Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Atmospheric Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

2,209 Full-Text Articles 5,501 Authors 323,432 Downloads 109 Institutions

All Articles in Atmospheric Sciences

Faceted Search

2,209 full-text articles. Page 1 of 77.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Drought Projections For Nebraska, Adam Liska 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Greenhouse Gas Emissions And Drought Projections For Nebraska, Adam Liska

Adam Liska Papers

This lecture will focus on three issues. The first is a presentation of data from the first greenhouse gas emissions inventory for the State of Nebraska, which will be published in the coming weeks. In 2016, emissions from beef cattle made up 23% of net state emissions, and coal for electricity made up 23.7% of net state emissions. The second issue to be addressed are the impacts of the 2012 drought on agriculture in Nebraska and the region. The drought of 2012 indicates that future droughts in the 21st century in the region can be a dominant influence ...


Subaperture Sampling For Digital-Holography Applications Involving Atmospheric Turbulence, Douglas E. Thornton, Matthias T. Banet, Mark F. Spencer 2021 Air Force Institute of Technology

Subaperture Sampling For Digital-Holography Applications Involving Atmospheric Turbulence, Douglas E. Thornton, Matthias T. Banet, Mark F. Spencer

Faculty Publications

Using wave-optics simulations, this paper defines what subaperture sampling effectively means for digital-holography applications involving atmospheric turbulence. Throughout, we consider the on-axis phase shifting recording geometry (PSRG) and off-axis PSRG, both with the effects of sensor noise. The results ultimately show that (1) insufficient subaperture sampling manifests as an efficiency loss that limits the achievable signal-to-noise ratio and field-estimated Strehl ratio; (2) digital-holography applications involving atmospheric turbulence require at least three focal-plane array (FPA) pixels per Fried coherence length to meet the Maréchal criterion; and (3) off-axis PSRG is a valid and efficient implementation with minor losses, as compared to ...


Unintended Consequences Of Air Cleaning Chemistry, Douglas B. Collins, Delphine K. Farmer 2021 Bucknell University

Unintended Consequences Of Air Cleaning Chemistry, Douglas B. Collins, Delphine K. Farmer

Faculty Journal Articles

Amplified interest in maintaining clean indoor air associated with the airborne transmission risks of SARS-CoV-2 have led to an expansion in the market for commercially available air cleaning systems. While the optimal way to mitigate indoor air pollutants or contaminants is to control (remove) the source, air cleaners are a tool for use when absolute source control is not possible. Interventions for indoor air quality management include physical removal of pollutants through ventilation or collection on filters and sorbent materials, along with chemically reactive processes that transform pollutants or seek to deactivate biological entities. This perspective intends to highlight the ...


High Altitude Ballooning As A Platform For Measuring Ozone Uptake Over Agricultural Landscapes, Thomas Sykora, Mark Potosnak 2021 Depaul University

High Altitude Ballooning As A Platform For Measuring Ozone Uptake Over Agricultural Landscapes, Thomas Sykora, Mark Potosnak

DePaul Discoveries

Measuring plant health is a key aspect in maximizing crop outputs. One often overlooked risk to crop fields is damage caused by stomatal ozone uptake; measuring this uptake is an important tool in understanding crop losses. Traditional methods for measuring plant ozone uptake are prohibitively expensive and rely on equipment that cannot easily be moved. Here, we propose high-altitude weather ballooning as a cost-effective alternative for measuring ozone uptake on a regional (~10 km) spatial scale. Ozonesounde data was obtained with weather balloons launched from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration research station in Boulder, Colorado. This data was then ...


Regional Characteristics And Variability Of Extreme Precipitation And Atmospheric Rivers In Past, Present, And Future Climates Over The Contiguous United States, Emily Anne Slinskey 2021 Portland State University

Regional Characteristics And Variability Of Extreme Precipitation And Atmospheric Rivers In Past, Present, And Future Climates Over The Contiguous United States, Emily Anne Slinskey

Dissertations and Theses

This dissertation examines the regional and seasonal variability of extreme precipitation and atmospheric rivers (ARs) across the contiguous United States (CONUS) in past, present, and future climates. An extreme precipitation categorization scheme, designed to monitor and track the multi-scale variability of extreme precipitation, is applied to a range of precipitation measurement products as an assessment of observational uncertainty. To investigate the importance of ARs across the CONUS, an objective AR identification algorithm is applied to global reanalysis to identify and characterize AR characteristics regionally over the observational record. Projected change in AR day frequency, geometry, intensity, and associated precipitation is ...


