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Ocean Wind Speed Measurement Using Wideband Gnss-R Signals, Brandon J. Kozel, Han Zhang, James L. Garrison, Benjamin Nold 2017 Purdue University

Ocean Wind Speed Measurement Using Wideband Gnss-R Signals, Brandon J. Kozel, Han Zhang, James L. Garrison, Benjamin Nold

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The use of Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) for remote sensing of ocean wind speeds has been explored for nearly two decades and has become an important passive remote sensing technique for verification of hurricane formation models. To obtain wind speed measurements, reflected GNSS signals are first cross-correlated with locally generated copies to construct delay-doppler maps (DDMs). Through statistical models, DDMs can provide information about the mean-square slope (MSS) of the ocean surface, which is related to wind speed. Previous studies have focused on legacy signals such as GPS L1. However, it is expected that the MSS relationship with ocean ...


Utilizing A Consumer-Grade Camera System To Quantify Surface Reflectance, Joseph J. Lehnert 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Utilizing A Consumer-Grade Camera System To Quantify Surface Reflectance, Joseph J. Lehnert

Theses and Dissertations in Geography

Consumer-grade camera systems are often employed in aerial remote sensing to provide insight into patterns and processes of interest to science and industry, a trend that has largely been encouraged by the rapid growth of the small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) industry. However, little research exists on the ability of these systems to accurately measure surface reflectance in specific wavebands, a crucial consideration for many remote sensing applications. This research was conducted on the premise that with proper equipment and calibration techniques consumer-grade cameras would be capable of accurately measuring surface reflectance in user-defined wavebands of interest. A stereo-pair, Fujifilm ...


The Mean And Turbulent Properties Of A Wildfire Convective Plume, Neil Lareau, Craig Clements 2017 San Jose State University

The Mean And Turbulent Properties Of A Wildfire Convective Plume, Neil Lareau, Craig Clements

Faculty Publications

The time-mean and time-varying smoke and velocity structure of a wildfire convective plume is examined using a high-resolution scanning Doppler lidar. The mean plume is shown to exhibit the archetypal form of a bent-over plume in a crosswind, matching the well-established Briggs plume-rise equation. The plume cross section is approximately Gaussian and the plume radius increases linearly with height, consistent with plumerise theory. The Briggs plume-rise equation is subsequently inverted to estimate the mean fire-generated sensible heat flux, which is found to be 87 kW m22 . The mean radial velocity structure of the plume indicates flow convergence into the plume ...


The Mean And Turbulent Properties Of A Wildfire Convective Plume, Neil P. Lareau, Craig B. Clements 2017 San Jose State University

The Mean And Turbulent Properties Of A Wildfire Convective Plume, Neil P. Lareau, Craig B. Clements

Craig B. Clements

The time-mean and time-varying smoke and velocity structure of a wildfire convective plume is examined using a high-resolution scanning Doppler lidar. The mean plume is shown to exhibit the archetypal form of a bent-over plume in a crosswind, matching the well-established Briggs plume-rise equation. The plume cross section is approximately Gaussian and the plume radius increases linearly with height, consistent with plumerise theory. The Briggs plume-rise equation is subsequently inverted to estimate the mean fire-generated sensible heat flux, which is found to be 87 kW m22 . The mean radial velocity structure of the plume indicates flow convergence into the plume ...


Synergistic Use Of Remote Sensing And Modeling To Assess An Anomalously High Chlorophyll-A Event During Summer 2015 In The South Central Red Sea, Wenzhao Li, Hesham el-Askary, K. P. ManiKandan, Mohamed A. Qurban, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova 2017 Chapman University

Synergistic Use Of Remote Sensing And Modeling To Assess An Anomalously High Chlorophyll-A Event During Summer 2015 In The South Central Red Sea, Wenzhao Li, Hesham El-Askary, K. P. Manikandan, Mohamed A. Qurban, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

