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Design And Characterization Of A Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer For Composition Measurements In The Upper Atmosphere, E. Addison Everett 2017 Utah State University

Design And Characterization Of A Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer For Composition Measurements In The Upper Atmosphere, E. Addison Everett

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In-situ composition measurements of the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) are challenging; this region is only accessible via high-speed sounding rockets, ambient pressures extend into the 10-3 Torr range, and particles of interest range in mass from electrons to meteoric smoke and dust particles. Time-of-flight mass spectrometers (TOF-MS) are capable of making fast, accurate measurements over a wide mass range. However, since they rely on pressure-sensitive microchannel plate (MCP) detectors and high voltages, they have rarely been applied at these altitudes. A new TOF-MS for making in-situ composition measurements in the MLT has been developed at the Space Dynamics Laboratory ...


Latitudinal Position And Trends Of The Intertropical Convergence Zone (Itcz) And Its Relationship With Upwelling In The Southern Caribbean Sea And Global Climate Indices, Kaitlyn E. Colna 2017 University of South Florida

Latitudinal Position And Trends Of The Intertropical Convergence Zone (Itcz) And Its Relationship With Upwelling In The Southern Caribbean Sea And Global Climate Indices, Kaitlyn E. Colna

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is a feature that results from the ocean-atmosphere interactions in the tropics around the world. The ITCZ is characterized by surface wind convergence, tall storm clouds, and it forms a belt of high time-averaged precipitation around the globe. The ITCZ undergoes seasonal migrations between 5°S and 15°N roughly following the subsolar point on Earth with the seasons, with a mean annual position located slightly above the Equator, between 2° and 5°N.

This study tested the hypothesis that there was a northward shift in the median position of the ITCZ in the first ...


Data From: Optical Depth And Size Characteristics Of Small Coastal Florida Cumuli From Surface-Based Lidar And Radiometer Measurements, Rodrigo Delgadillo 2017 University of Miami

Data From: Optical Depth And Size Characteristics Of Small Coastal Florida Cumuli From Surface-Based Lidar And Radiometer Measurements, Rodrigo Delgadillo

Supplementary Data and Tools

Data in this collection is from micro-pulse lidar (MPL) and near field of view (NFOV) radiometer from 20 Dec 2014 to 1 March 2015. The instruments are co-located and zenith-aligned. Measurements were recorded at the CAROb site (http://carob.rsmas.miami.edu/) located in the University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science. The data in this collection is categorized as MPL and zenith radiometer data.


P07. Characterizing The Purple Crow Lidar To Investigate Potential Sources Of Wet Bias, Jeffrey VanKerkhove, Robert J. Sica, Robin Wing, Steve Argall 2017 University of Western Ontario

P07. Characterizing The Purple Crow Lidar To Investigate Potential Sources Of Wet Bias, Jeffrey Vankerkhove, Robert J. Sica, Robin Wing, Steve Argall

Western Research Forum

The Purple Crow Lidar is a large aperture lidar, capable of retrieving water vapor profiles into the stratosphere. Water vapor in the upper Troposphere-Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) region is of particular importance in understanding Earth's radiative budget and atmospheric dynamics, making accurate UTLS measurements crucial. A comparison campaign with the NASA/GSFC ALVICE mobile lidar in the spring of 2012 showed PCL water vapor measurements were consistently larger than those of ALVICE in the lower stratosphere, prompting an investigation to characterize the system. The investigation looks into how changes to the data processing approach, as well as applying additional instrumental ...


P16. Ralmo Rotational Raman Temperature Retrieval: First Steps Towards The Application Of Optimal Estimation Method (Oem), Shayamila N. Mahagammulla Gamage, Robert Sica, Alexander Haefele 2017 Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, Canada

P16. Ralmo Rotational Raman Temperature Retrieval: First Steps Towards The Application Of Optimal Estimation Method (Oem), Shayamila N. Mahagammulla Gamage, Robert Sica, Alexander Haefele

Western Research Forum

Background:

Temperature is an important atmospheric parameter that plays an extensive role in the fields of atmospheric dynamics, climatology, meteorology, and chemistry. Light detection and ranging (lidar), is a remote sensing technology that can be used for atmospheric temperature profiling. A lidar transmits short laser pulses into the atmosphere and the light scattered by the particles in the atmosphere is collected and measured using a telescope. The atmospheric temperatures can be retrieved by analysing the Pure Rotational Raman (PRR) scatter measurements from the nitrogen and oxygen molecules in the atmosphere.

