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Gravity Wave Drag Parameterizations For Earth’S Atmosphere, Christopher J. Heale, Christopher G. Kruse, Jadwiga H. Richter, M. Joan Alexander, Julio T. Bacmeister, Junhong Wei 2023 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Gravity Wave Drag Parameterizations For Earth’S Atmosphere, Christopher J. Heale, Christopher G. Kruse, Jadwiga H. Richter, M. Joan Alexander, Julio T. Bacmeister, Junhong Wei

Publications

Atmospheric gravity waves (GWs), or buoyancy waves, transport momentum and energy through Earth’s atmosphere. GWs are important at nearly all levels of the atmosphere, though, the momentum they transport is particularly important in general circulation of the middle and upper atmosphere. Primary sources of atmospheric GWs are flow over mountains, moist convection, and imbalances in jet/frontal systems. Secondary GWs can also be generated as a result of dissipation of a primary GWs. Gravity waves typically have horizontal wavelengths of 10’s to 100’s of kilometers, though, they can have scales of 1’s to 1000’s of kilometers as well. Current effective resolutions …


Spatial And Temporal Characteristics Of Historical Surface Climate Over The Northwest Territories, Canada, Bhaleka D. Persaud 2023 Wilfrid Laurier University

Spatial And Temporal Characteristics Of Historical Surface Climate Over The Northwest Territories, Canada, Bhaleka D. Persaud

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Climate change is putting many of the Northwest Territories (NWT) ecosystems, its people and animal populations at risk due to accelerated warming, permafrost thaw, and changing precipitation regimes. As the NWT continues to warm, at disproportionately higher rates when compared to the rest of Canada, threats to the stability of NWT’s ecosystems are expected to increase. Consequently, understanding how climate warming has changed historically and its implications on natural ecosystems requires point-to-region-specific, long-term climatic data to elucidate important drivers of observed changes relevant to decision makers at community, Indigenous, Territorial and Federal government levels. However, in situ climate data are …


Ecological Protection Alone Is Not Enough To Conserve Ecosystem Carbon Storage: Evidence From Guangdong, China, Lihan Cui, Wenwen Tang, Sheng Zheng, Ramesh P. Singh 2022 Ministry of Natural Resources, China

Ecological Protection Alone Is Not Enough To Conserve Ecosystem Carbon Storage: Evidence From Guangdong, China, Lihan Cui, Wenwen Tang, Sheng Zheng, Ramesh P. Singh

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The increase in atmospheric CO2 caused by land use and land cover change (LUCC) is one of the drivers of the global climate. As one of the most typical high-urbanization areas, the ecological conflicts occurring in Guangdong Province warrant urgent attention. A growing body of evidence suggests LUCC could guide the future ecosystem carbon storage, but most LUCC simulations are simply based on model results without full consistency with the actual situation. Fully combined with the territorial spatial planning project and based on the land use pattern in 2010 and 2020, we have used the Markov and Patch-generating Land …


Possible Overestimation Of Nitrogen Dioxide Outgassing During The Beirut 2020 Explosion, Ashraf Farahat, Nayla El-Kork, Ramesh P. Singh, Feng Jing 2022 King Fahd University of Petroleum, and Minerals

Possible Overestimation Of Nitrogen Dioxide Outgassing During The Beirut 2020 Explosion, Ashraf Farahat, Nayla El-Kork, Ramesh P. Singh, Feng Jing

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

On 4 August 2020, a strong explosion occurred near the Beirut seaport, Lebanon and killed more than 200 people and damaged numerous buildings in the vicinity. As Amonium Nitrate (AN) caused the explosion, many studies claimed the release of large amounts of NO2 in the atmosphere may have resulted in a health hazard in Beirut and the vicinity. In order to reasonably evaluate the significance of NO2 amounts released in the atmosphere, it is important to investigate the spatio-temporal distribution of NO2 during and after the blast and compare it to the average day-to-day background emissions from …


An Intercomparison Of Large-Eddy Simulations Of A Convection Cloud Chamber Using Haze-Capable Bin And Lagrangian Cloud Microphysics Schemes, Fan Yang, Fabian Hoffmann, Raymond Shaw, Mikhail Ovchinnikov, Andrew Vogelmann 2022 Brookhaven National Laboratory

