution is explored. Volcanic SO2 plumes are isolated in the dataset and compared with extinction data from ...


Atmospheric Contrail Detection With A Deep Learning Algorithm, Nasir Siddiqui 2020 University of Minnesota Morris Digital Well

Atmospheric Contrail Detection With A Deep Learning Algorithm, Nasir Siddiqui

Student Research, Papers, and Creative Works

Aircraft contrail emission is widely believed to be a contributing factor to global climate change. We have used machine learning techniques on images containing contrails in hopes of being able to identify those which contain contrails and those that do not. The developed algorithm processes data on contrail characteristics as captured by long-term image records. Images collected by the United States Deparment of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Management user facility(ARM) were used to train a deep convolutional neural network for the purpose of this contrail classification. The neural network model was trained with 1600 images taken by the Total ...


A Hydrometeorological Assessment Of The Historic 2019 Flood Of Nebraska, Iowa, And South Dakota, Paul Xavier Flanagan, Rezaul Mahmood, Natalie Umphlett, Erin M.K. Haacker, Chittaranjan Ray, Bill Sorensen, Martha Shulski, Crystal J. Stiles, David Pearson, Paul Fajman 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Hydrometeorological Assessment Of The Historic 2019 Flood Of Nebraska, Iowa, And South Dakota, Paul Xavier Flanagan, Rezaul Mahmood, Natalie Umphlett, Erin M.K. Haacker, Chittaranjan Ray, Bill Sorensen, Martha Shulski, Crystal J. Stiles, David Pearson, Paul Fajman

HPRCC Personnel Publications

During early 2019, a series of events set the stage for devastating floods in eastern Nebraska, western Iowa, and southeastern South Dakota. When the floodwaters hit, dams and levees failed, cutting off towns, while destroying roads, bridges, and rail lines, further exacerbating the crisis. Lives were lost and thousands of cattle were stranded. Estimates indicate that the cost of the flooding has topped $3 billion as of August 2019, with this number expected to rise.

After a warm and wet start to winter, eastern Nebraska, western Iowa, and southeastern South Dakota endured anomalously low temperatures and record-breaking snowfall. By March ...


Validation Technique For Modeled Bottomside Ionospheres Via Ray Tracing, Kevin S. Burg 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Validation Technique For Modeled Bottomside Ionospheres Via Ray Tracing, Kevin S. Burg

Theses and Dissertations

A new method for validating ionosphere models using High Frequency (HF) angle of arrival (AoA) data is presented. AoA measurements from a field campaign held at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, USA in January 2014 provide the actual elevation angle, azimuth and group delay results from 10 transmitter-receiver circuits. Simulated AoAs are calculated by ray tracing through the electron density profiles predicted from the ionosphere models hosted by NASA's Community Coordinated Modeling Center: IRI-2016, USU-GAIM, GITM, CTIPe, TIE-GCM, and SAMI3. Through the implementation of metrics including Mean Absolute Error, Prediction Efficiency, Correlation Coefficient, and others, we are able ...


Changes In Atmospheric, Meteorological, And Ocean Parameters Associated With The 12 January 2020 Taal Volcanic Eruption, Feng Jing, Akshansa Chauhan, Ramesh P. Singh, Prasanjit Dash 2020 China Earthquake Administration

Changes In Atmospheric, Meteorological, And Ocean Parameters Associated With The 12 January 2020 Taal Volcanic Eruption, Feng Jing, Akshansa Chauhan, Ramesh P. Singh, Prasanjit Dash

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The Taal volcano erupted on 12 January 2020, the first time since 1977. About 35 mild earthquakes (magnitude greater than 4.0) were observed on 12 January 2020 induced from the eruption. In the present paper, we analyzed optical properties of volcanic aerosols, volcanic gas emission, ocean parameters using multi-satellite sensors, namely, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder), OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) and ground observations, namely, Argo, and AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) data. Our detailed analysis shows pronounced changes in all the parameters, which mainly occurred in the western and south-western regions because ...


Methanethiol, Dimethyl Sulfide And Acetone Over Biologically Productive Waters In The Southwest Pacific Ocean, Sarah J. Lawson, Cliff S. Law, Mike J. Harvey, Thomas G. Bell, Carolyn F. Walker, Warren J. De Bruyn, Eric S. Saltzman 2020 ommonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Australia

Methanethiol, Dimethyl Sulfide And Acetone Over Biologically Productive Waters In The Southwest Pacific Ocean, Sarah J. Lawson, Cliff S. Law, Mike J. Harvey, Thomas G. Bell, Carolyn F. Walker, Warren J. De Bruyn, Eric S. Saltzman

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Atmospheric methanethiol (MeSHa), dimethyl sulfide (DMSa) and acetone (acetonea) were measured over biologically productive frontal waters in the remote southwest Pacific Ocean in summertime 2012 during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) voyage. MeSHa mixing ratios varied from below the detection limit (< 10 ppt) up to 65 ppt and were 3 %–36 % of parallel DMSa mixing ratios. MeSHa and DMSa were correlated over the voyage (R2=0.3, slope = 0.07) with a stronger correlation over a coccolithophore-dominated phytoplankton bloom (R2=0.5, slope 0.13). The diurnal cycle for MeSHa shows similar behaviour to DMSa with mixing ratios varying by a ...