Methods:

In this study use the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM ...


Nitrate Radicals And Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds: Oxidation, Mechanisms And Organic Aerosol, Nga Lee Ng, Steven S. Brown, Alexander T. Archibald, Elliot Atlas, Ronald C. Cohen, John N. Crowley, Douglas A. Day, Neil M. Donahue, Juliane L. Fry, Hendrik Fuchs, Robert J. Griffin, Marcelo I. Guzman, Hartmut Hermann, Alma Hodzic, Yoshiteru Iinuma, José L. Jimenez, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ben H. Lee, Deborah J. Luecken, Jingqiu Mao, Robert McLaren, Anke Mutzel, Hans D. Osthoff, Bin Ouyang, Benedicte Picquet-Varrault, Ulrich Platt, Havala O. T. Pye, Yinon Rudich, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jochen Stutz, Joel A. Thornton, Andreas Tilgner, Brent J. Williams, Rahul A. Zaveri 2017 Georgia Institute of Technology

Nitrate Radicals And Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds: Oxidation, Mechanisms And Organic Aerosol, Nga Lee Ng, Steven S. Brown, Alexander T. Archibald, Elliot Atlas, Ronald C. Cohen, John N. Crowley, Douglas A. Day, Neil M. Donahue, Juliane L. Fry, Hendrik Fuchs, Robert J. Griffin, Marcelo I. Guzman, Hartmut Hermann, Alma Hodzic, Yoshiteru Iinuma, José L. Jimenez, Astrid Kiendler-Scharr, Ben H. Lee, Deborah J. Luecken, Jingqiu Mao, Robert Mclaren, Anke Mutzel, Hans D. Osthoff, Bin Ouyang, Benedicte Picquet-Varrault, Ulrich Platt, Havala O. T. Pye, Yinon Rudich, Rebecca H. Schwantes, Manabu Shiraiwa, Jochen Stutz, Joel A. Thornton, Andreas Tilgner, Brent J. Williams, Rahul A. Zaveri

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) by the nitrate radical (NO3) represents one of the important interactions between anthropogenic emissions related to combustion and natural emissions from the biosphere. This interaction has been recognized for more than 3 decades, during which time a large body of research has emerged from laboratory, field, and modeling studies. NO3-BVOC reactions influence air quality, climate and visibility through regional and global budgets for reactive nitrogen (particularly organic nitrates), ozone, and organic aerosol. Despite its long history of research and the significance of this topic in atmospheric chemistry, a number of ...


Evaluating Elevated Convection With The Downdraft Convective Inhibition, P. S. Market, Scott M. Rochette, J. Shewchuk, R. Difani, Joshua S. Kastman, C. B. Henson, N. I. Fox 2017 University of Missouri

Evaluating Elevated Convection With The Downdraft Convective Inhibition, P. S. Market, Scott M. Rochette, J. Shewchuk, R. Difani, Joshua S. Kastman, C. B. Henson, N. I. Fox

Earth Sciences Faculty Publications

A method for evaluating the penetration of a stable layer by an elevated convective downdraft is discussed. Some controversy exists on the community’s ability to define truly elevated convection from surface-based convection. By comparing the downdraft convective inhibition (DCIN) to the downdraft convective available potential energy (DCAPE), we determine that downdraft penetration potential is progressively enabled as the DCIN is progressively smaller than the DCAPE; inversely as DCIN increases over DCAPE, so does the likelihood of purely elevated convection. Serial vertical soundings and accompanying analyses are provided to support this finding.