An Intercomparison Of Large-Eddy Simulations Of A Convection Cloud Chamber Using Haze-Capable Bin And Lagrangian Cloud Microphysics Schemes, Fan Yang, Fabian Hoffmann, Raymond Shaw, Mikhail Ovchinnikov, Andrew Vogelmann

Michigan Tech Research Data

Recent in-situ observations show that haze particles exist in a convection cloud chamber. The microphysics schemes previously used for large-eddy simulations of the cloud chamber could not fully resolve haze particles and the associated processes, including their activation and deactivation. Specifically, cloud droplet activation is modeled based on Twomey-type parameterizations, wherein cloud droplets are formed when a critical supersaturation for the available cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is exceeded and haze particles are not explicitly resolved. Here, we develop and adapt haze-capable bin and Lagrangian microphysics schemes to properly resolve the activation and deactivation processes. Results are compared with the Twomey-type …


Improving Near Surface Refractivity Estimates In Marine Environments, Sarah Evelyn Wessinger 2022 Coastal Carolina University

Improving Near Surface Refractivity Estimates In Marine Environments, Sarah Evelyn Wessinger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study utilizes in-situ measurements and numerical weather prediction datasets collected during the Coupled Air-Sea Processes Electromagnetic Ducting Research East field campaign to assess how thermodynamic properties in the marine atmospheric surface layer influence evaporation duct shape and to develop a simple near-surface modified refractivity estimation method. This study utilizes a logarithmic linear parametric model, which describes evaporation ducts via three main parameters: evaporation duct height, evaporation duct curvature, and mixed layer slope. Notably, most studies utilizing this type of model assume the curvature, C0, to be a theoretical value derived assuming neutral atmospheric stability; a thermodynamic regime that is …


Arctic Sea Ice Loss In The Pacific Sector And Its Impacts On Sudden Stratospheric Warming Events, Jiarong Zhang 2022 Coastal Carolina University

Arctic Sea Ice Loss In The Pacific Sector And Its Impacts On Sudden Stratospheric Warming Events, Jiarong Zhang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Arctic sea ice is a critical indicator of climate change. The extent of sea ice coverage over the Arctic Ocean has dramatically declined over the past few decades. The impact has been extensively studied through observations suggesting a linkage between the anomalously warm Arctic surface associated with the Arctic sea ice loss and the mid-latitude surface cooling in the subsequent boreal winter. This linkage could involve the wintertime stratospheric circulation by enhancing the upward planetary wave activity and weakening the polar vortex. With recent advances in climate model, more relevant studies relied on numerical simulations and some suggested that …


A Protocol To Build Trust With Black Box Models, TIMOTHY K. THIELKE 2022 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

A Protocol To Build Trust With Black Box Models, Timothy K. Thielke

Theses and Dissertations

Data scientists are more widely using artificial intelligence and machine learning (ML) algorithms today despite the general mistrust associated with them due to the lack of contextual understanding of the domain occurring within the algorithm. Of the many types of ML algorithms, those that use non-linear activation functions are especially regarded with suspicion because of the lack of transparency and intuitive understanding of what is occurring within the black box of the algorithm. In this thesis, we set out to create a protocol to delve into the black box of an ML algorithm set to predict synoptic severe weather patterns …


Identifying Particulate Matter Spatial Variation In The El Paso Del Norte Region Using Land-Use Regression Modeling And Data Obtained From A Network Of Low-Cost Sensors, Leonardo Demetrio Vazquez-Raygoza 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Identifying Particulate Matter Spatial Variation In The El Paso Del Norte Region Using Land-Use Regression Modeling And Data Obtained From A Network Of Low-Cost Sensors, Leonardo Demetrio Vazquez-Raygoza

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

The emergence and rise in popularity of low-cost sensors for atmospheric observation aresetting a new precedent in identifying emission hotspots and providing high-resolution spatial and temporal data. Furthermore, low-cost sensors are becoming popular among institutions and the public, allowing community scientists to become more involved in air quality monitoring. However, concerns about the accuracy and precision of low-cost sensors have been questioned. Most recent research has focused on the utility of real-time monitoring and calibration requirements for these sensors. A low-cost monitoring project has deployed sensors in the El Paso del Norte region in low and high annual average daily …


Black And Brown Carbon Optical Characterization In The El Paso - Ciudad Juarez Airshed, Pamela I. Lara 2022 University of Texas at El Paso

Black And Brown Carbon Optical Characterization In The El Paso - Ciudad Juarez Airshed, Pamela I. Lara

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

Black (EBC) and Brown (BrC) Carbon are ubiquitous constituents of atmospheric particulate matter that affect peopleâ??s health, disrupt ecosystems, and modulate local and global climate. Tracking the local deposition and sources of these aerosol particles is essential to better understanding their multidimensional environmental impact. The main goal of the current study is to measure the absorption coefficient (Babs) of particles within the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) of the El Paso (US)–Ciudad Juárez (Mexico) airshed and assess the contribution of black and brown carbon particles to the total optical absorption. Measurements were taken during winter (January, 2022), spring (May, 2022), and …


Increased Aerosols Can Reverse Twomey Effect In Water Clouds Through Radiative Pathway, Pradeep Khatri, Tadahiro Hayasaka, Brent N. Holben, Ramesh P. Singh, Husi Letu, Sachchida N. Tripathi 2022 Tohoku University

Increased Aerosols Can Reverse Twomey Effect In Water Clouds Through Radiative Pathway, Pradeep Khatri, Tadahiro Hayasaka, Brent N. Holben, Ramesh P. Singh, Husi Letu, Sachchida N. Tripathi

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Aerosols play important roles in modulations of cloud properties and hydrological cycle by decreasing the size of cloud droplets with the increase of aerosols under the condition of fixed liquid water path, which is known as the first aerosol indirect effect or Twomey-effect or microphysical effect. Using high-quality aerosol data from surface observations and statistically decoupling the influence of meteorological factors, we show that highly loaded aerosols can counter this microphysical effect through the radiative effect to result both the decrease and increase of cloud droplet size depending on liquid water path in water clouds. The radiative effect due to …


The Dynamics Of Tsunamigenic Acoustic-Gravity Waves And Bathymetry Effect, Pavel Alexandrovich Inchin, Christopher James Heale, Jonathan Brian Snively, Matthew David Zettergren 2022 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

The Dynamics Of Tsunamigenic Acoustic-Gravity Waves And Bathymetry Effect, Pavel Alexandrovich Inchin, Christopher James Heale, Jonathan Brian Snively, Matthew David Zettergren

Publications

The investigation of atmospheric tsunamigenic acoustic and gravity wave (TAGW) dynamics, from the ocean surface to the thermosphere, is performed through the numerical computations of the 3D compressible nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations. Tsunami propagation is first simulated using a nonlinear shallow water model, which incorporates instantaneous or temporal evolutions of initial tsunami distributions (ITD). Surface dynamics are then imposed as a boundary condition to excite TAGWs into the atmosphere from the ground level. We perform a case study of a large tsunami associated with the 2011 M9.1 Tohuku-Oki earthquake, and parametric studies with simplified and demonstrative bathymetry and ITD. Our results …


Estimation Of Economic Risk From Coastal Natural Hazards In Louisiana, Rubayet Bin Mostafiz 2022 Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge

Estimation Of Economic Risk From Coastal Natural Hazards In Louisiana, Rubayet Bin Mostafiz

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Louisiana, U.S.A., is among the most vulnerable areas globally to coastal natural hazards, with risk vulnerability likely increasing. The risks associated with non-tropical-cyclone hazards in Louisiana’s coastal zone have been understudied. This research enhances present and future (i.e., 2050) Louisiana risk assessment using locally-weighted, model-based hazard frequency/intensity and population projections.

Results suggest that property risks associated with extreme cold temperature and tornado are and will remain costlier than those for hail and lightning. Property risks of extreme cold temperature and hail are projected to decrease with the expected warming temperatures, with those of all four of these hazards peaking in …


Long-Distance Propagation Of 162 Mhz Shipping Information Links Associated With Sporadic E, Alex T. Chartier, Thomas R. Hanley, Daniel J. Emmons 2022 Air Force Institute of Technology

Long-Distance Propagation Of 162 Mhz Shipping Information Links Associated With Sporadic E, Alex T. Chartier, Thomas R. Hanley, Daniel J. Emmons

Faculty Publications

This is a study of anomalous long-distance (>1000 km) radio propagation that was identified in United States Coast Guard monitors of automatic identification system (AIS) shipping transmissions at 162 MHz. Our results indicate this long-distance propagation is caused by dense sporadic E layers in the daytime ionosphere, which were observed by nearby ionosondes at the same time. This finding is surprising because it indicates these sporadic E layers may be far more dense than previously thought.