An anomalously high chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) event (>2 mg/m3) during June 2015 in the South Central Red Sea (17.5° to 22°N, 37° to 42°E) was observed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the Terra and Aqua satellite platforms. This differs from the low Chl-a values (<0.5 mg/m3) usually encountered over the same region during summertime. To assess this anomaly and possible causes, we used a wide range of oceanographical and meteorological datasets, including Chl-a concentrations, sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), mixed layer depth (MLD), ocean current velocity and aerosol optical depth (AOD) obtained from different sensors and models. Findings confirmed this anomalous behavior in the spatial domain using Hovmöller data analysis techniques, while a time series analysis addressed monthly and daily variability. Our analysis suggests that a combination of factors controlling nutrient supply contributed to the anomalous phytoplankton growth. These factors include horizontal transfer of upwelling water through eddy circulation and possible mineral fertilization from atmospheric dust deposition. Coral reefs might have provided extra nutrient supply, yet this is out of the scope of our analysis. We thought that dust deposition from a coastal dust jet event in late June, coinciding with the phytoplankton blooms in the area under investigation, might have also contributed as shown by our AOD findings. However, a lag cross correlation showed a two- month lag between strong dust outbreak and the high Chl-a anomaly. The high Chl-a concentration at the edge of the eddy emphasizes the importance of horizontal advection in fertilizing oligotrophic (nutrient poor) Red Sea waters.


Estimation Of Bubble-Mediated Air–Sea Gas Exchange From Concurrent Dms And Co2 Transfer Velocities At Intermediate–High Wind Speeds, Thomas G. Bell, Sebastian Landwehr, Scott D. Miller, Warren J. De Bruyn, Adrian H. Callaghan, Brian Scanlon, Brian Ward, Mingxi Yang, Eric S. Saltzman 2017 Plymouth Marine Laboratory

Estimation Of Bubble-Mediated Air–Sea Gas Exchange From Concurrent Dms And Co2 Transfer Velocities At Intermediate–High Wind Speeds, Thomas G. Bell, Sebastian Landwehr, Scott D. Miller, Warren J. De Bruyn, Adrian H. Callaghan, Brian Scanlon, Brian Ward, Mingxi Yang, Eric S. Saltzman

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Simultaneous air–sea fluxes and concentration differences of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and carbon dioxide (CO2/ were measured during a summertime North Atlantic cruise in 2011. This data set reveals significant differences between the gas transfer velocities of these two gases (1kw/ over a range of wind speeds up to 21ms􀀀1. These differences occur at and above the approximate wind speed threshold when waves begin breaking. Whitecap fraction (a proxy for bubbles) was also measured and has a positive relationship with 1kw, consistent with enhanced bubble-mediated transfer of the less soluble CO2 relative to that of the more soluble DMS. However ...


Nuclear Weapons In A Changing Climate: Probability, Increasing Risks, And Perception, Adam Liska, Tyler R. White, Eric Holley, Robert J. Oglesby 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Nuclear Weapons In A Changing Climate: Probability, Increasing Risks, And Perception, Adam Liska, Tyler R. White, Eric Holley, Robert J. Oglesby

Adam Liska Papers

Many people tend to think that the outcome of any nuclear weapons use today will result in an escalatory situation with apocalyptic outcomes for the countries involved. Yet many factors are increasing the probability of the limited use of nuclear weapons (e.g., 1 to 20 warheads) in a range of conflict scenarios. Previous atmospheric model simulations of regional nuclear conflicts employing many relatively small bombs have been estimated to cause a global “nuclear autumn,” with great reductions in agricultural productivity, stratospheric ozone loss, and spread of hazardous radioactive fallout. The totality of these effects would result in widespread ...


Using An Altimeter-Derived Internal Tide Model To Remove Tides From In Situ Data, Edward D. Zaron, Richard D. Ray 2017 Portland State University

Using An Altimeter-Derived Internal Tide Model To Remove Tides From In Situ Data, Edward D. Zaron, Richard D. Ray

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Internal waves at tidal frequencies, i.e., the internal tides, are a prominent source of variability in the ocean associated with significant vertical isopycnal displacements and currents. Because the isopycnal displacements are caused by ageostrophic dynamics, they contribute uncertainty to geostrophic transport inferred from vertical profiles in the ocean. Here it is demonstrated that a newly developed model of the main semidiurnal (M2) internal tide derived from satellite altimetry may be used to partially remove the tide from vertical profile data, as measured by the reduction of steric height variance inferred from the profiles. It is further demonstrated that the ...


Characterizing South American Mesoscale Convective Complexes Using Isotope Hydrology, Kyle J. Hogancamp 2017 Western Kentucky University

Characterizing South American Mesoscale Convective Complexes Using Isotope Hydrology, Kyle J. Hogancamp

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs) over subtropical South America contribute an average annual volume of precipitation equal to approximately seven km3 and occur with an average regularity in the region, with more than 30 per warm season. Isotopic characteristics of precipitation, such as δ2H and δ18O values, provide information that can be used to identify unique processes and sources related to precipitation events. The largest database of isotope characteristics of precipitation within the region is the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which provides varying temporal resolution data from stations around the world, including subtropical South America.

Using this database ...


Assessing Seasonal And Spatial Variability In The Hydrogeochemistry Of Glacial Meltwater In Iceland, Anisha Tuladhar 2017 Western Kentucky University

Assessing Seasonal And Spatial Variability In The Hydrogeochemistry Of Glacial Meltwater In Iceland, Anisha Tuladhar

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A detailed comparative geochemical characterization of three different types of Iceland glacial systems was conducted during June, August, and October, 2016. The study was carried out at a total of 11 outlet glacier rivers flowing from the icecaps Vatnajökull, Eyjafjallajökull, and Mýrdalsjökull. A total of 75 grab samples were collected (25 for each sampling period). The hydrogeochemical variations of Icelandic glacial meltwater are influenced by volcanic activity, temporal changes, and geographical location, which differed between the sampling sites within the glaciers and icecaps. Lower pH range, and comparatively higher and variable specific conductivity, SO4, S and F is linked to ...


On The Relationship Between Spring Nao And Snowmelt In The Upper Southwestern United States, Boksoon Myoung, Seung Hee Kim, Jinwon Kim, Menas Kafatos 2017 APEC Climate Center

On The Relationship Between Spring Nao And Snowmelt In The Upper Southwestern United States, Boksoon Myoung, Seung Hee Kim, Jinwon Kim, Menas Kafatos

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This study examines the relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and snowmelt in spring in the upper southwestern states of the United States (UP_SW) including California, Nevada, Utah, and Colorado, using SNOTEL datasets for 34 yr (1980–2014). Statistically significant negative correlations are found between NAO averages in the snowmelt period and timings of snowmelt (i.e., positive NAO phases in spring enhance snowmelt, and vice versa). It is also found that correlations between El Niño–Southern Oscillation and snowmelt are negligible in the region. The NAO–snowmelt relationship is most pronounced below the 2800-m level; above this level ...


Estimating Methane Emissions From Biological And Fossil-Fuel Sources In The San Francisco Bay Area, Seongeun Jeong, Xinguang Cui, Donald Blake, Ben Miller, Stephen Montzka, Arlyn Andrews, Abhinav Guha, Philip Martien, Ray Bambha, Brian LaFranchi, Hope Michelsen, Craig Clements, Pierre Glaize, Marc Fischer 2017 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Estimating Methane Emissions From Biological And Fossil-Fuel Sources In The San Francisco Bay Area, Seongeun Jeong, Xinguang Cui, Donald Blake, Ben Miller, Stephen Montzka, Arlyn Andrews, Abhinav Guha, Philip Martien, Ray Bambha, Brian Lafranchi, Hope Michelsen, Craig Clements, Pierre Glaize, Marc Fischer

Faculty Publications

We present the first sector-specific analysis of methane (CH4) emissions from the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) using CH4 and volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements from six sites during September – December 2015. We apply a hierarchical Bayesian inversion to separate the biological from fossil-fuel (natural gas and petroleum) sources using the measurements of CH4 and selected VOCs, a source-specific 1 km CH4 emission model, and an atmospheric transport model. We estimate that SFBA CH4 emissions are 166–289 Gg CH4/yr (at 95% confidence), 1.3–2.3 times higher than a recent inventory with much of the underestimation from ...