Assessing Upper Tropospheric Jet Streak Proximity Using The Rossby Radius Of Deformation, Joshua S. Kastman, Patrick S. Market, Scott M. Rochette, Anthony R. Lupo 2016 University of Missouri

Assessing Upper Tropospheric Jet Streak Proximity Using The Rossby Radius Of Deformation, Joshua S. Kastman, Patrick S. Market, Scott M. Rochette, Anthony R. Lupo

Earth Sciences Faculty Publications

The Rossby radius of deformation is a parameter that describes the relative role of buoyant and inertial forces for atmospheric phenomena in a flow regime. It will be demonstrated that it can also be used to determine whether or not forcing for vertical motions in the region between upper level tropospheric jet streaks overlaps or interacts. Using predefined points in the entrance and exit regions of neighboring upper level jet streaks, the distance between them is calculated for each event. If they are closer than twice the Rossby radius of deformation, the resulting region affected by both streaks is termed ...


On The Propagation Of Atmospheric Gravity Waves In A Non-Uniform Wind Field: Introducing A Modified Acoustic-Gravity Wave Equation, Ahmad Talaei 2016 Utah State University

On The Propagation Of Atmospheric Gravity Waves In A Non-Uniform Wind Field: Introducing A Modified Acoustic-Gravity Wave Equation, Ahmad Talaei

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Atmospheric gravity waves play fundamental roles in a broad-range of dynamical processes extending throughout the Earth’s neutral atmosphere and ionosphere. In this paper, we present a modified form for the acoustic-gravity wave equation and its dispersion relationships for a compressible and non-stationary atmosphere in hydrostatic balance. Importantly, the solutions have been achieved without the use of the well-known Boussinesq approximation which have been used extensively in previous studies.

We utilize the complete set of governing equations for a compressible atmosphere with non-uniform airflows to determine an equation for vertical velocity of possible atmospheric waves. This intricate wave equation is ...


A Comparison Of Global Climate Reanalysis And Climate Of South Greenland And The North Atlantic, Jeff Auger 2016 University of Maine

A Comparison Of Global Climate Reanalysis And Climate Of South Greenland And The North Atlantic, Jeff Auger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Global climate reanalysis models are regularly used in many scientific fields concerning climate and atmospheric observation. This thesis utilizes reanalysis models in two chapters in order to gain insight into North Atlantic climate teleconnections and their relation to precipitation across South Greenland. This first chapter of this thesis compares the four most recent reanalysis models – ECMWF Reanalysis Interim (ERA-I), NCEP Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), JMA 55-year Reanalysis (JRA-55), and NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) – and develops from these models a monthly-mean ensemble average of common meteorological variables for the period 1979-2013. Results from this analysis ...


Analysis Of Aerosol Absorption Properties And Transport Over North Africa And The Middle East Using Aeronet Data, Ashraf Farahat, Hesham el-Askary, Peter Adetokunbo, Abu-Tharr Fuad 2016 King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia

Analysis Of Aerosol Absorption Properties And Transport Over North Africa And The Middle East Using Aeronet Data, Ashraf Farahat, Hesham El-Askary, Peter Adetokunbo, Abu-Tharr Fuad

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

In this paper particle categorization and absorption properties were discussed to understand transport mechanisms at different geographic locations and possible radiative impacts on climate. The long-term Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data set (1999–2015) is used to estimate aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and the absorption Ångström exponent (abs) at eight locations in North Africa and the Middle East. Average variation in SSA is calculated at four wavelengths (440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm), and the relationship between aerosol absorption and physical properties is used to infer dominant aerosol types at different locations. It was found that ...


Street-Level Inundation Modeling Of Hurricanes Matthew And Hermine And Emerging Flood Monitoring Methods In Hampton Roads, J. D. Loftis, H. V. Wang, D R. Forrest 2016 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Street-Level Inundation Modeling Of Hurricanes Matthew And Hermine And Emerging Flood Monitoring Methods In Hampton Roads, J. D. Loftis, H. V. Wang, D R. Forrest

Presentations

No abstract provided.


