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Weights And Balances: Integrating Models For Prevention And Response To Southern California Offshore Oil Spills, Carmen Watts Clayton, Amoret Bunn 2016 CSUMB

Weights And Balances: Integrating Models For Prevention And Response To Southern California Offshore Oil Spills, Carmen Watts Clayton, Amoret Bunn

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Program Posters

Licensing offshore oil and gas reserves in the United States waters are overseen by the U.S. Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Safety and Enforcement (BSEE). The licensing application includes planning for any worst-case oil spill scenario between BSEE and the applicant based on lessons learned from historic offshore spills such as the Deepwater Horizon (2010), Exxon Valdez (1989), and the Union Oil Platform Blowout (1969). The process for planning to respond to oil spills involves coordination with multiple agencies, trustees, and stakeholders to ensure that oil spill responses consider multiple factors, including ecologically sensitive species, commercial transportation ...


Data-Driven Diagnostics Of Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics Over North America, Jingfeng Xiao, Scott V. Ollinger, Steve Frolking, George Hurtt, David Y. Hollinger, Kenneth J. Davis, Yude Pan, Xiaoyang Zhang, Feng Deng, Jiquan Chen, Dennis D. Baldocchi, Beverly E. Law, M. Altaf Arain, Ankur R. Desai, Andrew D. Richardson, Ge Sun, Brian Amiro, Hank Margolis, Lianhong Gu, Russell L. Scott, Peter D. Blanken, Andrew E. Suyker 2016 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Data-Driven Diagnostics Of Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics Over North America, Jingfeng Xiao, Scott V. Ollinger, Steve Frolking, George Hurtt, David Y. Hollinger, Kenneth J. Davis, Yude Pan, Xiaoyang Zhang, Feng Deng, Jiquan Chen, Dennis D. Baldocchi, Beverly E. Law, M. Altaf Arain, Ankur R. Desai, Andrew D. Richardson, Ge Sun, Brian Amiro, Hank Margolis, Lianhong Gu, Russell L. Scott, Peter D. Blanken, Andrew E. Suyker

Xiaoyang Zhang

The exchange of carbon dioxide is a key measure of ecosystem metabolism and a critical intersection between the terrestrial biosphere and the Earth’s climate. Despite the general agreement that the terrestrial ecosystems in North America provide a sizeable carbon sink, the size and distribution of the sink remain uncertain. We use a data-driven approach to upscale eddy covariance flux observations from towers to the continental scale by integrating flux observations, meteorology, stand age,aboveground biomass, and a proxy for canopy nitrogen concentrations from AmeriFlux and Fluxnet-Canada Research Network as well as a variety of satellite data streams from the ...


Determining The Viability Of Recent Storms As Modern Analogues For North-Central Gulf Of Mexico Paleotempestology Through Sedimentary Analysis And Storm Surge Reconstruction, Joshua Caleb Bregy 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Determining The Viability Of Recent Storms As Modern Analogues For North-Central Gulf Of Mexico Paleotempestology Through Sedimentary Analysis And Storm Surge Reconstruction, Joshua Caleb Bregy

Master's Theses

The northern Gulf of Mexico has been devastated by recent intense storms. Camille (1969) and Katrina (2005) are two notable hurricanes that made landfall in virtually the same location in Mississippi. However, fully understanding the risks and processes associated with hurricane impacts is impeded by a short and fragmented instrumental record. Paleotempestology could potentially use modern analogues from intense storms in this region to extend the hurricane record back to pre-observational time. Existing empirically based models can back-calculate surge heights over coastal systems as a function of transport distance, particle settling velocity, and gravitational acceleration. We collected cores in a ...


Karst Landscape Influence On The Planetary Boundary Layer Atmosphere, Zachary S. Sullivan 2016 Western Kentucky University

Karst Landscape Influence On The Planetary Boundary Layer Atmosphere, Zachary S. Sullivan

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Karst landscapes cover approximately 20% of the ice-free land area worldwide. The soluble nature of the bedrock within a karst landscape allows for the formation of caverns, joints, fissures, sinkholes, and underground streams, which affect the hydrological behavior of the region. Currently, the Noah Land-Surface Model (Noah- LSM), coupled with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, does not provide a representation of the physical behavior of a karst terrain. Previous research has attempted to model karst behavior through soil moisture and land cover/land use changes to determine the influence this unique landscape may have on atmospheric phenomenon. This ...


Carbon Nanotubes Affect The Toxicity Of Cuo Nanoparticles To Denitrification In Marine Sediments By Altering Cellular Internalization Of Nanoparticle, Xiong Zheng, Yinglong Su, Yinguang Chen, Rui Wan, Mu Li, Haining Huang, Xu Li 2016 Tongji University, Shanghai, China

Carbon Nanotubes Affect The Toxicity Of Cuo Nanoparticles To Denitrification In Marine Sediments By Altering Cellular Internalization Of Nanoparticle, Xiong Zheng, Yinglong Su, Yinguang Chen, Rui Wan, Mu Li, Haining Huang, Xu Li

Civil Engineering Faculty Publications

Denitrification is an important pathway for nitrate transformation in marine sediments, and this process has been observed to be negatively affected by engineered nanomaterials. However, previous studies only focused on the potential effect of a certain type of nanomaterial on microbial denitrification. Here we show that the toxicity of CuO nanoparticles (NPs) to denitrification in marine sediments is highly affected by the presence of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). It was found that the removal efficiency of total NOX-N (NO3-N and NO2-N) in the presence of CuO NPs was only 62.3%, but it increased to ...


Northern San Francisco Bay Ecological Risk Assessment: Potential Crude By Rail Incident, Meagan Bowis 2016 University of San Francisco

Northern San Francisco Bay Ecological Risk Assessment: Potential Crude By Rail Incident, Meagan Bowis

Master's Projects

Oil spill models, ecological risks, response options, and costs were assessed for a discharge of Bakken crude oil into the Northern San Francisco Bay from a train derailment. This assessment was based on the risk of crude by rail derailments into the San Francisco Bay; in 2014, California oil refineries imported over 240 million gallons of Bakken crude oil by rail for processing. A hypothetical scenario was developed from a derailment on the Union Pacific Railroad Bridge and discharging 100,000 gallons of Bakken crude oil into the Northern San Francisco Bay. The oil trajectory impacted the Carquinez Strait, Suisun ...


Comparison Of Combustion Efficiency To In-Situ Atmospheric Ammonia Measurements From A Miniature Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer In The La Basin, Taylor Krause, Barry L. Lefer, Timothy H. Betram, Steven R. Schill 2016 Chapman University

Comparison Of Combustion Efficiency To In-Situ Atmospheric Ammonia Measurements From A Miniature Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer In The La Basin, Taylor Krause, Barry L. Lefer, Timothy H. Betram, Steven R. Schill

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) has been shown to impact the environment and threaten both human and animal health, especially in heavily populated urban areas, yet to date there remains a paucity of direct measurements. Recent studies have suggested that ammonia may be generated as a byproduct of fossil fuel emissions due to highly active catalytic converters in light-duty gasoline vehicles. To investigate this relationship, an airborne miniature Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (miniCIMS) was used to directly measure atmospheric ammonia and combustion reaction products in the Southern California LA Basin, during the 2015 NASA Student Airborne Research Program (SARP). The temporal ...


Novel Techniques In Chemical Ecology To Examine Life Histories In Fishes, Orian Tzadik 2016 University of South Florida

Novel Techniques In Chemical Ecology To Examine Life Histories In Fishes, Orian Tzadik

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Diet and movements in fishes are often logistically challenging to study. Trace element and stable isotope analyses have advanced these fields considerably, but are still constrained by methodological impediments, such as the tendency towards lethal sampling. Studying endangered fishes is particularly challenging as representative samples are difficult to obtain. However, the information gained from such studies is often critical to the recovery of endangered fishes as knowledge of life history attributes has the potential to greatly influence the success of management strategies.

I tested the viability of using fin rays in fishes as a non-lethal approach to study diet and ...


Acropora Habitat Evaluation And Restoration Site Selection Using A Species Distribution Modeling Approach, Katherine Wirt Ames 2016 University of South Florida

Acropora Habitat Evaluation And Restoration Site Selection Using A Species Distribution Modeling Approach, Katherine Wirt Ames

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

While populations of nearly all stony coral species along the Florida reef tract have exhibited decline, the most notable decline has occurred in the once-dominant acroporid species (Acropora cervicornis, A. palmata). Both species were listed in 2006 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. This listing, combined with their continued decline, has resulted in large-scale restoration efforts throughout Florida and the Western Caribbean. Currently, there is little to no information regarding spatial prioritization of sites for these restoration efforts. The primary objective of this dissertation was to utilize species distribution modeling, informed by existing data from the Florida reef tract ...


Hydrodynamic Variability In A Microtidal Coastal Bay Geographically Susceptible To North East Trade Winds, Israel Medina-Gómez, Cecilia Enríquez, Björn Kjerfve, Ismael Mariño, Jorge Herrera-Silveira 2016 Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del I.P.N. (CINVESTAV-IPN)

Hydrodynamic Variability In A Microtidal Coastal Bay Geographically Susceptible To North East Trade Winds, Israel Medina-Gómez, Cecilia Enríquez, Björn Kjerfve, Ismael Mariño, Jorge Herrera-Silveira

Gulf and Caribbean Research

The ecological integrity and overall health conditions of natural coastal systems are largely based upon the balance among physical processes. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of tides and winds on the water level variability, circulation patterns, and turnover time in Bahia de la Ascension (BA), a shallow, tropical coastal bay in the Mexican Caribbean prone to the influence of Trade winds due to its geographical location. The analysis of the hydrodynamics of BA using a 2D numerical model indicates that the tidal flow in the inlets and central basin of the bay vary by tidal ...


Automated Cropping Intensity Extraction From Isolines Of Wavelet Spectra, Bingwen Qiu, Zhuangzhuang Wang, Zhenghong Tang, Chongcheng Chen, Zhanling Fan, Weijiao Li 2016 Fuzhou University

Automated Cropping Intensity Extraction From Isolines Of Wavelet Spectra, Bingwen Qiu, Zhuangzhuang Wang, Zhenghong Tang, Chongcheng Chen, Zhanling Fan, Weijiao Li

Community and Regional Planning Program: Faculty Scholarly and Creative Activity

Timely and accurate monitoring of cropping intensity (CI) is essential to help us understand changes in food production. This paper aims to develop an automatic Cropping Intensity extraction method based on the Isolines of Wavelet Spectra (CIIWS) with consideration of intra- class variability. The CIIWS method involves the following procedures: (1) characterizing vegetation dynamics from time–frequency dimensions through a continuous wavelet transform performed on vegetation index temporal profiles; (2) deriving three main features, the skeleton width, maximum number of strong brightness centers and the intersection of their scale intervals, through computing a series of wavelet isolines from the wavelet ...


Odu, William & Mary Seek Funds For Joint Center On Sea-Level Rise, Dave Mayfield 2015 Old Dominion University

Odu, William & Mary Seek Funds For Joint Center On Sea-Level Rise, Dave Mayfield

News Items

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Comparison Of Otolith-Based Growth Rates And Microchemistry In Red Drum Before, During, And After The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Brock Charles Houston 2015 University of South Florida

Comparison Of Otolith-Based Growth Rates And Microchemistry In Red Drum Before, During, And After The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Brock Charles Houston

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Oil from the Deepwater Horizon blowout reached the Gulf of Mexico coast in the summer of 2010 and potentially exposed species living in those areas to toxic chemicals. The purpose of this study is to examine otoliths from Red Drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) for evidence of oil exposure that could be related to reduced growth rates. Because otolith growth and somatic growth are directly related, differences in annulus measurements can indicate differences in annual somatic growth, which is a good indicator of overall fish condition, and translates into changes in survival and lifetime reproductive potential. This study assessed variation in otolith ...


Influence Of Water Column Stratification And Nutrient Gradients On The Migratory Behavior Of The Red Tide Dinoflagellate, Karenia Brevis, Matthew Garrett 2015 University of South Florida

Influence Of Water Column Stratification And Nutrient Gradients On The Migratory Behavior Of The Red Tide Dinoflagellate, Karenia Brevis, Matthew Garrett

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Diel vertical migration (DVM) can offer motile phytoplankton a competitive advantage over other phytoplankton species. DVM has been well documented in the harmful dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis; however, the extent to which changes in nutrient regimes and density stratification modify migration patterns has not been thoroughly investigated. A 2 m experimental column was constructed with sensors and sampling ports at four depths to obtain fluorescence and temperature measurements and discrete water samples. The environmental parameters of the experimental column represented temperature and nutrient conditions found on the West Florida Shelf (WFS), where Karenia blooms frequently occur. Results demonstrated a clear DVM ...


Temporal Variation In Optical Properties Of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (Cdom) In Southern California Coastal Waters With Nearshore Kelp And Seagrass, Catherine D. Clark, Warren J. De Bruyn, Paige Aiona 2015 Chapman University

Temporal Variation In Optical Properties Of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (Cdom) In Southern California Coastal Waters With Nearshore Kelp And Seagrass, Catherine D. Clark, Warren J. De Bruyn, Paige Aiona

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Optical properties of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured in surf zone waters in diurnal field studies at a Southern California beach with nearshore kelp and seagrass beds and intertidal plant wrack. Absorption coefficients (aCDOM(300 nm)) ranged from 0.35 m21 to 3.7 m21 with short-term variability<1 h, increases at ebb and flood tides and higher values (6 m21) during an offshore storm event. Spectral slopes (S) ranged from 0.0028 nm21 to 0.017 nm21, with higher values after the storm; S was generally inversely correlated with aCDOM(300 nm). 3-D excitation–emission matrix spectra (EEMs) for samples with lower S values had humic-type peaks associated with terrestrial material (A, C), marine microbial material (M) and protein peaks, characteristic of freshly produced organic material. Samples with high S values had no or reduced protein peaks, consistent with aged material. Fluorescent indexes (f450/f500 >2.5, BIX>1.1) were consistent with microbial aquatic sources. Leachates of senescent kelp and seagrass had protein and humic-type EEM peaks. After solar simulator irradiation (4 h), protein peaks rapidly photochemically degraded, humic-type peak C increased in intensity and peak M disappeared. Optical characteristics of kelp leachates were ...


Aulacoseira Stevensiae Sp. Nov. (Coscinodiscophyceae, Bacillariophyta), A New Diatom From Ho Ba Bê, Bac Kan Province, Northern Viêt Nam, D. Marie Weide 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Aulacoseira Stevensiae Sp. Nov. (Coscinodiscophyceae, Bacillariophyta), A New Diatom From Ho Ba Bê, Bac Kan Province, Northern Viêt Nam, D. Marie Weide

Papers in the Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

A new species of Aulacoseira Thwaites is described from piston core samples from Ho Ba Bê in the karst region of northern Viêt Nam. Although it closely resembles Aulacoaseira subborealis (Nygaard) Denys, Muylaert & Krammer, A. stevensiae Weide sp. nov. is designated a new species based mainly on morphological differences in the spines, including invariably inclined spines that are rounded, differences in the Ringleiste, areola pattern and overall size. Aulacoseira stevensiae is present throughout a core that spans the last 500 years. It was a major component of the diatom community, but the populations have recently decreased, possibly being outcompeted by ...


Techniques For Payload Stabilization For Improved Photography During Stratospheric Balloon Flights, James Flaten, Christopher Gosch, Joseph (Benjamin) Habeck 2015 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities / MN Space Grant

Techniques For Payload Stabilization For Improved Photography During Stratospheric Balloon Flights, James Flaten, Christopher Gosch, Joseph (Benjamin) Habeck

2016 Academic High Altitude Conference

Payload-box rotation and swing are perennial challenges to achieving high-quality photography (typically videography) during weather-balloon flights to “near-space” (AKA the stratosphere). Continuous camera motion can lead to blurred still photos, nearly-impossible-to-watch video footage, and precludes time-exposure photography required for most astronomical imaging even though altitudes are reached where the daytime sky appears black. Apparently-random payload rotation, persisting even at altitude, can often exceed servo rotation rates and frustrate attempts to do active camera pointing. Here we discuss mostly-passive payload stabilization strategies we, and our collaborators, have used to mitigate and dampen both swing and rotation of suspended payloads on high-altitude ...


Horizontal Phase Speed Distribution Of Gravity Waves Observed In Mesospheric Temperature Maps, Ahmad Talaei, Mike Taylor, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Yucheng Zhao, Takashi Matsuda, Takuji Nakamura 2015 Utah State University

Horizontal Phase Speed Distribution Of Gravity Waves Observed In Mesospheric Temperature Maps, Ahmad Talaei, Mike Taylor, Pierre-Dominique Pautet, Yucheng Zhao, Takashi Matsuda, Takuji Nakamura

Ahmad Talaei

The goal of the current work is to develop a method suitable for analyzing the horizontal phase speeds of atmospheric gravity waves from an extensive amount of gravity wave data obtained by the USU Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) from Logan, Utah and South Pole, Antarctica. AMTM is a novel infrared digital imaging system that measures selected emission lines in the mesospheric OH (3,1) band to create intensity and temperature maps of the mesosphere. This analysis builds on the recent work by Matsuda et al. using all-sky (180° field-of-view) intensity data to investigate the gravity waves horizontal phase speed ...


Exploration Of Spatial And Temporal Changes In Trophic Status Of Lakes In The Northern Temporal Forest Biome Using Remote Sensing, Aleksey Paltsev 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Exploration Of Spatial And Temporal Changes In Trophic Status Of Lakes In The Northern Temporal Forest Biome Using Remote Sensing, Aleksey Paltsev

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There is a critical need for detailed surveys of lakes covering large spatial (>100 km2) and temporal scales (decades) to determine if there is an increase in the magnitude and frequency of phytoplankton blooms. Remote sensing was used to: (1) develop a regression model that relates chlorophyll a (chl-a) as a proxy of lake phytoplankton biomass to Landsat TM and ETM+ optical reflectance (r2=0.85, p


Biochemical Aspects Of The Thermal Sensitivity And Energy Balance Of Polar, Tropical And Subtropical Teleosts, Eloy Martinez 2015 University of South Florida

Biochemical Aspects Of The Thermal Sensitivity And Energy Balance Of Polar, Tropical And Subtropical Teleosts, Eloy Martinez

Eloy Martinez

The maintenance of a functional energy balance in ectothermic fauna could be challenging in a thermally disparate environment. Biochemical adaptations at the enzyme and membrane levels allows for a set compensatory mechanism that allow the individual to maintain an energetic surplus, thus allocating energy for growth and reproduction. The present work describes how the energetic machinery in the cell, particularly the mitochondrion, could be affected by temperature changes. More specifically, this work aimed to determine how environmental temperature affects the mitochondria energetic performance of fishes from disparate thermal regimes. Mitochondrial ATP production efficiency was evaluated in fishes from polar, tropical ...


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