Breakdown Of Itcz-Like Pv Patterns, 2016 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach
Breakdown Of Itcz-Like Pv Patterns, Ajay Raghavendra, Thomas A. Guinn
Beyond: Undergraduate Research Journal
The Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is a zonal belt of intense convection, responsible for the genesis of over 80% of all tropical cyclones. This region of intense diabatic heating and shear results in a maximum of Ertel's potential vorticity (PV) meeting Rayleigh's necessary condition for barotropic instability. A fundamental issue is understanding the necessary precursor events leading to the breakdown of the ITCZ and subsequent formation of tropical cyclones. Our research examines the non-linear PV dynamics of the breakdown of both finite-length and infinite-length vorticity strips of varying widths and shapes, simulating the ITCZ found near the tropical ...
Data-Driven Diagnostics Of Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics Over North America, 2016 University of New Hampshire, Durham
Data-Driven Diagnostics Of Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics Over North America, Jingfeng Xiao, Scott V. Ollinger, Steve Frolking, George Hurtt, David Y. Hollinger, Kenneth J. Davis, Yude Pan, Xiaoyang Zhang, Feng Deng, Jiquan Chen, Dennis D. Baldocchi, Beverly E. Law, M. Altaf Arain, Ankur R. Desai, Andrew D. Richardson, Ge Sun, Brian Amiro, Hank Margolis, Lianhong Gu, Russell L. Scott, Peter D. Blanken, Andrew E. Suyker
The exchange of carbon dioxide is a key measure of ecosystem metabolism and a critical intersection between the terrestrial biosphere and the Earth’s climate. Despite the general agreement that the terrestrial ecosystems in North America provide a sizeable carbon sink, the size and distribution of the sink remain uncertain. We use a data-driven approach to upscale eddy covariance flux observations from towers to the continental scale by integrating flux observations, meteorology, stand age,aboveground biomass, and a proxy for canopy nitrogen concentrations from AmeriFlux and Fluxnet-Canada Research Network as well as a variety of satellite data streams from the ...
Near-Real-Time Global Biomass Burning Emissions Product From Geostationary Satellite Constellation, 2016 South Dakota State University
Near-Real-Time Global Biomass Burning Emissions Product From Geostationary Satellite Constellation, Xiaoyang Zhang, Shobha Kondragunta, Jessica Ram, Christopher Schmidt, Ho-Chung Huang
Near-real-time estimates of biomass burning emissions are crucial for air quality monitoring and forecasting. We present here the first near-real-time global biomass burning emission product from geostationary satellites (GBBEP-Geo) produced from satellite-derived fire radiative power (FRP) for individual fire pixels. Specifically, the FRP is retrieved using WF_ABBA V65 (wildfire automated biomass burning algorithm) from a network of multiple geostationary satellites. The network consists of two Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) which are operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Meteosat second-generation satellites (Meteosat-09) operated by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, and the Multifunctional Transport ...
Exploring The Edge Of Space: Streamlining Physics And Earth Science Collaboration In A New Community College Course, 2016 Central Lakes College - Brainerd
Exploring The Edge Of Space: Streamlining Physics And Earth Science Collaboration In A New Community College Course, David Kobilka, Yoshinao Hirai Ph.D.
2016 Academic High Altitude Conference
We designed a new lab science course on stratospheric ballooning (SB), titled Exploring the Edge of Space. The course, which starts in the upcoming semester, brings together two groups of students simultaneously: Mainstream liberal arts students and students in the college’s Honors program. The Honors students meet an additional hour weekly, review scientific literature extensively, and complete a capstone project. The course design is a collaboration between the physics and earth science departments at Central Lakes College, and is drawn on the five-year experience of the authors doing SB flights, many in collaboration with the Bemidji State University SB ...
Development Of A "Multi-Cut" Payload For Use In Stratospheric Ballooning Missions, 2016 U of MN - Twin Cities / MN Space Grant
Development Of A "Multi-Cut" Payload For Use In Stratospheric Ballooning Missions, James Flaten, Joey Habeck, Noah Biniek, Steven Smeaton, Austin Langford, Jordan Diers, Isaac Krieger
2016 Academic High Altitude Conference
The ability to cut strings (AKA lines) during stratospheric ballooning missions has a wide variety of uses including, but not limited to, (a) flight termination (i.e. cutting payloads away from the main balloon), (b) cutting away excess lift balloon(s) to slow ascent rate (and possibly achieve float), (c) cutting away ballast weights to slow descent rate or increase ascent rate, (d) cutting away burst balloon(s) on descent to avoid parachute entanglement, and (e) cutting away payloads which are intended to return to the ground independently, for experimental purposes. We report on the development of a “multi-cut” payload ...
Determining The Viability Of Recent Storms As Modern Analogues For North-Central Gulf Of Mexico Paleotempestology Through Sedimentary Analysis And Storm Surge Reconstruction, 2016 University of Southern Mississippi
Determining The Viability Of Recent Storms As Modern Analogues For North-Central Gulf Of Mexico Paleotempestology Through Sedimentary Analysis And Storm Surge Reconstruction, Joshua Caleb Bregy
The northern Gulf of Mexico has been devastated by recent intense storms. Camille (1969) and Katrina (2005) are two notable hurricanes that made landfall in virtually the same location in Mississippi. However, fully understanding the risks and processes associated with hurricane impacts is impeded by a short and fragmented instrumental record. Paleotempestology could potentially use modern analogues from intense storms in this region to extend the hurricane record back to pre-observational time. Existing empirically based models can back-calculate surge heights over coastal systems as a function of transport distance, particle settling velocity, and gravitational acceleration. We collected cores in a ...
Analyzing Accuracy Of The Lufft Ws600 In Remotely Measuring Precipitation Events, 2016 University of Vermont
Analyzing Accuracy Of The Lufft Ws600 In Remotely Measuring Precipitation Events, Justin Gay
STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Program Posters
The goal of this project was to analyze the accuracy of the Lufft WS600 Weather Sensor in measuring the rate of both liquid and solid precipitation. Measurement accuracy, especially in remote locations, can be difficult to obtain and quantify. Wind, blowing debris, and atmospheric particles can all have the capacity to interfere with instruments that are not being continuously compared to manual observations. Access to quality precipitation data sets are important for both hydrologic and weather forecasting, climate monitoring, and understanding the role of water cycling through ecosystems. Commercially, weather sensors are heavily relied upon by the Federal Aviation Administration ...
Total Water Level And Wave Run Up Forecast, 2016 National Weather Service
Total Water Level And Wave Run Up Forecast, Eric Seymour
July 29, 2016: The Latest in Sea Level Rise Science
No abstract provided.
Multiple New-Particle Growth Pathways Observed At The Us Doe Southern Great Plains Field Site, 2016 Colorado State University - Fort Collins
Multiple New-Particle Growth Pathways Observed At The Us Doe Southern Great Plains Field Site, Anna L. Hodshire, Michael J. Lawler, Jun Zhao, John Ortega, Coty Jen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Jared F. Brewer, Jack K. Kodros, Kelley C. Barsanti, Dave R. Hanson, Peter H. Mcmurry, James N. Smith, Jeffery R. Pierce
Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations
New-particle formation (NPF) is a significant source of aerosol particles into the atmosphere. However, these particles are initially too small to have climatic importance and must grow, primarily through net uptake of low volatility species, from diameters ∼ 1 to 30–100 nm in order to potentially impact climate. There are currently uncertainties in the physical and chemical processes associated with the growth of these freshly formed particles that lead to uncertainties in aerosol-climate modeling. Four main pathways for new-particle growth have been identified: condensation of sulfuric-acid vapor (and associated bases when available), condensation of organic vapors, uptake of organic acids ...
Decomposition Of Atmospheric Aerosol Phase Function By Particle Size And Morphology Via Single Particle Scattering Measurements, 2016 West Chester University of Pennsylvania
Decomposition Of Atmospheric Aerosol Phase Function By Particle Size And Morphology Via Single Particle Scattering Measurements, Kevin B. Aptowicz, Jacqueline Sugar, Sean D. Martin, Richard K. Chang, Elena Fernandez, Yong-Le Pan, Ronald G. Pinnick
No abstract provided.
Reducing Pollen Dispersal Using Forest Windbreaks, 2016 University of Connecticut - Storrs
Reducing Pollen Dispersal Using Forest Windbreaks, Carol Auer, Thomas Meyer, Vernie Sagun
Plant Science Articles
The adoption of genetically engineered (GE) crops has created a demand for practical methods to mitigate pollen dispersal and gene flow. The goal of this project was to measure the ability of a narrow forest windbreak to reduce downwind pollen fluxes from switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a North American grass and model biofuels feedstock. Switchgrass fields were established in two identical plots where one had a forest windbreak and the other was in an open (control) site. Switchgrass reproduction, pollen dispersal, wind speed, and wind direction were measured over two years. Daily release of switchgrass pollen peaked at 11:00-13 ...
Using A High-Altitude Balloon Platform To Observe And Measure Ozone Uptake Over Agricultural Landscapes In Central Illinois, Cody Sabo
An increase in the amount of factories and machines that emit greenhouse gases (GHGs) has caused the concentration of GHGs to rise steeply since the industrial era. These emissions create compounds that react with sunlight to form ozone, a GHG. Ozone not only traps heat in the atmosphere causing long-term global issues, but it also causes direct harm to both plants and animals. The damage that ozone causes to plants is due to plants taking the gas up through their stomata. Measuring ozone uptake has traditionally been a difficult and expensive process. This study proposes a novel approach towards measuring ...
Combinatory Effect Of Changing Co2, Temperature, And Long-Term Growth Temperature On Isoprene Emissions, Michael Cole
Isoprene, the most abundant hydrocarbon in the atmosphere, plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. Its reactions with NOx lead to the formation of ozone in the lower troposphere, which is harmful to plants and detrimental to human health. As air temperatures and CO2 concentrations increase with climate change, it is uncertain how isoprene emissions from plants will respond. We hypothesized that isoprene emissions will increase with the combination of increasing temperature and CO2 concentrations. We predict that oaks grown at a higher temperature will exhibit an increase in isoprene emissions with combined short-term increases in temperature ...
The Correlation Between Basal Isoprene Emissions And Climate Of The Native Range Across Oak Species, Mary J. Babiez
Isoprene is a biogenic volatile organic compound that is emitted by various plant species and plays an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. When it reacts with pollutants in the air, such as nitrogen oxides, the precursor to ozone (O3) is formed. In this experiment, we measured leaf emissions from 20 different oak species at the Morton Arboretum (Lisle, Illinois). The aim was to better understand differences in isoprene emissions across oak species. Since emissions have been found to protect leaves against brief periods of heat stress, we hypothesized that oaks native to areas with greater variations ...
Low-Cost Hab Platform To Measure Particulate Matter In The Troposphere, 2016 DePaul University
Low-Cost Hab Platform To Measure Particulate Matter In The Troposphere, Mark J. Potosnak, Bernhard Beck-Winchatz, Paul Ritter
2016 Academic High Altitude Conference
High-altitude balloons (HABs) are an engaging platform for formal and informal STEM education. However, the logistics of launching, chasing and recovering a payload on a 1200 g or 1500 g balloon can be daunting for many novice school groups and citizen scientists, and the cost can be prohibitive. In addition, there are many interesting scientific applications that do not require reaching the stratosphere. In this poster presentation we discuss a novel approach based on small (30 g) balloons that are cheap and easy to handle, and low-cost tracking devices (SPOT and 900 MHz spread spectrum) that do not require a ...
