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Exploring The Edge Of Space: Streamlining Physics And Earth Science Collaboration In A New Community College Course, David Kobilka, Yoshinao Hirai Ph.D. 2016 Central Lakes College - Brainerd

Exploring The Edge Of Space: Streamlining Physics And Earth Science Collaboration In A New Community College Course, David Kobilka, Yoshinao Hirai Ph.D.

2016 Academic High Altitude Conference

We designed a new lab science course on stratospheric ballooning (SB), titled Exploring the Edge of Space. The course, which starts in the upcoming semester, brings together two groups of students simultaneously: Mainstream liberal arts students and students in the college’s Honors program. The Honors students meet an additional hour weekly, review scientific literature extensively, and complete a capstone project. The course design is a collaboration between the physics and earth science departments at Central Lakes College, and is drawn on the five-year experience of the authors doing SB flights, many in collaboration with the Bemidji State University SB ...


Development Of A "Multi-Cut" Payload For Use In Stratospheric Ballooning Missions, James Flaten, Joey Habeck, Noah Biniek, Steven Smeaton, Austin Langford, Jordan Diers, Isaac Krieger 2016 U of MN - Twin Cities / MN Space Grant

Development Of A "Multi-Cut" Payload For Use In Stratospheric Ballooning Missions, James Flaten, Joey Habeck, Noah Biniek, Steven Smeaton, Austin Langford, Jordan Diers, Isaac Krieger

2016 Academic High Altitude Conference

The ability to cut strings (AKA lines) during stratospheric ballooning missions has a wide variety of uses including, but not limited to, (a) flight termination (i.e. cutting payloads away from the main balloon), (b) cutting away excess lift balloon(s) to slow ascent rate (and possibly achieve float), (c) cutting away ballast weights to slow descent rate or increase ascent rate, (d) cutting away burst balloon(s) on descent to avoid parachute entanglement, and (e) cutting away payloads which are intended to return to the ground independently, for experimental purposes. We report on the development of a “multi-cut” payload ...


Determining The Viability Of Recent Storms As Modern Analogues For North-Central Gulf Of Mexico Paleotempestology Through Sedimentary Analysis And Storm Surge Reconstruction, Joshua Caleb Bregy 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Determining The Viability Of Recent Storms As Modern Analogues For North-Central Gulf Of Mexico Paleotempestology Through Sedimentary Analysis And Storm Surge Reconstruction, Joshua Caleb Bregy

Master's Theses

The northern Gulf of Mexico has been devastated by recent intense storms. Camille (1969) and Katrina (2005) are two notable hurricanes that made landfall in virtually the same location in Mississippi. However, fully understanding the risks and processes associated with hurricane impacts is impeded by a short and fragmented instrumental record. Paleotempestology could potentially use modern analogues from intense storms in this region to extend the hurricane record back to pre-observational time. Existing empirically based models can back-calculate surge heights over coastal systems as a function of transport distance, particle settling velocity, and gravitational acceleration. We collected cores in a ...


Total Water Level And Wave Run Up Forecast, Eric Seymour 2016 National Weather Service

Total Water Level And Wave Run Up Forecast, Eric Seymour

July 29, 2016: The Latest in Sea Level Rise Science

No abstract provided.


Multiple New-Particle Growth Pathways Observed At The Us Doe Southern Great Plains Field Site, Anna L. Hodshire, Michael J. Lawler, Jun Zhao, John Ortega, Coty Jen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Jared F. Brewer, Jack K. Kodros, Kelley C. Barsanti, Dave R. Hanson, Peter H. McMurry, James N. Smith, Jeffery R. Pierce 2016 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Multiple New-Particle Growth Pathways Observed At The Us Doe Southern Great Plains Field Site, Anna L. Hodshire, Michael J. Lawler, Jun Zhao, John Ortega, Coty Jen, Taina Yli-Juuti, Jared F. Brewer, Jack K. Kodros, Kelley C. Barsanti, Dave R. Hanson, Peter H. Mcmurry, James N. Smith, Jeffery R. Pierce

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

New-particle formation (NPF) is a significant source of aerosol particles into the atmosphere. However, these particles are initially too small to have climatic importance and must grow, primarily through net uptake of low volatility species, from diameters ∼ 1 to 30–100 nm in order to potentially impact climate. There are currently uncertainties in the physical and chemical processes associated with the growth of these freshly formed particles that lead to uncertainties in aerosol-climate modeling. Four main pathways for new-particle growth have been identified: condensation of sulfuric-acid vapor (and associated bases when available), condensation of organic vapors, uptake of organic acids ...


