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Ocean Acidification And Its Effects On Marine Wildlife, Matilda Phillips 2020 University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa

Ocean Acidification And Its Effects On Marine Wildlife, Matilda Phillips

Horizons

Ocean acidification is the process in which carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere absorbs in water to produce calcium carbonate. With the rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere, and the ocean being a carbon sink, ocean acidification remains a threat to the various forms of marine wildlife, specifically, the shark population. The effects of ocean acidification have the potential to damage shark physiology by altering their blood chemistry and overall neurology. This could result in the imbalance of the ocean’s natural order and food chain due to the distress from these apex predators. When analyzing the experiments that have ...


Influence Of Some Climatic Elements On Radon Concentration In Saeva Dupka Cave, Bulgaria, Peter Nojarov, Petar Stefanov, Karel Turek 2020 National Institute of Geophysics, Geodesy and Geography, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences

Influence Of Some Climatic Elements On Radon Concentration In Saeva Dupka Cave, Bulgaria, Peter Nojarov, Petar Stefanov, Karel Turek

International Journal of Speleology

This study reveals the influence of some climatic elements on radon concentration in Saeva Dupka Cave, Bulgaria. The research is based mainly on statistical methods. Radon concentration in the cave is determined by two main mechanisms. The first one is through penetration of radon from soil and rocks around the cave (present all year round, but has leading role during the warm half of the year). The second one is through thermodynamic exchange of air between inside of the cave and outside atmosphere (cold half of the year). Climatic factors that affect radon concentration in the cave are temperatures (air ...


Data In Support Of The Paper "Dependence Of Aerosol-Droplet Partitioning On Turbulence In A Laboratory Cloud", Abu Sayeed Md Shawon, Prasanth Prabhakaran, Gregory Kinney, Raymond Shaw, Will Cantrell 2020 Michigan Technological University

Data In Support Of The Paper "Dependence Of Aerosol-Droplet Partitioning On Turbulence In A Laboratory Cloud", Abu Sayeed Md Shawon, Prasanth Prabhakaran, Gregory Kinney, Raymond Shaw, Will Cantrell

Michigan Tech Research Data

No abstract provided.


Response Of Deep Aquifers To Climate Variability, Karem Fathy Abdelgaber Abdelmohsen 2020 Western Michigan University

Response Of Deep Aquifers To Climate Variability, Karem Fathy Abdelgaber Abdelmohsen

Dissertations

Our recent analysis of Temporal Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) solutions over the largest aquifer system in Africa (the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System: NSAS) revealed that while the response of deep aquifers to climatic variations remains a relatively slow process that takes thousands to tens of thousands of years, there is a much faster response in aquifers that are characterized by dense networks of faults, fractures and karst as is the case with the NSAS. This rapid groundwater flow, when it occurs, is detected as an increase in GRACETWS over areas downgradient and distant (hundreds of km) from ...


A Method To Account For Qpf Spatial Displacement Errors In Short-Term Ensemble Streamflow Forecasting, Bradley Carlberg, Kristie J. Franz, William A. Gallus Jr. 2020 Iowa State University

A Method To Account For Qpf Spatial Displacement Errors In Short-Term Ensemble Streamflow Forecasting, Bradley Carlberg, Kristie J. Franz, William A. Gallus Jr.

Geological and Atmospheric Sciences Publications

To account for spatial displacement errors common in quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs), a method using systematic shifting of QPF fields was tested to create ensemble streamflow forecasts. While previous studies addressed spatial displacement using neighborhood approaches, shifting of QPF accounts for those errors while maintaining the structure of predicted systems, a feature important in hydrologic forecasts. QPFs from the nine-member High-Resolution Rapid Refresh Ensemble were analyzed for 46 forecasts from 6 cases covering 17 basins within the National Weather Service North Central River Forecast Center forecasting region. Shifts of 55.5 and 111 km were made in the four cardinal ...


