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Predictability Of The Overland Reintensification Of North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Erin (2007), Ariel Tickner-Ernst 2024 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Predictability Of The Overland Reintensification Of North Atlantic Tropical Cyclone Erin (2007), Ariel Tickner-Ernst

Theses and Dissertations

Tropical cyclones (TC) typically decrease in intensity upon interacting with land because of increased surface roughness and decreased surface evaporation. However, several studies have documented cases in which TCs maintain their intensity or even intensify over land within non- or weakly baroclinic environments. Yet, our understanding of the precise physical processes that support maintenance or intensification over land in non- or weakly baroclinic environments remains limited, and the predictive skill for these outcomes has yet to be quantified.

We begin this process by quantifying the predictive skill and forecast uncertainty of the overland intensification of North Atlantic Tropical Storm Erin …


Volumetric Reconstruction Of Ionospheric Electric Currents From Tri-Static Incoherent Scatter Radar Measurements, Jone Peter Reistad, Spencer Mark Hatch, Karl M. Laundal, Kjellmar Oksavik, Matthew David Zettergren, Heikki Vanhamaki, Ilkka I. Virtanen 2024 University of Bergen

Volumetric Reconstruction Of Ionospheric Electric Currents From Tri-Static Incoherent Scatter Radar Measurements, Jone Peter Reistad, Spencer Mark Hatch, Karl M. Laundal, Kjellmar Oksavik, Matthew David Zettergren, Heikki Vanhamaki, Ilkka I. Virtanen

Publications

We present a new technique for the upcoming tri-static incoherent scatter radar system EISCAT 3D (E3D) to perform a volumetric reconstruction of the 3D ionospheric electric current density vector field, focusing on the feasibility of the E3D system. The input to our volumetric reconstruction technique are estimates of the 3D current density perpendicular to the main magnetic field, $\mathbf{j} \perp$, and its co-variance, to be obtained from E3D observations based on two main assumptions: 1) Ions fully magnetised above the $E$ region, set to 200 km here. 2) Electrons fully magnetised above the base of our domain, set to 90 …


Low Cost Magnetometer Calibration And Distributed Simultaneous Multipoint Ionospheric Measurements From A Sounding Rocket Platform, Joshua W. Milford 2024 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Low Cost Magnetometer Calibration And Distributed Simultaneous Multipoint Ionospheric Measurements From A Sounding Rocket Platform, Joshua W. Milford

Doctoral Dissertations and Master's Theses

Low-cost and low-size-weight-and-power (SWaP) magnetometers can provide greater accessibility for distributed simultaneous measurements in the ionosphere, either onboard sounding rockets or on CubeSats. The Space and Atmospheric Instrumentation Laboratory (SAIL) at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University has launched a multitude of sounding rockets in recent history: one night-time mid-latitude rocket from Wallops Flight Facility in August 2022 and three mid-latitude rockets from White Sands Missile Range during the October 2023 annular solar eclipse. All rockets had a comprehensive suite of instruments for electrodynamics and neutral dynamics measurements. Among this suite was one science-grade three-axis fluxgate magnetometer (Billingsley TFM65VQS / TFM100G2) and up …


Interferometric Imaging With Eiscat_3d For Fine-Scale In-Beam Incoherent Scatter Spectra Measurements, M. Zettergren, Devin Huyghebaert, Björn Gustavsson, Juha Vierinen, Andreas Kvammen, John Swoboda, Ilkka Virtanen, Spencer Hatch, Karl M. Laundal 2024 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Interferometric Imaging With Eiscat_3d For Fine-Scale In-Beam Incoherent Scatter Spectra Measurements, M. Zettergren, Devin Huyghebaert, Björn Gustavsson, Juha Vierinen, Andreas Kvammen, John Swoboda, Ilkka Virtanen, Spencer Hatch, Karl M. Laundal

Publications

The 233 MHz EISCAT_3D radar system currently under construction in northern Fennoscandia will be able to resolve ionospheric structures smaller than the transmit beam dimensions through the use of interferometric imaging. This capability is made possible by the modular design and digitization of the 119 91-antenna panels located at the main Skibotn site. The main array consists of a cluster of 109 panels, with 10 outlier panels producing unique interferometry baselines. In the present study synthesized incoherent scatter radar signal measurements are used for interferometric imaging analysis with the EISCAT_3D system. The Geospace Environment Model of Ion-Neutral Interactions (GEMINI) model …


Ground Electric Field, Atmospheric Weather And Electric Grid Variations In Northeast Greece Influenced By The March 2012 Solar Activity And The Moderate To Intense Geomagnetic Storms, Georgios Anagnostopoulos, Anastasios Karkanis, Athanasios Kampatagis, Panagiotis Marhavilas, Sofia-Anna Menesidou, Dimitrios Efthymiadis, Stefanos Keskinis, Dimitar Ouzounov, Nick Hatzigeorgiu, Michael Danakis 2024 Democritus University of Thrace (DUTH)

Ground Electric Field, Atmospheric Weather And Electric Grid Variations In Northeast Greece Influenced By The March 2012 Solar Activity And The Moderate To Intense Geomagnetic Storms, Georgios Anagnostopoulos, Anastasios Karkanis, Athanasios Kampatagis, Panagiotis Marhavilas, Sofia-Anna Menesidou, Dimitrios Efthymiadis, Stefanos Keskinis, Dimitar Ouzounov, Nick Hatzigeorgiu, Michael Danakis

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

In a recent paper, we extended a previous study on the solar solar influence to the generation of the March 2012 heatwave in the northeastern USA. In the present study we check the possible relationship of solar activity with the early March 2012 bad weather in northeast Thrace, Greece. To this end, we examined data from various remote sensing instrumentation monitoring the Sun (SDO satellite), Interplanetary space (ACE satellite), the Earth’s magnetosphere (Earth-based measurements, NOAA-19 satellite), the top of the clouds (Terra and Aqua satellites), and the near ground atmosphere. Our comparative data analysis suggests that: (i) the winter-like weather …


Ocean Temperatures Do Not Account For A Record-Setting Winter In The U.S. West, Matthew D. LaPlante, Liping Deng, Luthiene Dalanhese, Shih-Yu Wang 2024 Utah State University

Ocean Temperatures Do Not Account For A Record-Setting Winter In The U.S. West, Matthew D. Laplante, Liping Deng, Luthiene Dalanhese, Shih-Yu Wang

Journalism and Communication Faculty Publications

The record-setting winter of 2022–2023 came as an answer to both figurative and literal prayers for political leaders, policy makers, and water managers reliant on snowpacks in the Upper Colorado River Basin, a vital source of water for tens of millions of people across the Western United States. But this “drought-busting” winter was not well-predicted, in part because while interannual patterns of tropical ocean temperatures have a well-known relationship to precipitation patterns across much of the American West, the Upper Colorado is part of a liminal region where these connections tend to be comparatively weak. Using historical sea surface temperature …


The Effects Of Wildfire Aerosol Emissions On Air Quality, Emma Braun, Audrey Shirley 2024 Purdue University

The Effects Of Wildfire Aerosol Emissions On Air Quality, Emma Braun, Audrey Shirley

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

No abstract provided.


Characterizing Differential Reflectivity Calibration Dependence On Environmental Temperature Using The X-Band Teaching And Research Radar (Xtrra): Looking For A Relationship Between Temperature And Differential Reflectivity Bias, Emma Miller 2024 Purdue University

Characterizing Differential Reflectivity Calibration Dependence On Environmental Temperature Using The X-Band Teaching And Research Radar (Xtrra): Looking For A Relationship Between Temperature And Differential Reflectivity Bias, Emma Miller

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Calibration scans are important for the maintenance of data and the quality of the information that radars output. In this study we looked for a temperature dependency in a full year’s worth of differential reflectivity (ZDR) calibration scan data collected by the X-band Teaching and Research Radar (XTRRA) located near the Purdue University campus. In a vertically pointing calibration scan, the radar scans the drops from below while rotating. From this angle, the overall shape will be circular, which corresponds to a ZDR value of approximately 0 dB. To process the data for the year 2021, a Python script was …


Clouds In The Ancient Lunar Atmosphere: Water Ice Nucleation On Aerosol Simulants, Mariana C. Aguilar 2024 Purdue University