Decomposition Of Atmospheric Aerosol Phase Function By Particle Size And Morphology Via Single Particle Scattering Measurements, Kevin B. Aptowicz, Jacqueline Sugar, Sean D. Martin, Richard K. Chang, Elena Fernandez, Yong-le Pan, Ronald G. Pinnick 2016 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Decomposition Of Atmospheric Aerosol Phase Function By Particle Size And Morphology Via Single Particle Scattering Measurements, Kevin B. Aptowicz, Jacqueline Sugar, Sean D. Martin, Richard K. Chang, Elena Fernandez, Yong-Le Pan, Ronald G. Pinnick

Kevin Aptowicz

No abstract provided.


Reducing Pollen Dispersal Using Forest Windbreaks, Carol Auer, Thomas Meyer, Vernie Sagun 2016 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Reducing Pollen Dispersal Using Forest Windbreaks, Carol Auer, Thomas Meyer, Vernie Sagun

Plant Science Articles

The adoption of genetically engineered (GE) crops has created a demand for practical methods to mitigate pollen dispersal and gene flow. The goal of this project was to measure the ability of a narrow forest windbreak to reduce downwind pollen fluxes from switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a North American grass and model biofuels feedstock. Switchgrass fields were established in two identical plots where one had a forest windbreak and the other was in an open (control) site. Switchgrass reproduction, pollen dispersal, wind speed, and wind direction were measured over two years. Daily release of switchgrass pollen peaked at 11:00-13 ...


Using A High-Altitude Balloon Platform To Observe And Measure Ozone Uptake Over Agricultural Landscapes In Central Illinois, Cody Sabo 2016 DePaul University

Using A High-Altitude Balloon Platform To Observe And Measure Ozone Uptake Over Agricultural Landscapes In Central Illinois, Cody Sabo

DePaul Discoveries

An increase in the amount of factories and machines that emit greenhouse gases (GHGs) has caused the concentration of GHGs to rise steeply since the industrial era. These emissions create compounds that react with sunlight to form ozone, a GHG. Ozone not only traps heat in the atmosphere causing long-term global issues, but it also causes direct harm to both plants and animals. The damage that ozone causes to plants is due to plants taking the gas up through their stomata. Measuring ozone uptake has traditionally been a difficult and expensive process. This study proposes a novel approach towards measuring ...


Combinatory Effect Of Changing Co2, Temperature, And Long-Term Growth Temperature On Isoprene Emissions, Michael Cole 2016 DePaul University

Combinatory Effect Of Changing Co2, Temperature, And Long-Term Growth Temperature On Isoprene Emissions, Michael Cole

DePaul Discoveries

Isoprene, the most abundant hydrocarbon in the atmosphere, plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. Its reactions with NOx lead to the formation of ozone in the lower troposphere, which is harmful to plants and detrimental to human health. As air temperatures and CO2 concentrations increase with climate change, it is uncertain how isoprene emissions from plants will respond. We hypothesized that isoprene emissions will increase with the combination of increasing temperature and CO­2 concentrations. We predict that oaks grown at a higher temperature will exhibit an increase in isoprene emissions with combined short-term increases in temperature ...


The Correlation Between Basal Isoprene Emissions And Climate Of The Native Range Across Oak Species, Mary J. Babiez 2016 DePaul University

The Correlation Between Basal Isoprene Emissions And Climate Of The Native Range Across Oak Species, Mary J. Babiez

DePaul Discoveries

Isoprene is a biogenic volatile organic compound that is emitted by various plant species and plays an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. When it reacts with pollutants in the air, such as nitrogen oxides, the precursor to ozone (O3) is formed. In this experiment, we measured leaf emissions from 20 different oak species at the Morton Arboretum (Lisle, Illinois). The aim was to better understand differences in isoprene emissions across oak species. Since emissions have been found to protect leaves against brief periods of heat stress, we hypothesized that oaks native to areas with greater variations ...