Multiscale Wind Modelling For Sustainability And Resilience, Djordje Romanic 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Multiscale Wind Modelling For Sustainability And Resilience, Djordje Romanic

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The research presented herein is a mix of meteorological and wind engineering disciplines. In many cases, there is a gap between these two fields and this thesis is an attempt to bridge that gap through multiscale wind modelling approaches. Data and methods used in this study cover a multitude of spatial and temporal scales. Applications are in the fields of sustainability and resilience. This relationship between multiscale wind modelling and sustainability and resilience is investigated examining several case studies of three different developments: urban, rural and coastal.

An urban wind modelling methodology is proposed and applied for a specific development ...


Breakdown Of Itcz-Like Pv Patterns, Ajay Raghavendra, Thomas A. Guinn 2016 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University - Daytona Beach

Breakdown Of Itcz-Like Pv Patterns, Ajay Raghavendra, Thomas A. Guinn

Beyond: Undergraduate Research Journal

The Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is a zonal belt of intense convection, responsible for the genesis of over 80% of all tropical cyclones. This region of intense diabatic heating and shear results in a maximum of Ertel's potential vorticity (PV) meeting Rayleigh's necessary condition for barotropic instability. A fundamental issue is understanding the necessary precursor events leading to the breakdown of the ITCZ and subsequent formation of tropical cyclones. Our research examines the non-linear PV dynamics of the breakdown of both finite-length and infinite-length vorticity strips of varying widths and shapes, simulating the ITCZ found near the tropical ...


Data-Driven Diagnostics Of Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics Over North America, Jingfeng Xiao, Scott V. Ollinger, Steve Frolking, George Hurtt, David Y. Hollinger, Kenneth J. Davis, Yude Pan, Xiaoyang Zhang, Feng Deng, Jiquan Chen, Dennis D. Baldocchi, Beverly E. Law, M. Altaf Arain, Ankur R. Desai, Andrew D. Richardson, Ge Sun, Brian Amiro, Hank Margolis, Lianhong Gu, Russell L. Scott, Peter D. Blanken, Andrew E. Suyker 2016 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Data-Driven Diagnostics Of Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics Over North America, Jingfeng Xiao, Scott V. Ollinger, Steve Frolking, George Hurtt, David Y. Hollinger, Kenneth J. Davis, Yude Pan, Xiaoyang Zhang, Feng Deng, Jiquan Chen, Dennis D. Baldocchi, Beverly E. Law, M. Altaf Arain, Ankur R. Desai, Andrew D. Richardson, Ge Sun, Brian Amiro, Hank Margolis, Lianhong Gu, Russell L. Scott, Peter D. Blanken, Andrew E. Suyker

Xiaoyang Zhang

The exchange of carbon dioxide is a key measure of ecosystem metabolism and a critical intersection between the terrestrial biosphere and the Earth’s climate. Despite the general agreement that the terrestrial ecosystems in North America provide a sizeable carbon sink, the size and distribution of the sink remain uncertain. We use a data-driven approach to upscale eddy covariance flux observations from towers to the continental scale by integrating flux observations, meteorology, stand age,aboveground biomass, and a proxy for canopy nitrogen concentrations from AmeriFlux and Fluxnet-Canada Research Network as well as a variety of satellite data streams from the ...


Near-Real-Time Global Biomass Burning Emissions Product From Geostationary Satellite Constellation, Xiaoyang Zhang, Shobha Kondragunta, Jessica Ram, Christopher Schmidt, Ho-Chung Huang 2016 South Dakota State University

Near-Real-Time Global Biomass Burning Emissions Product From Geostationary Satellite Constellation, Xiaoyang Zhang, Shobha Kondragunta, Jessica Ram, Christopher Schmidt, Ho-Chung Huang

Xiaoyang Zhang

Near-real-time estimates of biomass burning emissions are crucial for air quality monitoring and forecasting. We present here the first near-real-time global biomass burning emission product from geostationary satellites (GBBEP-Geo) produced from satellite-derived fire radiative power (FRP) for individual fire pixels. Specifically, the FRP is retrieved using WF_ABBA V65 (wildfire automated biomass burning algorithm) from a network of multiple geostationary satellites. The network consists of two Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) which are operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Meteosat second-generation satellites (Meteosat-09) operated by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, and the Multifunctional Transport ...


Exploring The Edge Of Space: Streamlining Physics And Earth Science Collaboration In A New Community College Course, David Kobilka, Yoshinao Hirai Ph.D. 2016 Central Lakes College - Brainerd

Exploring The Edge Of Space: Streamlining Physics And Earth Science Collaboration In A New Community College Course, David Kobilka, Yoshinao Hirai Ph.D.

2016 Academic High Altitude Conference

We designed a new lab science course on stratospheric ballooning (SB), titled Exploring the Edge of Space. The course, which starts in the upcoming semester, brings together two groups of students simultaneously: Mainstream liberal arts students and students in the college’s Honors program. The Honors students meet an additional hour weekly, review scientific literature extensively, and complete a capstone project. The course design is a collaboration between the physics and earth science departments at Central Lakes College, and is drawn on the five-year experience of the authors doing SB flights, many in collaboration with the Bemidji State University SB ...


Development Of A "Multi-Cut" Payload For Use In Stratospheric Ballooning Missions, James Flaten, Joey Habeck, Noah Biniek, Steven Smeaton, Austin Langford, Jordan Diers, Isaac Krieger 2016 U of MN - Twin Cities / MN Space Grant

Development Of A "Multi-Cut" Payload For Use In Stratospheric Ballooning Missions, James Flaten, Joey Habeck, Noah Biniek, Steven Smeaton, Austin Langford, Jordan Diers, Isaac Krieger

2016 Academic High Altitude Conference

The ability to cut strings (AKA lines) during stratospheric ballooning missions has a wide variety of uses including, but not limited to, (a) flight termination (i.e. cutting payloads away from the main balloon), (b) cutting away excess lift balloon(s) to slow ascent rate (and possibly achieve float), (c) cutting away ballast weights to slow descent rate or increase ascent rate, (d) cutting away burst balloon(s) on descent to avoid parachute entanglement, and (e) cutting away payloads which are intended to return to the ground independently, for experimental purposes. We report on the development of a “multi-cut” payload ...


Analyzing Accuracy Of The Lufft Ws600 In Remotely Measuring Precipitation Events, Justin Gay 2016 University of Vermont

Analyzing Accuracy Of The Lufft Ws600 In Remotely Measuring Precipitation Events, Justin Gay

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The goal of this project was to analyze the accuracy of the Lufft WS600 Weather Sensor in measuring the rate of both liquid and solid precipitation. Measurement accuracy, especially in remote locations, can be difficult to obtain and quantify. Wind, blowing debris, and atmospheric particles can all have the capacity to interfere with instruments that are not being continuously compared to manual observations. Access to quality precipitation data sets are important for both hydrologic and weather forecasting, climate monitoring, and understanding the role of water cycling through ecosystems. Commercially, weather sensors are heavily relied upon by the Federal Aviation Administration ...


Analysis Of The Run-To-Run Variability Within The Namm Forecasts For The Northeast U.S. Blizzard Of 8-9 February 2013, Kaitlyn Heinlein 2016 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Analysis Of The Run-To-Run Variability Within The Namm Forecasts For The Northeast U.S. Blizzard Of 8-9 February 2013, Kaitlyn Heinlein

Theses and Dissertations

On 8-9 February 2013, a strong extratropical cyclone brought historic winter storm conditions to the Northeast United States with a swath of one to three feet of snow falling across much of New England, with isolated pockets exceeding three feet across south-central Connecticut. Given the high socioeconomic impact that resulted from this blizzard, this study focuses on the run-to-run variability in operational model (North American Mesoscale model; NAM) forecasts leading up to the event. These forecasts, initialized forty-eight hours or less from the start of the event, showed two instances indicating a substantial shift in the expected impact. The first ...


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