Clouds In The Ancient Lunar Atmosphere: Water Ice Nucleation On Aerosol Simulants, Mariana C. Aguilar

The Journal of Purdue Undergraduate Research

Today’s moon is vastly different from what it was 3 billion years ago. At that time, it was home to a collisional atmosphere formed through massive amounts of volcanism, releasing enough subsurface gas to sustain surface pressures of up to 1 kPa. Observations of our solar system have taught us that all dense atmospheres are host to clouds and aerosols, and we expect the Moon’s to be no different. Knowing when, where, and under what conditions cloud particles form is important for understanding the evolution of the lunar atmosphere, how it reacted to temperature gradients, and how it cycled volatiles. …


Spatial Analyses On Pre-Earthquake Ionospheric Anomalies And Magnetic Storms Observed By China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite In August 2018, Jann-Yeng Tiger Liu, Xuhui Shen, Fu-Yuan Chang, Yuh-Ing Chen, Yang-Yi Sun, Chieh‑Hung Chen, Sergey Pulinets, Katsumi Hattori, Dimitar Ouzounov, Valerio Tramutoli, Michel Parrot, Wei-Sheng Chen, Cheng-Yan Liu, Fei Zhang, Dapeng Liu, Xue-Min Zhang, Rui Yan, Qiao Wang 2024 National Central University, Taiwan

Spatial Analyses On Pre-Earthquake Ionospheric Anomalies And Magnetic Storms Observed By China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite In August 2018, Jann-Yeng Tiger Liu, Xuhui Shen, Fu-Yuan Chang, Yuh-Ing Chen, Yang-Yi Sun, Chieh‑Hung Chen, Sergey Pulinets, Katsumi Hattori, Dimitar Ouzounov, Valerio Tramutoli, Michel Parrot, Wei-Sheng Chen, Cheng-Yan Liu, Fei Zhang, Dapeng Liu, Xue-Min Zhang, Rui Yan, Qiao Wang

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite (CSES), with a sun-synchronous orbit at 507 km altitude, was launched on 2 February 2018 to investigate pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies (PEIAs) and ionospheric space weather. The CSES probes manifest longitudinal features of four-peak plasma density and three plasma depletions in the equatorial/low-latitudes as well as mid-latitude troughs. CSES plasma and the total electron content (TEC) of the global ionosphere map (GIM) are used to study PEIAs associated with a destructive M7.0 earthquake and its followed M6.5 and M6.3/M6.9 earthquakes in Lombok, Indonesia, on 5, 17, and 19 August 2018, respectively, as well as to examine ionospheric …


Editorial: Observations And Simulations Of Layering Phenomena In The Middle/Upper Atmosphere And Ionosphere, Bingkun Yu, Xuguang Cai, Daniel J. Emmons II, Chong Wang and Jianfei Wu 2024 Institute of Deep Space Sciences, Deep Space Exploration Laboratory

Editorial: Observations And Simulations Of Layering Phenomena In The Middle/Upper Atmosphere And Ionosphere, Bingkun Yu, Xuguang Cai, Daniel J. Emmons Ii, Chong Wang And Jianfei Wu

Faculty Publications

The middle/upper atmosphere and ionosphere are the transition between neutral and ionized components of the Earth’s atmosphere, including stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, ionospheric E region and ionospheric F region (Laštovička et al., 2006; Xu, et al., 2007; Smith, 2012). The atmospheric thermal structure and composition are significantly affected by dynamical processes through coupling. The layering phenomena such as mesospheric metal layers, sporadic E layers, and noctilucent clouds are important tracers to study mechanisms of the vertical coupling from the lower to the upper atmosphere (Dou et al., 2010; Plane, 2012; Xue et al., 2013).


Hysplit In Simulating The Atmospheric Dispersion Of Hazardous Aerosols: A Case Study In St. Louis, Missouri, Ahmet Tolga Odabasi 2024 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Hysplit In Simulating The Atmospheric Dispersion Of Hazardous Aerosols: A Case Study In St. Louis, Missouri, Ahmet Tolga Odabasi

Masters Theses

"Atmospheric dispersion and transmission play an important role in the behavior and effects of air pollution. Human health can be adversely affected by air pollution in a variety of ways, both immediately and over time. The Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) modeling program, a computer model and software package, tracks the transport trajectories and distributions of air pollution and various pollutants, including radioactive pollutants, in the atmosphere. It also facilitates research on pollution sources. This study simulated the transport of hazardous aerosols in St. Louis region for the years 2020, 2021, and 2022 using the HYSPLIT modeling …


Application Of Density Altitude Climatology To General Aviation Impacts, Thomas A. Guinn Ph.D., Daniel J. Halperin Ph.D., Sarah Strazzo Ph.D. 2024 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Application Of Density Altitude Climatology To General Aviation Impacts, Thomas A. Guinn Ph.D., Daniel J. Halperin Ph.D., Sarah Strazzo Ph.D.

Journal of Aviation/Aerospace Education & Research

Density altitude (DA) plays a key role in flight safety because it helps pilots anticipate poor aircraft performance when temperatures are warmer than standard. In this study, a 30-year climatology of DA for the conterminous United States was created using the fifth-generation European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts atmospheric reanalysis of the global climate (ERA5) dataset was applied to four separate DA-based, aircraft-performance, rules-of-thumb for general aviation (GA) flight. The goal was to demonstrate a technique to create educational visualization tools showing the variation of operational flight impacts with both month and location. Four such parameters were chosen to show …


Toward The Unified Theory Of Said-Linked Subauroral Arcs, Evgeny V. Mishin, Anatoly V. Streltsov 2024 Air Force Research Laboratory

Toward The Unified Theory Of Said-Linked Subauroral Arcs, Evgeny V. Mishin, Anatoly V. Streltsov

Publications

We present a unified approach to subauroral arcs within intense subauroral ion drifts (SAID), which explains the observed transition of a precursor Stable Auroral Red (SAR) arc into Strong Thermal Emission Velocity Enhancement (STEVE). This approach is based on the short-circuiting concept of fasttime SAID as an integral part of a magnetospheric voltage generator between the innermost boundaries of the freshly injected plasma sheet electrons and ring current ions. Here, enhanced plasma turbulence rapidly heats the bulk plasma and accelerates suprathermal non-Maxwellian “tails.” Heat and suprathermal electron transport rapidly elevate the ionospheric electron temperature—the source of a bright SAR arc. …


Role Of Relative Humidity In New Particle Formation From Ozonlysis Of Atmospheric Volatile Organic Compounds, Christopher Snyder 2024 University of Vermont

Role Of Relative Humidity In New Particle Formation From Ozonlysis Of Atmospheric Volatile Organic Compounds, Christopher Snyder

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

The impact of relative humidity (RH) on organic new particle formation (NPF) from ozonolysis of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) remains an area of active debate. Previous reports provide contradictory results indicating both depression and enhancement of NPF under conditions of moderate RH, while others ignore the potential impact. Only several reports have suggested that the effect may depend on absolute mixing ratio of the precursor volatile organic compound (VOC, ppbv). However, before any experiments could be completed, development of new methods was necessary to overcome the limitation of sampling ultrafine nanoparticles (<50 nm aerodynamic diameter) with aerosol mass spectrometry. This dissertation includes a report on a new Particle Growth Apparatus (PaGA) that artificially grows particles from as small as 17 nm to over 110nm. Considerable effort was made to identify the most suitable growth matrix (squalane) and optimize particle growth for reproducibility and sensitivity.

The PaGA was then utilized in the …


Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions In Maize No-Till Agroecosystems In Southern Brazil Based On A Long-Term Experiment, Guilherme Rosa da Silva, Adam J. Liska, Cimelio Bayer 2024 Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions In Maize No-Till Agroecosystems In Southern Brazil Based On A Long-Term Experiment, Guilherme Rosa Da Silva, Adam J. Liska, Cimelio Bayer

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Brazilian agriculture is constantly questioned concerning its environmental impacts, particularly greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This research study used data from a 34-year field experiment to estimate the life cycle GHG emissions intensity of maize production for grain in farming systems under no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) combined with Gramineae (oat) and legume (vetch) cover crops in southern Brazil. We applied the Feedstock Carbon Intensity Calculator for modeling the “field-to-farm gate” emissions with measured annual soil N2O and CH4 emissions data. For net CO2 emissions, increases in soil organic C (SOC) were applied as a proxy, …