Low-Cost Hab Platform To Measure Particulate Matter In The Troposphere, Mark J. Potosnak, Bernhard Beck-Winchatz, Paul Ritter 2016 DePaul University

Low-Cost Hab Platform To Measure Particulate Matter In The Troposphere, Mark J. Potosnak, Bernhard Beck-Winchatz, Paul Ritter

2016 Academic High Altitude Conference

High-altitude balloons (HABs) are an engaging platform for formal and informal STEM education. However, the logistics of launching, chasing and recovering a payload on a 1200 g or 1500 g balloon can be daunting for many novice school groups and citizen scientists, and the cost can be prohibitive. In addition, there are many interesting scientific applications that do not require reaching the stratosphere. In this poster presentation we discuss a novel approach based on small (30 g) balloons that are cheap and easy to handle, and low-cost tracking devices (SPOT and 900 MHz spread spectrum) that do not require a ...


Applying Newton’S Law Of Cooling When The Target Keeps Changing Temperature, Such As In Stratospheric Ballooning Missions, James Flaten, Kaye Smith, Erick Agrimson 2016 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities / MN Space Grant

Applying Newton’S Law Of Cooling When The Target Keeps Changing Temperature, Such As In Stratospheric Ballooning Missions, James Flaten, Kaye Smith, Erick Agrimson

2016 Academic High Altitude Conference

Newton’s Law of Cooling describes how a “small” system, such as a thermometer, comes to thermal equilibrium with a “large” system, such as its environment, as a function of time. It is typically applied when the environment is in thermal equilibrium and the conditions are such that the thermal decay time for the thermometer is a constant. Neither of these conditions are met when measuring environmental (i.e. atmospheric) temperature using a thermometer mounted in a payload lofted into the stratosphere under weather balloons. In this situation the thermometer is in motion so it encounters layer after layer of ...


Getting Students Excited About Science With High Altitude Ballooning, Charles F. Niederriter, Steven H. Mellema 2016 Gustavus Adolphus College

Getting Students Excited About Science With High Altitude Ballooning, Charles F. Niederriter, Steven H. Mellema

2016 Academic High Altitude Conference

Many of us dream of exploring space, but there are not many ways to do so. Although it is difficult to get into deep space, near space is within our grasp. High altitude balloons are released into the stratosphere, generally reaching between 60,000 to 120,000 feet before they burst and their payload is returned to earth by parachute. Modern balloon systems generally contain electronic equipment such as radio transmitters, cameras, and GPS receivers, as well as a variety of scientific instruments. Not only is high altitude ballooning a great way to introduce the electronics and programming skills needed ...


Modeling And Satellite Remote Sensing Of The Meteorological Impacts Of Irrigation During The 2012 Central Plains Drought, Clint Aegerter 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Modeling And Satellite Remote Sensing Of The Meteorological Impacts Of Irrigation During The 2012 Central Plains Drought, Clint Aegerter

Dissertations & Theses in Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

As irrigation is increasingly needed for agricultural production, it is becoming progressively more important to understand not only how irrigation impacts water availability, but how the introduction of this water into the soil impacts weather and climate through land-atmosphere interactions. In the summer of 2012, the Central Plains of the United States experienced one of its most severe droughts on record. This study examines the meteorological impacts of irrigation during this drought through observations and model simulations using the Community Land Model (CLM) coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. A simple parameterization of irrigation processes is added ...


Reestablishing Observations Throughout The Mesosphere With The Alo-Usu Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar, Shayli Elliott, Bryant Ward, Benjamin Lovelady, Jessica Gardiner, Lucas Priskos, Matthew T. Emerick, Vincent B. Wickwar 2016 Utah State University

Reestablishing Observations Throughout The Mesosphere With The Alo-Usu Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar, Shayli Elliott, Bryant Ward, Benjamin Lovelady, Jessica Gardiner, Lucas Priskos, Matthew T. Emerick, Vincent B. Wickwar

Posters

In the last few years, the Rayleigh-scatter lidar at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory at Utah State University (ALO-USU; 41.74° N, 111.81° W) has been upgraded to extend observations from 70 km up to 115 km. This project describes a student project to build and use a complementary Rayleigh-scatter lidar to go from 40 to 90 km, from the upper stratosphere to the upper mesosphere. At the upper end, this new lidar overlaps with the high-altitude lidar. This was done in a period of just over two months. This lidar shares the same lasers, but introduces a 44-cm mirror ...


Simultaneous, Collocated Rayleigh And Sodium Lidar Temperature Comparison, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Tao Yuan, Neal Criddle 2016 Utah State University

Simultaneous, Collocated Rayleigh And Sodium Lidar Temperature Comparison, Leda Sox, Vincent B. Wickwar, Tao Yuan, Neal Criddle

Posters

There are relatively few instruments that have the capabilities to make near continuous measurements of the mesosphere-lower-thermosphere (MLT) region. Rayleigh-scatter (RS) and resonance lidars, particularly sodium (Na) resonance lidar, have been the two dominant ground-based techniques for acquiring mesosphere and MLT vertical temperature profiles, respectively, for more than two decades. With these measurements, the dynamics and long-term temperature trends of the MLT region can be studied. For the first time, we will present simultaneous, night-time averaged temperatures acquired from the same observational site, on the campus of Utah State University (USU), using these two lidar techniques. This comparison is also ...


Searching For Troposphere-Mesosphere Connections Using The Alo-Usu Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar, David K. Moser, Vincent B. Wickwar, Joshua P. Herron 2016 Utah State University

Searching For Troposphere-Mesosphere Connections Using The Alo-Usu Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar, David K. Moser, Vincent B. Wickwar, Joshua P. Herron

Posters

The paucity of whole-atmosphere data introduces significant challenges that hinder the study of atmospheric couplings. The mesosphere in particular is a low-information void between the lower and upper atmosphere, which may prevent us from a complete realization of vertical interactions. The Rayleighscatter lidar at Utah State University’s Atmospheric Lidar Observatory (ALO-USU; 41.74° N, 111.81° W), operated with little interruption from 1993 to 2004, providing a valuable temporal and spatial (45 – 90 km) resource in this realm. When studied alongside a multitude of other atmospheric data sources, possible unforeseen connections or insights may result. In this study, an ...


Obtaining Continuous Observations From The Upper Stratosphere To The Lower Thermosphere Using The Alo-Usu Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar., Jonathan L. Price, Vincent B. Wickwar, Leda Sox, Matthew T. Emerick, Joshua P. Herron, Shayli Elliott, Bryant Ward, Benjamin Lovelady 2016 Utah State University

Obtaining Continuous Observations From The Upper Stratosphere To The Lower Thermosphere Using The Alo-Usu Rayleigh-Scatter Lidar., Jonathan L. Price, Vincent B. Wickwar, Leda Sox, Matthew T. Emerick, Joshua P. Herron, Shayli Elliott, Bryant Ward, Benjamin Lovelady

Posters

The Rayleigh-scatter lidar at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory at Utah State University (ALO-USU; 41.74° N, 111.81° W) started observations in 1993. In 2012 the original lidar system was upgraded with an array of larger mirrors and two lasers to enable observations of the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere from 70 km to about 115 km in altitude. (Continued refinement should provide data to above 120 km.) Recently, the original system was reconfigured [Elliott et al., 2016] to again observe the lower mesosphere between 40 km and 90 km. Initial data collected by these two parts of the Rayleigh ...


Seasonal Temperatures From The Upper Mesosphere To The Lower Thermosphere Obtained With The Large, Alo-Usu, Rayleigh Lidar, Vincent B. Wickwar, Leda Sox, Matthew T. Emerick, Joshua P. Herron 2016 Utah State University

Seasonal Temperatures From The Upper Mesosphere To The Lower Thermosphere Obtained With The Large, Alo-Usu, Rayleigh Lidar, Vincent B. Wickwar, Leda Sox, Matthew T. Emerick, Joshua P. Herron

Posters

Observations have been made with the large, Rayleigh-scatter lidar at the Atmospheric Lidar Observatory at Utah State University (ALO-USU; 41.74° N, 111.81° W) from summer 2014 to summer 2015. During this first operational year, the lidar acquired nearly 100 nights of observations between 70 and 115 km altitude, i.e., from the upper mesosphere, through the mesopause, and into the lower thermosphere. This was possible because of the large 4.9 m2 collecting area of the mirrors and the 42 W of 532 nm emission at 30 Hz. These two factors produce a figure of merit, the power-aperture-product ...


Aqueous Photochemistry Of Glyoxylic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Sha-Sha Xia, Marcelo I. Guzman 2016 University of Kentucky

Aqueous Photochemistry Of Glyoxylic Acid, Alexis J. Eugene, Sha-Sha Xia, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Aerosols affect climate change, the energy balance of the atmosphere, and public health due to their variable chemical composition, size, and shape. While the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from gas phase precursors is relatively well understood, studying aqueous chemical reactions contributing to the total SOA budget is the current focus of major attention. Field measurements have revealed that mono-, di-, and oxo-carboxylic acids are abundant species present in SOA and atmospheric waters. This work explores the fate of one of these 2-oxocarboxylic acids, glyoxylic acid, which can photogenerate reactive species under solar irradiation. Additionally, the dark thermal aging ...


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