Simulating Cambrian Climate: The Significance Of Atmospheric Co2 Concentration And Continental Position, Grace Cutting 2021 University of Northern Colorado

Simulating Cambrian Climate: The Significance Of Atmospheric Co2 Concentration And Continental Position, Grace Cutting

Ursidae: The Undergraduate Research Journal at the University of Northern Colorado

The Cambrian Period began approximately 541 million years ago, and is known for the “Cambrian Explosion”, a time when multicellular life began to rapidly diversify. There is natural historic evidence (isotopes, rock formations, and fossils) that suggests the Cambrian Period experienced a warm climate. However, there is also conflicting evidence that the Cambrian climate may have undergone freezing and thawing cycles, with ice possibly present near the equator. It is critical to understand how ecosystems were able to adapt to past climate changes, especially when analyzing the impacts of modern human activity on climate. Climate model simulations were run to ...


An Integrative Model For Soil Biogeochemistry And Methane Processes: I. Model Structure And Sensitivity Analysis, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Xiaofeng Xu, Xiaoying Shi, Yihui Wang, Xia Song, Christopher W. Schadt, Natalie A. Griffiths, Jiafu Mao, Jeffrey M. Warren, Peter E. Thornton, Jeff Chanton, Jason K. Keller, Scott D. Bridgham, Jessica Gutknecht, Stephen D. Sebestyen, Adrien Finzi, Randall Kolka, Paul J. Hanson 2021 Oak Ridge National Laboratory

An Integrative Model For Soil Biogeochemistry And Methane Processes: I. Model Structure And Sensitivity Analysis, Daniel M. Ricciuto, Xiaofeng Xu, Xiaoying Shi, Yihui Wang, Xia Song, Christopher W. Schadt, Natalie A. Griffiths, Jiafu Mao, Jeffrey M. Warren, Peter E. Thornton, Jeff Chanton, Jason K. Keller, Scott D. Bridgham, Jessica Gutknecht, Stephen D. Sebestyen, Adrien Finzi, Randall Kolka, Paul J. Hanson

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Environmental changes are anticipated to generate substantial impacts on carbon cycling in peatlands, affecting terrestrial-climate feedbacks. Understanding how peatland methane (CH4) fluxes respond to these changing environments is critical for predicting the magnitude of feedbacks from peatlands to global climate change. To improve predictions of CH4 fluxes in response to changes such as elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and warming, it is essential for Earth system models to include increased realism to simulate CH4 processes in a more mechanistic way. To address this need, we incorporated a new microbial-functional group-based CH4 module into the Energy Exascale ...


Auroral Heating Of Plasma Patches Due To High-Latitude Reconnection, Joaquin Diaz Pena, Joshua Semeter, Yukitoshi Nishimura, Roger Varney, Ashton Reimer, Marc Hairston, Matthew Zettergren, Michael Hirsch, Olga Verkhoglyadova, Keisuke Hosokawa, Kazuo Shiokawa 2021 Boston University

Auroral Heating Of Plasma Patches Due To High-Latitude Reconnection, Joaquin Diaz Pena, Joshua Semeter, Yukitoshi Nishimura, Roger Varney, Ashton Reimer, Marc Hairston, Matthew Zettergren, Michael Hirsch, Olga Verkhoglyadova, Keisuke Hosokawa, Kazuo Shiokawa

Publications

This study exploits the volumetric sampling capabilities of the Resolute Bay Incoherent Scatter Radar (RISR-N) in collaboration with all-sky imagery and in-situ measurements (DMSP) to examine the interplay between cold plasma transport and auroral precipitation during a high-latitude lobe reconnection event on the dawn side. The IMF had an impulsive negative excursion in B$_z$ embedded within a prolonged period of B$_z>0$ and B$_y


Do Secondary Cyclones Increase The Category Scale Of Atmospheric Rivers?, Edgar Sanchez Fausto 2021 Portland State University

Do Secondary Cyclones Increase The Category Scale Of Atmospheric Rivers?, Edgar Sanchez Fausto

University Honors Theses

Atmospheric rivers (ARs) play a crucial role in delivering precipitation worldwide. This makes them an important phenomenon for water resource specialists to study. One such interest is to understand what mechanisms make ARs produce significant rainfall and associated hazards such as flooding. One possible mechanism is that AR duration or intensity may increase when it interacts with a secondary cyclone, either of which can increase the AR category scale. The purpose of this study is to determine whether AR and secondary cyclone interactions increase the category scale ARs. Out of 52 AR events analyzed, 32 events contained at least one ...


Adaptive-Optimal Control Of Spacecraft Near Asteroids, Madhur Tiwari 2021 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Adaptive-Optimal Control Of Spacecraft Near Asteroids, Madhur Tiwari

PhD Dissertations and Master's Theses

Spacecraft dynamics and control in the vicinity of an asteroid is a challenging and exciting problem. Currently, trajectory tracking near asteroid requires extensive knowledge about the asteroid and constant human intervention to successfully plan and execute proximity operation. This work aims to reduce human dependency of these missions from a guidance and controls perspective. In this work, adaptive control and model predictive control are implemented to generating and tracking obstacle avoidance trajectories in asteroid’s vicinity.