Effects Of El Nino And Sunspot Cycles On Global And Reginal Climate, August Nathan Tolzman 2024 University of Montana, Missoula

Effects Of El Nino And Sunspot Cycles On Global And Reginal Climate, August Nathan Tolzman

Undergraduate Theses, Professional Papers, and Capstone Artifacts

Sunspots and El Nino affect the interannual variability of temperature on earth. Separately there is a positive relationship between higher sunspots and warmer temperatures or more intense El Nino and warmer temperatures globally and in Missoula. This is with the bias of climate change removed. Putting these two processes together it is expected that when intense El Ninos and high sunspots happen in the same year there will be warmer temperatures. This was not the case, there was no data to support that putting these to processes together makes them more or less intense.


Deep Learning Approaches For Chaotic Dynamics And High-Resolution Weather Simulations In The Us Midwest, Vlada Volyanskaya, Kabir Batra, Shubham Shrivastava 2023 Purdue University

Deep Learning Approaches For Chaotic Dynamics And High-Resolution Weather Simulations In The Us Midwest, Vlada Volyanskaya, Kabir Batra, Shubham Shrivastava

Discovery Undergraduate Interdisciplinary Research Internship

Weather prediction is indispensable across various sectors, from agriculture to disaster forecasting, deeply influencing daily life and work. Recent advancement of AI foundation models for weather and climate predictions makes it possible to perform a large number of predictions in reasonable time to support timesensitive policy- and decision-making. However, the uncertainty quantification, validation, and attribution of these models have not been well explored, and the lack of knowledge can eventually hinder the improvement of their prediction accuracy and precision. Our project is embarking on a two-fold approach leveraging deep learning techniques (LSTM and Transformer) architectures. Firstly, we model the Lorenz …


Data In 'Development At The University Of North Dakota Of A Digital Thermosonde Instrument For The Study Of Atmospheric Optical Turbulence (C_N^2)', Blake T. Sorenson, David J. Delene 2023 University of North Dakota

Data In 'Development At The University Of North Dakota Of A Digital Thermosonde Instrument For The Study Of Atmospheric Optical Turbulence (C_N^2)', Blake T. Sorenson, David J. Delene

Datasets

A thermosonde, an instrument that measures very high resolution temperature difference between two fine-wire platinum thermocouples, was attached to a weather balloon and lifted through the atmosphere, collecting observations of optical turbulence, in the spring of 2018 and 2019. The thermosonde collected raw temperature difference measurements, while an onboard Graw DFM-09 radiosonde observed standard meteorological parameters (temperature, air pressure, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and altitude). The Graw meteorological observations are housed in the .txt files, while the raw radiosonde data (containing the raw, encoded thermosonde measurements) are housed in the .gsf files. The decoded voltage and temperature difference …


Multi-Layer Evolution Of Acoustic-Gravity Waves And Ionospheric Disturbances Over The United States After The 2022 Hunga Tonga Volcano Eruption, P. A. Inchin, A. Bhatt, S. A. Cummer, S. D. Eckermann, B. J. Harding, J. Ma, J. J. Makela, J B. Snively 2023 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Multi-Layer Evolution Of Acoustic-Gravity Waves And Ionospheric Disturbances Over The United States After The 2022 Hunga Tonga Volcano Eruption, P. A. Inchin, A. Bhatt, S. A. Cummer, S. D. Eckermann, B. J. Harding, J. Ma, J. J. Makela, J B. Snively

Publications

e Hunga-Tonga Hunga-Ha'apai volcano underwent a series of large-magnitude eruptions that generated in the atmosphere. We investigate the spatial and temporal evolutions of fluctuations driven by atmospheric acoustic-gravity waves (AGWs) and, in particular, the Lamb wave modes in high spatial resolution data sets measured over the Continental United States (CONUS), complemented with data over the Americas and the Pacific. Along with >800 barometer sites, tropospheric observations, and Total Electron Content data from >3,000 receivers, we report detections of volcano-induced AGWs in mesopause and ionosphere-thermosphere airglow imagery and Fabry-Perot interferometry. We also report unique AGW signatures in the ionospheric D-region, measured …


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