Carbon Fixation Trends In Eleven Of The World’S Largest Lakes: 2003–2018, Michael Sayers, Karl Bosse, Gary L. Fahnenstiel, Robert Shuchman 2020 Michigan Technological University

Carbon Fixation Trends In Eleven Of The World’S Largest Lakes: 2003–2018, Michael Sayers, Karl Bosse, Gary L. Fahnenstiel, Robert Shuchman

Michigan Tech Publications

Large freshwater lakes provide immense value to the surrounding populations, yet there is limited understanding of how these lakes will respond to climate change and other factors. This study uses satellite remote sensing to estimate annual, lake-wide primary production in 11 of the world’s largest lakes from 2003–2018. These lakes include the five Laurentian Great Lakes, the three African Great Lakes, Lake Baikal, and Great Bear and Great Slave Lakes. Mean annual production in these lakes ranged from under 200 mgC/m2/day to over 1100 mgC/m2/day, and the lakes were placed into one ...


Data Generated During The 2018 Lapse-Rate Campaign: An Introduction And Overview, Gijs de Boer, Adam Houston, Jamey D. Jacob, Phillip B. Chilson, Suzanne W. Smith, Brian Argrow, Dale Lawrence, Jack Elston, David Brus, Osku Kemppinen, Petra Klein, Julie K. Lundquist, Sean Waugh, Sean C. C. Bailey, Amy E. Frazier, Michael P. Sama, Christopher Crick, David G. Schmale III, James Pinto, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Victoria Natalie, Anders Jensen 2020 University of Colorado, Boulder

Data Generated During The 2018 Lapse-Rate Campaign: An Introduction And Overview, Gijs De Boer, Adam Houston, Jamey D. Jacob, Phillip B. Chilson, Suzanne W. Smith, Brian Argrow, Dale Lawrence, Jack Elston, David Brus, Osku Kemppinen, Petra Klein, Julie K. Lundquist, Sean Waugh, Sean C. C. Bailey, Amy E. Frazier, Michael P. Sama, Christopher Crick, David G. Schmale Iii, James Pinto, Elizabeth A. Pillar-Little, Victoria Natalie, Anders Jensen

Mechanical Engineering Faculty Publications

Unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) offer innovative capabilities for providing new perspectives on the atmosphere, and therefore atmospheric scientists are rapidly expanding their use, particularly for studying the planetary boundary layer. In support of this expansion, from 14 to 20 July 2018 the International Society for Atmospheric Research using Remotely piloted Aircraft (ISARRA) hosted a community flight week, dubbed the Lower Atmospheric Profiling Studies at Elevation – a Remotely-piloted Aircraft Team Experiment (LAPSE-RATE; de Boer et al., 2020a). This field campaign spanned a 1-week deployment to Colorado's San Luis Valley, involving over 100 students, scientists, engineers, pilots, and outreach coordinators. These ...


Weather And Climate Summary And Forecast: December 2020 Report, Gregory V. Jones 2020 Linfield University

Weather And Climate Summary And Forecast: December 2020 Report, Gregory V. Jones

Linfield University Wine Studies Reports

This report provides a summary of the weather and climate forecast for December 2020. It includes forecast information specific to the Pacific Northwest and the western United States, as well as forecast information for other portions of the United States and abroad.


Seasonal Variability Of Upwelling And Downwelling Surface Current Patterns Near A Small Coastal Embayment, Nicholas Trautman 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Seasonal Variability Of Upwelling And Downwelling Surface Current Patterns Near A Small Coastal Embayment, Nicholas Trautman

Physics

Upwelling in coastal embayments is important to a variety of physical and biological processes. Despite their ubiquity, circulation patterns in small bays (width and length scales ≤ 20 km) in eastern boundary current upwelling systems are relatively understudied compared to their larger counterparts. In this study, we apply a conditional averaging technique to investigate upwelling- and downwelling-driven circulation in a small coastal embayment located in Central California [San Luis Obispo (SLO) Bay]. We also investigate intraseasonal differences in the current patterns in SLO Bay. Conditional averaging reveals distinct intraseasonal differences and features that are obscured by traditional seasonal averages when examining ...