Specifically, direct adaptive control derived from simple adaptive control is designed with e modification to track user-generated trajectories in the presence of unknown system ...


Eastward-Propagating Planetary Waves In The Middle Atmosphere During Major Sudden Stratospheric Warming Events, Christian Todd Rhodes 2021 Coastal Carolina University

Eastward-Propagating Planetary Waves In The Middle Atmosphere During Major Sudden Stratospheric Warming Events, Christian Todd Rhodes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Changes In Tropospheric Ozone Associated With Strong Earthquakes And Possible Mechanism, Feng Jing, Ramesh P. Singh 2021 China Earthquake Administration

Changes In Tropospheric Ozone Associated With Strong Earthquakes And Possible Mechanism, Feng Jing, Ramesh P. Singh

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The index of ozone anomaly (IOA) has been proposed to detect changes in tropospheric ozone associated with strong earthquakes. The tropospheric ozone prior and after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake has been analyzed using IOA. Atmospheric infrared sounder ozone volume mixing ratio (O3 VMR) at different pressure levels (600, 500, 400, 300, 200 hPa) for an 18-year period 2003–2020 has been considered to identify the unique behavior associated with the strong earthquakes. Our results show distinct enhancement in tropospheric ozone occurred 5 d (7 May 2008) prior to the main event and distributed along the Longmenshan fault zone. An enhancement ...


Atmospheric Tomography Using The Nordic Meteor Radar Cluster And Chilean Observation Network De Meteor Radars: Network Details And 3dvar Retrieval, Gunter Stober, Alan Liu, Zishun Qiao, Alexander Kozlovsky, Masaki Tsutsumi, Chris Hall, Satonori Nozawa, Mark Lester, Evgenia Belova, Johan Kero, Patrick J. Espy, Robert E. Hibbins, Nicholas Mitchell 2021 University of Bern

Atmospheric Tomography Using The Nordic Meteor Radar Cluster And Chilean Observation Network De Meteor Radars: Network Details And 3dvar Retrieval, Gunter Stober, Alan Liu, Zishun Qiao, Alexander Kozlovsky, Masaki Tsutsumi, Chris Hall, Satonori Nozawa, Mark Lester, Evgenia Belova, Johan Kero, Patrick J. Espy, Robert E. Hibbins, Nicholas Mitchell

Publications

Ground-based remote sensing of atmospheric parameters is often limited to single station observations of vertical profiles at a certain geographic location. This can be a limiting factor to investigating gravity wave dynamics. In this study we present a new retrieval algorithm for multi-static meteor radar networks to obtain tomographic 3D wind fields within a pre-defined domain area. The algorithm is part of the Agile Software for Gravity wAve Regional Dynamics (ASGARD) called 5 3DVAR, and based on the optimal estimation technique and Bayesian statistics. The performance of the 3DVAR retrieval is demonstrated using two meteor radar networks, the Nordic Meteor ...


Radiosonde High Altitude Measurements Of Radiation Levels And Cosmic Ray Events, AYODEJI OPEYEMI AKINULIOLA 2021 Stephen F. Austin State University

Radiosonde High Altitude Measurements Of Radiation Levels And Cosmic Ray Events, Ayodeji Opeyemi Akinuliola

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Just above us, cosmic rays are hurtling in from space. These fast moving particles crash uncontrollably into molecules in the atmosphere, causing spontaneous decays of these particles. Despite the fact that we are broadly shielded from this radiation on earth, these particles can still disturb humans and electronics alike. Therefore, this research focuses on expanding the use of long-range radio transmitters such as radiosondes to transmit valuable data such as cosmic ray flux, geographical position, atmospheric temperature, pressure, etc. This can improve real-time radiation monitoring for aviation industry crew and passengers working in potentially higher radiation environments. On March 11 ...


Real-Time Pm10 Emission Rates From Paved Roads By Measurement Of Concentrations In The Vehicle's Wake Using On-Board Sensors Part 2. Comparison Of Scamper, Traker™, Flux Measurements, And Ap-42 Silt Sampling Under Controlled Conditions, Dennis R. Fitz, Kurt Bullimer, Vic Etyemezian, Hampden D. Kuhns, John A. Gillies, George Nikolich, David E. James, Rodney Langston, Russell S. Merle Jr. 2021 University of California, Riverside

Real-Time Pm10 Emission Rates From Paved Roads By Measurement Of Concentrations In The Vehicle's Wake Using On-Board Sensors Part 2. Comparison Of Scamper, Traker™, Flux Measurements, And Ap-42 Silt Sampling Under Controlled Conditions, Dennis R. Fitz, Kurt Bullimer, Vic Etyemezian, Hampden D. Kuhns, John A. Gillies, George Nikolich, David E. James, Rodney Langston, Russell S. Merle Jr.