Applying Newton’S Law Of Cooling When The Target Keeps Changing Temperature, Such As In Stratospheric Ballooning Missions, 2016 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities / MN Space Grant
Applying Newton’S Law Of Cooling When The Target Keeps Changing Temperature, Such As In Stratospheric Ballooning Missions, James Flaten, Kaye Smith, Erick Agrimson
2016 Academic High Altitude Conference
Newton’s Law of Cooling describes how a “small” system, such as a thermometer, comes to thermal equilibrium with a “large” system, such as its environment, as a function of time. It is typically applied when the environment is in thermal equilibrium and the conditions are such that the thermal decay time for the thermometer is a constant. Neither of these conditions are met when measuring environmental (i.e. atmospheric) temperature using a thermometer mounted in a payload lofted into the stratosphere under weather balloons. In this situation the thermometer is in motion so it encounters layer after layer of ...
Getting Students Excited About Science With High Altitude Ballooning, 2016 Gustavus Adolphus College
Getting Students Excited About Science With High Altitude Ballooning, Charles F. Niederriter, Steven H. Mellema
2016 Academic High Altitude Conference
Many of us dream of exploring space, but there are not many ways to do so. Although it is difficult to get into deep space, near space is within our grasp. High altitude balloons are released into the stratosphere, generally reaching between 60,000 to 120,000 feet before they burst and their payload is returned to earth by parachute. Modern balloon systems generally contain electronic equipment such as radio transmitters, cameras, and GPS receivers, as well as a variety of scientific instruments. Not only is high altitude ballooning a great way to introduce the electronics and programming skills needed ...
Modeling And Satellite Remote Sensing Of The Meteorological Impacts Of Irrigation During The 2012 Central Plains Drought, 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Modeling And Satellite Remote Sensing Of The Meteorological Impacts Of Irrigation During The 2012 Central Plains Drought, Clint Aegerter
Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
As irrigation is increasingly needed for agricultural production, it is becoming progressively more important to understand not only how irrigation impacts water availability, but how the introduction of this water into the soil impacts weather and climate through land-atmosphere interactions. In the summer of 2012, the Central Plains of the United States experienced one of its most severe droughts on record. This study examines the meteorological impacts of irrigation during this drought through observations and model simulations using the Community Land Model (CLM) coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. A simple parameterization of irrigation processes is added ...
Evaluation Of Surface Layer Parameterizations Using In-Situ Observations, 2016 Florida International University
Evaluation Of Surface Layer Parameterizations Using In-Situ Observations, Jeremy Katz
FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Appropriate calculation of surface turbulent fluxes between the atmosphere and the underlying surface is one of the major challenges in geosciences. In practice, the surface turbulent fluxes are estimated from the mean surface meteorological variables based on the bulk transfer model combined with Monnin-Obukhov Similarity (MOS) theory. Few studies have been done to examine the extent that to which this flux parameterization framework can be applied to different weather and surface conditions. A novel validation method is developed in this thesis research, which is applied to evaluate the surface flux parameterization using in-situ observations. The main findings are: (a) the ...
Obtaining Continuous Observations From The Upper Stratosphere To The Lower Thermosphere Using The Alo-Usu Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar., Jonathan L. Price, Vincent B. Wickwar, Leda Sox, Matthew T. Emerick, Joshua P. Herron, Shayli Elliott, Bryant Ward, Benjamin Lovelady
The Rayleigh-scatter lidar at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory at Utah State University (ALO-USU; 41.74° N, 111.81° W) started observations in 1993. In 2012 the original lidar system was upgraded with an array of larger mirrors and two lasers to enable observations of the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere from 70 km to about 115 km in altitude. (Continued refinement should provide data to above 120 km.) Recently, the original system was reconfigured [Elliott et al., 2016] to again observe the lower mesosphere between 40 km and 90 km. Initial data collected by these two parts of the Rayleigh ...