Neogene And Quaternary Events Shaped Diversification And Speciation In Bhutanese Rheophilic Fishes Of The Family Nemacheilidae (Cypriniformes) And Sisoridae (Siluriformes), Karma Wangchuk 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Neogene And Quaternary Events Shaped Diversification And Speciation In Bhutanese Rheophilic Fishes Of The Family Nemacheilidae (Cypriniformes) And Sisoridae (Siluriformes), Karma Wangchuk

Theses and Dissertations

Biogeography of the Himalayan region [to include the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP)] evolved over a ~30M year span, catalyzed by the collision of the Indian and Eurasian plates. The resulting uplift produced major ecological and climatic effects, that in turn drove the diversification of biodiversity. As a result, the QTP is designated as a global biodiversity hotspot particularly vulnerable to cumulative climatic effects, including shrinking distributions, declining numbers, and local extinctions. Understanding how the biodiversity within the Himalaya/ QTP was established and maintained is a necessary first step in prioritizing conservation efforts.

Fishes in global montane regions, such as the Himalaya ...


The Role Of Traditional Knowledge In Coastal Adaptation Priorities: The Pamunkey Indian Reservation, Nicole S. Hutton, Thomas R. Allen 2020 Old Dominion University

The Role Of Traditional Knowledge In Coastal Adaptation Priorities: The Pamunkey Indian Reservation, Nicole S. Hutton, Thomas R. Allen

Political Science & Geography Faculty Publications

Coastal reservations are increasingly vulnerable to hazards exacerbated by climate change. Resources for restoration projects are limited. Storm surge, storms, tidal flooding, and erosion endanger artifacts and limit livelihoods of tribes in coastal Virginia. GIS offers a platform to increase communication between scientists, planners, and indigenous groups. The Pamunkey Indian Tribe engaged in a participatory mapping exercise to assess the role of traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) in coastal management decision-making and its capacity to address flooding. Priorities and strategies were spatially referenced using maps of potential sea level rise for 2040, 2060, and 2080, input into a resilience matrix to ...


Impacts Of Environmental Conditions On Fleas In Black-Tailed Prairie Dog Burrows, Julia E. Poje, Tonie Rocke, Michael D. Samuel 2020 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Impacts Of Environmental Conditions On Fleas In Black-Tailed Prairie Dog Burrows, Julia E. Poje, Tonie Rocke, Michael D. Samuel

USGS Staff -- Published Research

Sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis and transmitted by fleas, occurs in prairie dogs of the western United States. Outbreaks can devastate prairie dog communities, often causing nearly 100% mortality. Three competent flea vectors, prairie dog specialists Oropsylla hirsuta and O. tuberculata, and generalist Pulex simulans, are found on prairie dogs and in their burrows. Fleas are affected by climate, which varies across the range of black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), but these effects may be ameliorated somewhat due to the burrowing habits of prairie dogs. Our goal was to assess how temperature and precipitation affect off-host flea ...


Evaluation Of Daily Precipitation From The Era5 Global Reanalysis Against Ghcn Observations In The Northeastern United States, Caitlin C. Crossett, Alan K. Betts, Lesley Ann L. Dupigny-Giroux, Arne Bomblies 2020 University of Vermont

Evaluation Of Daily Precipitation From The Era5 Global Reanalysis Against Ghcn Observations In The Northeastern United States, Caitlin C. Crossett, Alan K. Betts, Lesley Ann L. Dupigny-Giroux, Arne Bomblies

College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences Faculty Publications

Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Precipitation is a primary input for hydrologic, agricultural, and engineering models, so making accurate estimates of it across the landscape is critically important. While the distribution of in-situ measurements of precipitation can lead to challenges in spatial interpolation, gridded precipitation information is designed to produce a full coverage product. In this study, we compare daily precipitation accumulations from the ERA5 Global Reanalysis (hereafter ERA5) and the US Global Historical Climate Network (hereafter GHCN) across the northeastern United States. We find that both the distance from the Atlantic Coast and elevation difference between ERA5 estimates and GHCN ...


Protection Gaps And Restoration Opportunities For Primary Forests In Europe, Francesco M. Sabatini, William S. Keeton, Marcus Lindner, Miroslav Svoboda, Pieter J. Verkerk, Jürgen Bauhus, Helge Bruelheide, Sabina Burrascano, Nicolas Debaive, Inês Duarte, Matteo Garbarino, Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Fabio Lombardi, Martin Mikoláš, Peter Meyer, Renzo Motta, Gintautas Mozgeris, Leónia Nunes, Péter Ódor, Momchil Panayotov, Alejandro Ruete, Bojan Simovski, Jonas Stillhard, Johan Svensson, Jerzy Szwagrzyk, Olli Pekka Tikkanen, Kris Vandekerkhove, Roman Volosyanchuk, Tomas Vrska, Tzvetan Zlatanov, Tobias Kuemmerle 2020 Martin-Universität Halle-Wittenberg

Protection Gaps And Restoration Opportunities For Primary Forests In Europe, Francesco M. Sabatini, William S. Keeton, Marcus Lindner, Miroslav Svoboda, Pieter J. Verkerk, Jürgen Bauhus, Helge Bruelheide, Sabina Burrascano, Nicolas Debaive, Inês Duarte, Matteo Garbarino, Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Fabio Lombardi, Martin Mikoláš, Peter Meyer, Renzo Motta, Gintautas Mozgeris, Leónia Nunes, Péter Ódor, Momchil Panayotov, Alejandro Ruete, Bojan Simovski, Jonas Stillhard, Johan Svensson, Jerzy Szwagrzyk, Olli Pekka Tikkanen, Kris Vandekerkhove, Roman Volosyanchuk, Tomas Vrska, Tzvetan Zlatanov, Tobias Kuemmerle

Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources Faculty Publications

Aims: Primary forests are critical for forest biodiversity and provide key ecosystem services. In Europe, these forests are particularly scarce and it is unclear whether they are sufficiently protected. Here we aim to: (a) understand whether extant primary forests are representative of the range of naturally occurring forest types, (b) identify forest types which host enough primary forest under strict protection to meet conservation targets and (c) highlight areas where restoration is needed and feasible. Location: Europe. Methods: We combined a unique geodatabase of primary forests with maps of forest cover, potential natural vegetation, biogeographic regions and protected areas to ...


Projecting Water Available For Irrigation Use And Identifying Water Supply Stress Under Climate Change Scenarios In Selected U.S. Fruit And Vegetable Production Regions, Andrew Shaw 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Projecting Water Available For Irrigation Use And Identifying Water Supply Stress Under Climate Change Scenarios In Selected U.S. Fruit And Vegetable Production Regions, Andrew Shaw

Theses and Dissertations

Climate change affects water resources differently across geospatial regions in the United States (U.S). There is a concern of how water availability will be affected by changes in long-term temperature and precipitation patterns, specifically in major production regions for eight fruit and vegetable crops. The effects on surface water available for irrigation use and supply stress in five regions containing 31 Agricultural Statistics Districts (ASDs) were assessed. The Water Supply Stress Index Model was used and modified to project water available for irrigation use across nine climate scenarios driven by historical data, five General Circulation Models, two population scenarios ...