Estimating Methane Emissions From Biological And Fossil-Fuel Sources In The San Francisco Bay Area, Seongeun Jeong, Xinguang Cui, Donald R. Blake, Ben Miller, Stephen A. Montzka, Arlyn Andrews, Abhinav Guha, Philip Martien, Ray P. Bambha, Brian LaFranchi, Hope A. Michelsen, Craig B. Clements, Pierre Glaize, Marc L. Fischer 2017 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

Estimating Methane Emissions From Biological And Fossil-Fuel Sources In The San Francisco Bay Area, Seongeun Jeong, Xinguang Cui, Donald R. Blake, Ben Miller, Stephen A. Montzka, Arlyn Andrews, Abhinav Guha, Philip Martien, Ray P. Bambha, Brian Lafranchi, Hope A. Michelsen, Craig B. Clements, Pierre Glaize, Marc L. Fischer

Craig B. Clements

We present the first sector-specific analysis of methane (CH4) emissions from the San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) using CH4 and volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements from six sites during September – December 2015. We apply a hierarchical Bayesian inversion to separate the biological from fossil-fuel (natural gas and petroleum) sources using the measurements of CH4 and selected VOCs, a source-specific 1 km CH4 emission model, and an atmospheric transport model. We estimate that SFBA CH4 emissions are 166–289 Gg CH4/yr (at 95% confidence), 1.3–2.3 times higher than a recent inventory ...


Multiple Drivers Of Seasonal Change In Pri: Implications For Photosynthesis 2. Stand Level, Anatoly A. Gitelson, John A. Gamon, Alexei E. Solovchenko 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Multiple Drivers Of Seasonal Change In Pri: Implications For Photosynthesis 2. Stand Level, Anatoly A. Gitelson, John A. Gamon, Alexei E. Solovchenko

Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

The goal of this study was to explore the relationships between stand-level photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and canopy structure/ pigment pools, as well as light use efficiency (LUE) of photosynthetically active vegetation focusing on seasonal or ontogenetic time frames. PRI was originally designed as a means of assessing the xanthophyll cycle and LUE over short (e.g. diurnal) time frames, and few studies have explored the drivers of PRI over longer, seasonal time frames, particularly in crops having different photosynthetic pathways or canopy structures. Consequently, our purpose was to understand and quantify the drivers of PRI responses over seasonal time ...


Development And Application Of An Oxidation Flow Reactor To Study Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation From Ambient Air, Brett Brian Palm 2017 University of Colorado at Boulder

Development And Application Of An Oxidation Flow Reactor To Study Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation From Ambient Air, Brett Brian Palm

Chemistry & Biochemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere play an important role in air quality, human health, and climate. However, the sources, formation pathways, and fate of SOA are poorly constrained. In this dissertation, I present development and application of the oxidation flow reactor (OFR) technique for studying SOA formation from OH, O3, and NO3 oxidation of ambient air. With a several-minute residence time and a portable design with no inlet, OFRs are particularly well-suited for this purpose.

I first introduce the OFR concept, and discuss several advances I have made in performing and interpreting OFR experiments. This includes estimating oxidant ...


Spatial And Temporal Variability In Mlt Turbulence Inferred From In Situ And Ground-Based Observations During The Wadis-1 Sounding Rocket Campaign, B. Strelnikov, A. Szewczyk, I. Strelnikova, R. Latteck, G. Baumgarten, Aroh Barjatya, et.al 2017 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Spatial And Temporal Variability In Mlt Turbulence Inferred From In Situ And Ground-Based Observations During The Wadis-1 Sounding Rocket Campaign, B. Strelnikov, A. Szewczyk, I. Strelnikova, R. Latteck, G. Baumgarten, Aroh Barjatya, Et.Al

Publications

In summer 2013 the WADIS-1 sounding rocket campaign was conducted at the Andøya Space Center (ACS) in northern Norway (69° N, 16° E). Among other things, it addressed the question of the variability in mesosphere/lower thermosphere (MLT) turbulence, both in time and space. A unique feature of the WADIS project was multi-point turbulence sounding applying different measurement techniques including rocket-borne ionization gauges, VHF MAARSY radar, and VHF EISCAT radar near Tromsø. This allowed for horizontal variability to be observed in the turbulence field in the MLT at scales from a few to 100 km. We found that the turbulence ...