Civil & Environmental Engineering and Construction Faculty Publications

Representative soil was evenly applied to an 800-m section of road surface. The test area was of sufficient length to allow for measurement at constant speeds of up to 72 km hr−1. SCAMPER and TRAKER™ mobile measurement vehicles made repeated test runs while an instrumented tower measured upwind-downwind horizontal PM10 flux. AP-42 methods were used to collect silt samples and calculate PM10 emission factors. Both silt loadings and vehicle speeds were varied during the experiment. Street sweeping the as-found roadway showed an initial rise in PM10 emission rates. Both TRAKER and SCAMPER measured rapid decay of PM10 emission rates ...


Estimation Of The Planetary Boundary Layer Height: Part 1: Global Radar Wind Profiler Network Data; Part 2: A Comparison To Ceilometer Data, Holly Josephs 2021 CUNY Hunter College

Estimation Of The Planetary Boundary Layer Height: Part 1: Global Radar Wind Profiler Network Data; Part 2: A Comparison To Ceilometer Data, Holly Josephs

Theses and Dissertations

Two methods for estimating the planetary boundary layer, an algorithm to identify a maximum in the backscatter and a covariance wavelet transform method, are explored and applied to global radar wind profiler network data and ceilometer data respectively. The objective of the study is to establish that the data sources and algorithms can be used to estimate planetary boundary layer heights so that global studies can make use of these estimates. Data from the global network of wind profilers required significant restructuring and quality control in order to be used for the present study. The maximum backscatter identification algorithm was ...


Investigating Water Usage Patterns Tied To California State Water Project, Xiaoqing Wu 2021 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Investigating Water Usage Patterns Tied To California State Water Project, Xiaoqing Wu

Publications and Research

California (USA) is the largest agricultural producer and one of the populous states in the United State. As the population and agriculture grows, water consumption patterns become crucial to keep track of especially surface water. In this research project, we studied possible changes in water consumption patterns in different counties and water rights holders who obtain surface water supply from the State Water Project (SWP) in California. We conducted a time series analysis on the California Monthly Diverted Surface Water dataset through two different time series forecasting models. Our analysis indicates that the total diverted surface water presents a periodic ...


Downscaling Methodology For Satellite Land Surface Temperatures Over Urban Environments, Naved Khan, Ruben Vecino 2021 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Downscaling Methodology For Satellite Land Surface Temperatures Over Urban Environments, Naved Khan, Ruben Vecino

Publications and Research

The objective of this study is to develop high spatial and temporal resolution Land Surface Temperature (LST) data using a combination of Landsat 8, infrared satellite sensors such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite-R Series (GOES-16). The Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) provides higher spatial resolution (30 m) estimates of skin temperature every 16 days. MODIS makes daytime and nighttime observations of the Earth’s thermal emission at a coarser spatial resolution (1000 m), while GOES-16, which has lower spatial resolution (2 km), measures the skin temperature at a much higher temporal ...


Hazardous Weather And Human Response In The Southeastern United States, Daniel Burow 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Hazardous Weather And Human Response In The Southeastern United States, Daniel Burow

Doctoral Dissertations

Effectively mitigating the human costs of future hazardous weather events requires examining meteorological threats, their long-term patterns, and human response to these events. The southeastern United States is a region that has both a high climatological risk and a high societal vulnerability to many different meteorological hazards. In this dissertation, I study hazardous weather and human response in the Southeast through three different lenses: identifying uniquely simultaneous hazards posed by tropical cyclones, assessing precipitation and synoptic weather patterns on hazardous weather days, and examining patterns in intended response to tornado watches. I find that simultaneous and collocated tornado and flash ...


The Effect Of Initial Conditions On The Weather Research And Forecasting Model, Aaron D. Baker 2021 Stephen F Austin State University

The Effect Of Initial Conditions On The Weather Research And Forecasting Model, Aaron D. Baker

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Modeling our atmosphere and determining forecasts using numerical methods has been a challenge since the early 20th Century. Most models use a complex dynamical system of equations that prove difficult to solve by hand as they are chaotic by nature. When computer systems became more widely adopted and available, approximating the solution of these equations, numerically, became easier as computational power increased. This advancement in computing has caused numerous weather models to be created and implemented across the world. However a challenge of approximating these solutions accurately still exists as each model have varying set of equations and variables to ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress