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Land Use Land Cover Change Effects On Southern Great Plains Precipitation, Alexandra Caruthers 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Land Use Land Cover Change Effects On Southern Great Plains Precipitation, Alexandra Caruthers

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

Great Plains land use has changed substantially over the last 160 years, altering the properties of the land through increased settlement and advances in irrigation. Changing the interface between the land and atmosphere has implications for the atmospheric boundary layer, the regional circulation, the local surface energy budget and resulting precipitation patterns. Land use land cover (LULC) changes are an important topic for this region due to its heavy dependence on agriculture. This study investigates differences in Southern Great Plains precipitation patterns between four LULC scenarios: the pre-settlement, 1920’s, Dust Bowl and present day eras. Using the Weather Research ...


Apathy And Concern Over The Future Habitability Of Earth: An Introductory College Assignment Of Forecasting Co2 In The Earth’S Atmosphere, Benjamin J. Burger 2017 Utah State University

Apathy And Concern Over The Future Habitability Of Earth: An Introductory College Assignment Of Forecasting Co2 In The Earth’S Atmosphere, Benjamin J. Burger

Journal on Empowering Teaching Excellence

Non-science, first year regional undergraduate students from rural Utah communities participated in an online introductory geology course and were asked to forecast the rise of CO2 in the Earth’s atmosphere. The majority of students predicted catastrophic rise to 5,000-ppm sometime over the next 3,100 years, resulting in an atmosphere nearly uninhabitable to human life. However, the level of concern the students exhibited in their answers was not directly proportional with their timing in their forecasted rise of CO2. This study showcases the importance of presenting students with actual data and using data to develop student ...


Assessment Of The Aermod Dispersion Model Over Complex Terrain With Different Types Of Meteorological Data: Tracy Power Plant Experiment, Mateusz Rzeszutek, Adriana Szulecka, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki 2017 AGH University of Science and Technology

Assessment Of The Aermod Dispersion Model Over Complex Terrain With Different Types Of Meteorological Data: Tracy Power Plant Experiment, Mateusz Rzeszutek, Adriana Szulecka, Robert Oleniacz, Marek Bogacki

Robert Oleniacz

The accuracy of air pollutants dispersion modelling results depends on the quality of the input data, including the representativeness of the meteorological data. The paper presents the results of the AERMOD model validation using data from Tracy Power Plant experiment (Nevada, USA) with various meteorological data sources, including WRF modelling system outputs. The highest efficiency of the AERMOD model performance was found using site-specific meteorological data and the results from the WRF model. In general, the AERMOD modelling system inadequately represents the concentration levels of tracer gas (SF6) at receptors situated below the emitter height in areas of complex topography.


Deglacial Tropical Atlantic Subsurface Warming Links Ocean Circulation Variability To The West African Monsoon, Matthew W. Schmidt, Ping Chang, Andrew O. Parker, Link Ji, Feng He 2017 Old Dominion University

Deglacial Tropical Atlantic Subsurface Warming Links Ocean Circulation Variability To The West African Monsoon, Matthew W. Schmidt, Ping Chang, Andrew O. Parker, Link Ji, Feng He

OEAS Faculty Publications

Multiple lines of evidence show that cold stadials in the North Atlantic were accompanied by both reductions in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and collapses of the West African Monsoon (WAM). Although records of terrestrial change identify abrupt WAM variability across the deglaciation, few studies show how ocean temperatures evolved across the deglaciation. To identify the mechanism linking AMOC to the WAM, we generated a new record of subsurface temperature variability over the last 21 kyr based on Mg/Ca ratios in a sub-thermocline dwelling planktonic foraminifera in an Eastern Equatorial Atlantic (EEA) sediment core from the Niger Delta. Our ...


Embroidered Meteorology, Bettina L. Matzkuhn 2017 artist, independent

Embroidered Meteorology, Bettina L. Matzkuhn

Artizein: Arts and Teaching Journal

Weathering is a series of embroidered works that explore the symbolic and cartographic language of meteorology. Through research, mentorship and the physical work, my understanding and anxiety around weather has grown. Making art is a learning process for me: the haptic is a means for understanding. From embroidered world maps to animation to painted laundry, I conflate the intricacy of textiles with the complicated nature of the atmosphere.


Informing Responders Using Gis And Gps, Deidre McCarthy 2017 Cultural Resources GIS Facility, National Park Service

Informing Responders Using Gis And Gps, Deidre Mccarthy

CHAR

Hurricane Katrina devastated the Gulf Coast in August 2005 and created the single largest disaster for cultural resources that the United States has witnessed since the inception of the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) in 1966. Notably, the NHPA created the National Register of Historic Places, our nation’s catalog of important cultural resources. The NHPA also stipulates that any federal undertaking which may adversely affect National Register eligible resources be mitigated. For the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Katrina created the largest compliance project ever under Section 106 of the NHPA.

Although causing a great deal of damage, Katrina ...


Keynote Address: Climate Change: From Global To New York Scale, Christopher D. Thorncroft 2017 Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University at Albany

Keynote Address: Climate Change: From Global To New York Scale, Christopher D. Thorncroft

CHAR

This talk is concerned with the science and impacts of climate change from global to New York scales. It will provide an assessment of how the climate has changed over the past Century based on a purely observational perspective. The scientific basis for anthroprogenic climate change will be explained and discussed including a description of the “greenhouse effect” and why it is important for life on this planet. We will briefly discuss global and local consequences of a warmer climate and what we need to be prepared for going forward in the coming decades.


Solar Eclipse Induced Atmospheric Turbulence Effects On High Altitude Balloons, Fnu Anamika, Denise Buckner, Peter Henson, Jennifer Fowler, Nanette Valentour 2017 University of North Dakota

Solar Eclipse Induced Atmospheric Turbulence Effects On High Altitude Balloons, Fnu Anamika, Denise Buckner, Peter Henson, Jennifer Fowler, Nanette Valentour

2017 Academic High Altitude Conference

The North Dakota Atmospheric Education Student Initiated Research (ND-AESIR) team launched a balloon during the total solar eclipse in Rexburg, Idaho. After the umbra’s passage, the balloon experienced unexpectedly high levels of atmospheric turbulence. Video footage taken from the payload displays the conditions, and analysis of flight path data models created from the iridium GPS confirm that unusually violent turbulence occurred. These forces caused the key rings holding the bottom of the parachute to the payload train to rip open; the balloon and parachute flew away and the payloads free fell to the surface from an altitude of 68 ...


Physoon - Radiation Detection In Various High Altitude Environments, Christopher Helmerich 2017 DePaul University

Physoon - Radiation Detection In Various High Altitude Environments, Christopher Helmerich

2017 Academic High Altitude Conference

Physoon is a high altitude ballooning payload designed and built by members of the Space Hardware Club for the purpose of comparing cosmic and terrestrial radiation from a variety of environmental conditions, including clear days, night times, solar events (eclipses, solar flares, coronal mass ejections), and thunderstorms. Over three design iterations, Physoon has flown eleven times with various combinations of Geiger counters sensors: a low energy Alpha-Beta-Gamma detector, an unshielded high-energy Beta-Gamma detector, and a shielded high-energy Beta-Gamma detector. One of these iterations successfully recovered data from high altitude during totality of the Great American Solar Eclipse. Another iteration was ...


Use And Implementation Of The Automatic Packet Reporting System (Aprs) On High Altitude Payloads., Sam Fink, Robert Moody, Carson Keeter, Cassandra Runyon, Cyndi Hall 2017 College of Charleston

Use And Implementation Of The Automatic Packet Reporting System (Aprs) On High Altitude Payloads., Sam Fink, Robert Moody, Carson Keeter, Cassandra Runyon, Cyndi Hall

2017 Academic High Altitude Conference

Once a weather balloon enters the uncontrollable realm of nature upon release it is subject to a high degree of freedom and flight path options. Passive tracking methods become essential to physically follow the trajectory, the balloon, and its payload. The Automatic Packet Reporting System (APRS) provides an ideal platform for tracking high-altitude and low earth orbit instrumentation because at zenith there is no radio horizon. Demonstrated aboard the International Space Station, this simple system provides the maximum tracking range at very low power and cost with very high accuracy, by utilizing existing federally funded infrastructure. An amateur radio license ...


Eclipse Ballooning Stem Outreach For Elementary, Middle, And High School Education, Peter Henson, Fnu Anamika, Denise Buckner, Marissa Saad, Caitlin Nolby 2017 University of North Dakota

Eclipse Ballooning Stem Outreach For Elementary, Middle, And High School Education, Peter Henson, Fnu Anamika, Denise Buckner, Marissa Saad, Caitlin Nolby

2017 Academic High Altitude Conference

To promote Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education through ballooning, the North Dakota Space Grant Consortium (NDSGC) organizes an annual Near-Space Balloon Competition (NSBC) for students in grades 6 - 12. Students across the state of North Dakota have the opportunity to launch experiments into a near- space environment. The students learn how to write proposals, design payloads, and analyze data. They learn through an active, inquiry-based style that will prepare them for real-world engineering and critical thinking jobs. In 2016, NSBC proposed Great American Eclipse as the theme for the competition, thus the students were focused on designing heliocentric ...


Impactful Practice: Lessons Learned Through Ballooning Outreach, Tracy Knowles, Leandro Braga, Alex Eberle, Tom Busby, John Paul Beard, Jessica Glasscock, Jacolby Gardner, Matt Smither 2017 Bluegrass Community and Technical College

Impactful Practice: Lessons Learned Through Ballooning Outreach, Tracy Knowles, Leandro Braga, Alex Eberle, Tom Busby, John Paul Beard, Jessica Glasscock, Jacolby Gardner, Matt Smither

2017 Academic High Altitude Conference

The goal of Bluegrass Community and Technical College’s (BCTC) Eclipse Outreach Ambassador Project was to get students across the Bluegrass excited and educated about the 2017 total solar eclipse. Several years ago the BalloonSat Project was started to provide hands-on earth and atmospheric science experiences to BCTC students. In linking the two initiatives, we allowed BCTC BalloonSat team members to continue learning to design, build, test, fly and retrieve balloon-borne payloads while using a novel method by which to engage local elementary and middle school students in learning more about and anticipating the upcoming eclipse. Eclipse practice flights carried ...


Placing A High-Altitude Balloon In The Path Of Totality, Nicholas Jordan, Christopher Helmerich 2017 DePaul University

Placing A High-Altitude Balloon In The Path Of Totality, Nicholas Jordan, Christopher Helmerich

2017 Academic High Altitude Conference

The UAH Space Hardware Club had conducted 70 flights prior to the Eclipse. In this time, we have gained valuable skills and experience which we have put into practice and passed on through the years. We put these skills into practice for the Eclipse. Our first challenge was finding where to launch. We started out by looking for suitable locations inside totality. We also examined a map of totality at 80,000 ft. We then ran predictions based on past weather during that time of year. By compiling multiple past predictions, we eliminated possible launch sites. We had multiple payloads ...


Unmanned Aerial Systems For Monitoring Trace Tropospheric Gases, Travis J. Schuyler, Marcelo I. Guzman 2017 University of Kentucky

Unmanned Aerial Systems For Monitoring Trace Tropospheric Gases, Travis J. Schuyler, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) has changed the composition of the atmosphere during the Anthropocene. Accurately documenting the sources and magnitude of GHGs emission is an important undertaking for discriminating the contributions of different processes to radiative forcing. Currently there is no mobile platform that is able to quantify trace gases at altitudes(UASs) can be deployed on-site in minutes and can support the payloads necessary to quantify trace gases. Therefore, current efforts combine the use of UASs available on the civilian market with inexpensively designed analytical systems for monitoring atmospheric trace gases. In this context, this perspective introduces ...


Evaluation Of A Frost Accumulation Model, D. S. Knollhoff, Eugene Takle, William A. Gallus Jr., D. Burkheimer, D. McCauley 2017 Texas Commission on Environmental Quality

Evaluation Of A Frost Accumulation Model, D. S. Knollhoff, Eugene Takle, William A. Gallus Jr., D. Burkheimer, D. Mccauley

William A. Gallus Jr.

Formation of frost on paved surfaces presents a potential hazard to the motoring public in cold climates. Temperatures of the paved surface are not measured routinely by the National Weather Service and are not part of public forecasts of winter conditions, yet highway maintenance personnel must make frost suppression and anti-icing decisions based on expectations of future paved-surface temperatures. The Road Weather Information System measures road surface, air and dew-point temperatures, road surface conditions, and wind data at numerous locations in the state of Iowa and reports the data in real-time to maintenance offices. A model based on simple concepts ...


Expansion And Contraction Of The Indo-Pacific Tropical Rain Belt Over The Last Three Millennia, Rhawn F. Denniston, Caroline C. Ummenhofer, Alan D. Wanamaker, Matthew S. Lachniet, Gabriele Villarini, Yemane Asmerom, Victor J. Polyak, Kristian J. Passaro, John Cugley, David Woods, William F. Humphreys 2017 Cornell College

Expansion And Contraction Of The Indo-Pacific Tropical Rain Belt Over The Last Three Millennia, Rhawn F. Denniston, Caroline C. Ummenhofer, Alan D. Wanamaker, Matthew S. Lachniet, Gabriele Villarini, Yemane Asmerom, Victor J. Polyak, Kristian J. Passaro, John Cugley, David Woods, William F. Humphreys

Alan Wanamaker

The seasonal north-south migration of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) defines the tropical rain belt (TRB), a region of enormous terrestrial and marine biodiversity and home to 40% of people on Earth. The TRB is dynamic and has been shown to shift south as a coherent system during periods of Northern Hemisphere cooling. However, recent studies of Indo-Pacific hydroclimate suggest that during the Little Ice Age (LIA; AD 1400–1850), the TRB in this region contracted rather than being displaced uniformly southward. This behaviour is not well understood, particularly during climatic fluctuations less pronounced than those of the LIA, the ...


Long Simulation Of Regional Climate As A Sequence Of Short Segments, Zaitao Pan, Eugene S. Takle, William J. Gutowski Jr., Richard Turner 2017 Iowa State University

Long Simulation Of Regional Climate As A Sequence Of Short Segments, Zaitao Pan, Eugene S. Takle, William J. Gutowski Jr., Richard Turner

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

Regional climate simulations are long time integrations over an open system where the atmosphere over part of the model domain (boundary zones) is updated periodically. Model reinitialization after a long period of integration can allow several segments of a long simulation to be run in parallel and also minimize possible drift caused by accumulated model errors. However, the spinup problems introduced by each additional restart must be addressed. The necessity and feasibility of subdividing long integrations is investigated by means of a series of experiments in which the authors examine the effects of reinitialization frequency and the relative importance of ...


Climate Change Projections Of The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (Narccap), L. O. Mearns, S. Sain, L. R. Leung, M. S. Bukovsky, S. McGinnis, Raymond W. Arritt, William J. Gutowski Jr., Eugene S. Takle, M. Snyder, R. G. Jones, A. M. B. Nunes, S. Tucker, Daryl E. Herzmann, L. McDaniel, L. Sloan 2017 National Center for Atmospheric Research

Climate Change Projections Of The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (Narccap), L. O. Mearns, S. Sain, L. R. Leung, M. S. Bukovsky, S. Mcginnis, Raymond W. Arritt, William J. Gutowski Jr., Eugene S. Takle, M. Snyder, R. G. Jones, A. M. B. Nunes, S. Tucker, Daryl E. Herzmann, L. Mcdaniel, L. Sloan

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

We investigate major results of the NARCCAP multiple regional climate model (RCM) experiments driven by multiple global climate models (GCMs) regarding climate change for seasonal temperature and precipitation over North America. We focus on two major questions: How do the RCM simulated climate changes differ from those of the parent GCMs and thus affect our perception of climate change over North America, and how important are the relative contributions of RCMs and GCMs to the uncertainty (variance explained) for different seasons and variables? The RCMs tend to produce stronger climate changes for precipitation: larger increases in the northern part of ...


Use Of Regional Climate Model Output For Hydrologic Simulations, Lauren E. Hay, Martyn P. Clark, Robert L. Wilby, William J. Gutowski Jr., George H. Leavesley, Zaitao Pan, Raymond W. Arritt, Eugene S. Takle 2017 United States Geological Survey

Use Of Regional Climate Model Output For Hydrologic Simulations, Lauren E. Hay, Martyn P. Clark, Robert L. Wilby, William J. Gutowski Jr., George H. Leavesley, Zaitao Pan, Raymond W. Arritt, Eugene S. Takle

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

Daily precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature time series from a regional climate model (RegCM2) configured using the continental United States as a domain and run on a 52-km (approximately) spatial resolution were used as input to a distributed hydrologic model for one rainfall-dominated basin (Alapaha River at Statenville, Georgia) and three snowmelt-dominated basins (Animas River at Durango, Colorado; east fork of the Carson River near Gardnerville, Nevada; and Cle Elum River near Roslyn, Washington). For comparison purposes, spatially averaged daily datasets of precipitation and maximum and minimum temperature were developed from measured data for each basin. These datasets included ...


Project To Intercompare Regional Climate Simulations (Pircs): Description And Initial Results, Eugene S. Takle, William J. Gutowski Jr., Raymond W. Arritt, Zaitao Pan, Christoper J. Anderson, Renato Ramos da Silva, Daniel Caya, Shyh-Chin Chen, F. Giorgi, Jens Hesselbjerg Christensen, Song-You Hong, Hann-Ming Henry Juang, Jack Katzfey, William M. Lapenta, Rene Laprise, Glen E. Liston, Philippe Lopez, John McGregor, Roger A. Pielke Sr., John O. Roads 2017 Iowa State University

Project To Intercompare Regional Climate Simulations (Pircs): Description And Initial Results, Eugene S. Takle, William J. Gutowski Jr., Raymond W. Arritt, Zaitao Pan, Christoper J. Anderson, Renato Ramos Da Silva, Daniel Caya, Shyh-Chin Chen, F. Giorgi, Jens Hesselbjerg Christensen, Song-You Hong, Hann-Ming Henry Juang, Jack Katzfey, William M. Lapenta, Rene Laprise, Glen E. Liston, Philippe Lopez, John Mcgregor, Roger A. Pielke Sr., John O. Roads

William J. Gutowski, Jr.

The first simulation experiment and output archives of the Project to Intercompare Regional Climate Simulations (PIRCS) is described. Initial results from simulations of the summer 1988 drought over the central United States indicate that limited-area models forced by large-scale information at the lateral boundaries reproduce bulk temporal and spatial characteristics of meteorological fields. In particular, the 500 hPa height field time average and temporal variability are generally well simulated by all participating models. Model simulations of precipitation episodes vary depending on the scale of the dynamical forcing. Organized synoptic-scale precipitation systems are simulated deterministically in that precipitation occurs at close ...


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