Sea Surface Temperature Rises Shift Migration Patterns Due To Ecosystem Changes, Alexia Skrbic, Hesham el-Askary 2016 Chapman University

Sea Surface Temperature Rises Shift Migration Patterns Due To Ecosystem Changes, Alexia Skrbic, Hesham El-Askary

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

The continuing climate change is negatively impacting ecosystems, specifically oceans which are declining and food webs are being altered by the increase of greenhouse gases. The increase of the carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases is increasing sea surface temperature of the world’s oceans. Certain organisms lower on the food chain like phytoplankton and zooplankton are directly affected by the warming which alters how they process nutrients and their productivity. The limited amount of these primary producers in the oceans and specifically the location they inhabit directly affects all the organisms above them on the food chain. Several marine ...


Teleconnections In Steam: Antarctic Field-Camp Art, Craig Stevens, Gabby O'Connor 2016 National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research; The University of Auckland, New Zealand; New Zealand Association of Scientists.

Teleconnections In Steam: Antarctic Field-Camp Art, Craig Stevens, Gabby O'Connor

The STEAM Journal

We describe a component of a multi-element STEAM collaboration looking to explore ideas around the life cycle of Antarctic sea ice. One of the intermediate phases of the work involved the scientist deploying partially pre-made art components. Results were modulated by weather and operational constraints and generated a sequence of images and recordings as well as greater understanding of the creative collaboration process.


Analysis Of Aerosol Absorption Properties And Transport Over North Africa And The Middle East Using Aeronet Data, Ashraf Farahat, Hesham el-Askary, Peter Adetokunbo, Abu-Tharr Fuad 2016 King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Saudi Arabia

Analysis Of Aerosol Absorption Properties And Transport Over North Africa And The Middle East Using Aeronet Data, Ashraf Farahat, Hesham El-Askary, Peter Adetokunbo, Abu-Tharr Fuad

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

In this paper particle categorization and absorption properties were discussed to understand transport mechanisms at different geographic locations and possible radiative impacts on climate. The long-term Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) data set (1999–2015) is used to estimate aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo (SSA), and the absorption Ångström exponent (abs) at eight locations in North Africa and the Middle East. Average variation in SSA is calculated at four wavelengths (440, 675, 870, and 1020 nm), and the relationship between aerosol absorption and physical properties is used to infer dominant aerosol types at different locations. It was found that ...


Development Of A Risk Assessment Framework To Predict Invasive Species Establishment For Multiple Taxonomic Groups And Vectors Of Introduction, Alisha D. Davidson, Abigail J. Fusaro, Rochelle A. Sturtevant, Edward S. Rutherford, Donna R. Kashian 2016 Wayne State University

Development Of A Risk Assessment Framework To Predict Invasive Species Establishment For Multiple Taxonomic Groups And Vectors Of Introduction, Alisha D. Davidson, Abigail J. Fusaro, Rochelle A. Sturtevant, Edward S. Rutherford, Donna R. Kashian

Biological Sciences Faculty Research Publications

A thorough assessment of aquatic nonindigenous species’ risk facilitates successful monitoring and prevention activities. However, species- and vector-specific information is often limited and difficult to synthesize across a single risk framework. To address this need, we developed an assessment framework capable of estimating the potential for introduction, establishment, and impact by aquatic nonindigenous species from diverse spatial origins and taxonomic classification, in novel environments. Our model builds on previous approaches, while taking on a new perspective for evaluation across species, vectors and stages to overcome the limitations imposed by single species and single vector assessments. We applied this globally-relevant framework ...


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