What Is The Most Threatening Disaster To The Continental United States?, Aaron Spomer, Elijah Kaufman, Julisa Prieto-Garcia, Brooke Aschwanden 2020 University of Nebraska at Omaha

What Is The Most Threatening Disaster To The Continental United States?, Aaron Spomer, Elijah Kaufman, Julisa Prieto-Garcia, Brooke Aschwanden

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Our goal for our project is to fully understand which natural disaster is the most destructive to the United States. We have chosen to compare hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, wildfires, earthquakes, and nor’easters. We have researched the cost of the total damage and repair, how the warning systems have improved over time, the death tolls from each, and also the frequency at which each one occurs. Each group member will research a different disaster impact, and the data will create a comprehensive view of the level of devastation each disaster has. We collected data all the way from the early ...


Characterizing Regime-Based Flow Uncertainty, John L. Fioretti 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Characterizing Regime-Based Flow Uncertainty, John L. Fioretti

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this work is to develop a regime-based quantification of horizontal wind field uncertainty utilizing a global ensemble numerical weather prediction model. In this case, the Global Ensemble Forecast System Reforecast (GEFSR) data is utilized. The machine learning algorithm that is employed is the mini-batch K-means clustering algorithm. 850 hPa Horizontal flow fields are clustered and the forecast uncertainty in these flow fields is calculated for different forecast times for regions across the globe. This provides end-users quantified flow-based forecast uncertainty.


Next-Generation Air Force Weather Metrics Via Bayes Cost Analysis, Brandon M. Bailey 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Next-Generation Air Force Weather Metrics Via Bayes Cost Analysis, Brandon M. Bailey

Theses and Dissertations

This research proposes a new methodology for U.S. Air Force weather forecast metrics. Military weather forecasters are essentially statistical classifiers. They categorize future conditions into an operationally relevant category based on current data, much like an Artificial Neural Net or Logistic Regression model. There is extensive literature on statistically-based metrics for these types of classifiers. Additionally, in the U.S. Air Force, forecast errors (errors in classification) have quantifiable operational costs and benefits associated with incorrect or correct classification decisions. There is a methodology in the literature, Bayes Cost, which provides a structure for creating statistically rigorous metrics for ...


Localized Effects Of Hurricane Michael (2018) On Total Electron Content, Joanna E.S. Williams 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Localized Effects Of Hurricane Michael (2018) On Total Electron Content, Joanna E.S. Williams

Theses and Dissertations

Understanding the connection between terrestrial and space environments is an emerging field of study that can significantly improve operational weather forecasting. In particular, it is well known that tropical cyclones (TCs) and thunderstorms can initiate gravity waves that generate fluctuations in the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere. These perturbations can deteriorate and delay the transmission of high-frequency (HF) communications, such as emergency services, amateur radio, and aviation. This study investigates changes in TEC according to the number of lightning ashes and the rainfall rates associated with Hurricane Michael (2018). A composite analysis will be performed using the GOES ...


Detection Of Reconnection Signatures In Solar Flares, Taylor R. Whitney 2020 Air Force Institute of Technology

Detection Of Reconnection Signatures In Solar Flares, Taylor R. Whitney

Theses and Dissertations

Solar flare forecasting is limited by the current understanding of mechanisms that govern magnetic reconnection, the main physical phenomenon associated with these events. As a result, forecasting relies mainly on climatological correlations to historical events rather than the underlying physics principles. Solar physics models place the neutral point of the reconnection event in the solar corona. Correspondingly, studies of photospheric magnetic fields indicate changes during solar flares -- particularly in relation to the field helicity -- on the solar surface as a result of the associated magnetic reconnection. This study utilizes data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager ...


A Design For A Sustained Assessment Of Climate Forcing And Feedbacks Related To Land Use And Land Cover Change, Thomas Loveland, Rezaul Mahmood 2020 Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS)

A Design For A Sustained Assessment Of Climate Forcing And Feedbacks Related To Land Use And Land Cover Change, Thomas Loveland, Rezaul Mahmood

HPRCC Personnel Publications

L and use and land cover change (LULCC) plays an important role in the climate system. Many studies have documented the impacts of LULCC on local, regional, and global climate. The National Climate Assessment Report (Melillo et al. 2014) identifies LULCC as a “cross cutting” issue of future climate change studies. This report, and the previous U.S. Climate Change Science Program strategic plan (2003), noted that land use and land cover (LULC) and its feedback is an important source of uncertainty within the climate system (Melillo et al. 2014). As a result, the report calls for a better understanding ...


A Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory For Nebraska: Livestock And Coal Loom Large, Eric Holley, Adam Liska 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory For Nebraska: Livestock And Coal Loom Large, Eric Holley, Adam Liska

Adam Liska Papers

Mitigation of climate change requires the systematic identification and cataloging of emissions sources at city, state, and national levels. In this study, an inventory of annual greenhouse gas emissions from the state of Nebraska was created based on industry data, and emissions inventories were completed each year from 1990 to 2016. Nebraska’s net emissions were found to increase from 56.2 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (MMtCO2e) in 1990 to 87.4 MMtCO2e in 2016. Agriculture was found to be the sector with the most emissions (36 MMtCO2e) followed by electricity ...


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