Polarimetric Radar And Vhf Lightning Observations In A Significantly Tornadic Supercell, Jacob Bruss 2022 Purdue University

Polarimetric Radar And Vhf Lightning Observations In A Significantly Tornadic Supercell, Jacob Bruss

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Agricultural Aerosols: The Impact Of Farming Activity On Ice Nucleating Particles, Joseph Robinson 2022 Purdue University

Agricultural Aerosols: The Impact Of Farming Activity On Ice Nucleating Particles, Joseph Robinson

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Farming activities cause particles such as soil dust and plant material to be emitted into the air. Some of these aerosols can become ice nucleating particles (INPs), serving as seeds for ice and mixed-phase clouds. While there have been ground-based studies of these particles in the western Great Plains and a single air-based study in Indiana, there is a distinct lack of ground-based studies in the Midwest. In Indiana, over two-thirds of the state is farmland, with over 75% of land in Tippecanoe County used for agriculture. Despite farming being such an essential part of life in Indiana, the connection …


Dynamics Of Atmospheric Gravity Wave Breaking In The Mesopause Region, Fan Yang 2022 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Dynamics Of Atmospheric Gravity Wave Breaking In The Mesopause Region, Fan Yang

Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses

GWs significantly impact the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT), and as a consequence of GW breaking, atmospheric turbulence plays an essential role in the mixing and transport of momentum, mass, and chemical materials in MLT. The main focus of this research for the fulfillment of the proposed Ph.D. dissertation is to improve the understanding of the dynamic process of wave breaking and their effects in the mesopause region above Andes Lidar Observatory (30.2◦ S, 70.7◦ W). A few scientific topics related to GW break- ing are addressed. What are the probabilities of the atmosphere becoming convectively or dynamically unstable in …


Kinetic Modeling Of Ionospheric Outflows Observed By The Visions-1 Sounding Rocket, Robert M. Albarran II 2022 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Kinetic Modeling Of Ionospheric Outflows Observed By The Visions-1 Sounding Rocket, Robert M. Albarran Ii

Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses

Plasma escape from the high-latitude ionosphere (ion outflow) serves as a significant source of heavy plasma to magnetospheric plasma sheet and ring current regions. Outflows alter mass density and reconnection rates, hence global responses of the magnetosphere. The VISIONS-1 (VISualizing Ion Outflow via Neutral atom imaging during a Substorm) sounding rocket was launched on Feb. 7, 2013 at 8:21 UTC from Poker Flat, Alaska, into an auroral substorm with the objective of identifying the drivers and dynamics of nightside ion outflow at altitudes where it is initiated, below 1000 km. Energetic ion data from the VISIONS-1 polar cap boundary crossing …


A Review On Natural Gamma Radiation Dose Levels And Its Health Effects, Shankramma K, Kamsali Nagaraja, Sathish L A, Charan Kumar K 2022 Division of Nanoscience and Technology, Department of Water and Health, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Mysuru - 570015, India

A Review On Natural Gamma Radiation Dose Levels And Its Health Effects, Shankramma K, Kamsali Nagaraja, Sathish L A, Charan Kumar K

International Journal of Health and Allied Sciences

Exposure to the natural background gamma radiations in both indoor and outdoor environments is inevitable. The long-term exposure to such radiations could result in lung cancer (sometimes leukaemia, CNS tumours); and hence it must be constantly monitored. In this paper, an attempt is made to review the background natural gamma radiation doses reported at various locations for the south Indian environment and it was found that the gamma levels in coastal regions were relatively higher than those in sub continental locations but in most of the locations the annual effective dose rate was within the permissible limits as per UNSCEAR


Ionospheric Feedback And Ulf Quarter-Waves, Anatoly Streltsov, Evgeny V. Mishin 2022 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Ionospheric Feedback And Ulf Quarter-Waves, Anatoly Streltsov, Evgeny V. Mishin

Publications

This paper presents results from the numerical investigation of nonlinear feedback interactions between ULF field-aligned currents (FACs) and the ionospheric plasma in the global magnetospheric resonator with a non-symmetrical distribution of the plasma density in the conjugate hemispheres. The density asymmetry is enhanced by the introduction of the ionospheric valley in the hemisphere where the plasma density is already lower. The main result from this study is that in the non-symmetrical resonator, the ionospheric feedback mechanism, driven by the electric field with the maximum amplitude of 50 mV/m, develops nonlinear, intense, small-scale upward currents with a characteristic quarter-wavelength structure along …


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