Fate Of Ayeyarwady And Thanlwin River Sediment: Relative Importance Of Oceanographic And Tectonic Controls - Associated Dataset, Steven Kuehl, Courtney K. Harris 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Fate Of Ayeyarwady And Thanlwin River Sediment: Relative Importance Of Oceanographic And Tectonic Controls - Associated Dataset, Steven Kuehl, Courtney K. Harris

Data

Data set archive associated with Kuehl et al. (2019) collected as part of NSF award OCE-1737221. Core and CTD data are from a two-week oceanographic research cruise which was conducted in December 2017 in the Northern Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal, using a locally hired vessel. Overall, we occupied 30 stations and collected ~50 sediment cores (kasten, gravity and box), along with CTD profiles on the shelf and inside the Yangon River estuary. The area covered includes both the western and eastern sides of the delta, almost 250 nm across, and southward across the continental shelf to a major ...


In The Margins: Reconsidering The Range And Contribution Of Diazotrophs In Nearshore Environments, Corday R. Selden 2020 Old Dominion University

In The Margins: Reconsidering The Range And Contribution Of Diazotrophs In Nearshore Environments, Corday R. Selden

OEAS Theses and Dissertations

Dinitrogen (N2) fixation enables primary production and, consequently, carbon dioxide drawdown in nitrogen (N) limited marine systems, exerting a powerful influence over the coupled carbon and N cycles. Our understanding of the environmental factors regulating its distribution and magnitude are largely based on the range and sensitivity of one genus, Trichodesmium. However, recent work suggests that the niche preferences of distinct diazotrophic (N2 fixing) clades differ due to their metabolic and ecological diversity, hampering efforts to close the N budget and model N2 fixation accurately. Here, I explore the range of N2 fixation across physico-chemical ...


Climate Change Games As Boundary Objects: Fostering Dialogic Communication Within Stakeholder Engagement, Megan L. McKittrick 2020 Old Dominion University

Climate Change Games As Boundary Objects: Fostering Dialogic Communication Within Stakeholder Engagement, Megan L. Mckittrick

English Theses & Dissertations

Rising waters and the increasing devastation of flood events make coastal resilience a significant issue in the Hampton Roads region of Virginia, particularly in the city of Norfolk. Enhancing resilience requires ongoing stakeholder engagement designed to invite dialogue while encouraging cross-jurisdictional collaboration and comprehensive problem-solving. Climate change games have been employed to support these endeavors. This dissertation provides a response to the following research questions: 1) What is the origin of the climate change game genre? 2) Why are key stakeholders in coastal resilience using climate change games? And 3) how do these games operate for these key stakeholders? To ...


Investigating Mesospheric Mountain Waves And Oh Temperature Dynamics Over Chile, David G. Soward 2020 Utah State University

Investigating Mesospheric Mountain Waves And Oh Temperature Dynamics Over Chile, David G. Soward

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Atmospheric gravity waves (GW) occur throughout the atmosphere, propagating from copious sources in the lower atmosphere into the upper neutral atmosphere and ionosphere. There are many sources of GW, most of them are associated with strong weather disturbances which are highly transient in nature. Another source of GW are strong winds blowing over prominent mountains that generate mountain waves (MW.) An important property of all of these waves is that they propagate upwards, carrying large amounts of energy and momentum which can be deposited in the upper atmosphere as the waves saturate and break. The Andes Lidar Observatory (ALO) was ...


Contrasting Hydrodynamic Responses To Atmospheric Systems With Different Scales: Impact Of Cold Fronts Vs. That Of A Hurricane, Wei Huang, C. Li 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Contrasting Hydrodynamic Responses To Atmospheric Systems With Different Scales: Impact Of Cold Fronts Vs. That Of A Hurricane, Wei Huang, C. Li

VIMS Articles

In this paper, subtidal responses of Barataria Bay to an atmospheric cold front in 2014 and Hurricane Barry of 2019 are studied. The cold fronts had shorter influencing periods (1 to 3 days), while Hurricane Barry had a much longer influencing period (about 1 week). Wind direction usually changes from southern quadrants to northern quadrants before and after a cold front’s passage. For a hurricane making its landfall at the norther Gulf of Mexico coast, wind variation is dependent on the location relative to the location of landfall. Consequently, water level usually reaches a trough after the maximum cold ...


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