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Baroclinic Tidal Sea Level From Exact-Repeat Mission Altimetry, Edward Zaron 2018 Portland State University

Baroclinic Tidal Sea Level From Exact-Repeat Mission Altimetry, Edward Zaron

Portland Institute for Computational Science Publications

A near-global model for the sea-surface expression of the baroclinic tide has been developed using exact-repeat mission altimetry. The methodology used differs in detail from other altimetry-based estimates of the open ocean baroclinic tide, but it leads to estimates which are broadly similar to previous results. It may be used for prediction of the baroclinic sea level anomaly at the frequencies of the main diurnal and semidiurnal tides, K1, O1, M2, S2, as well as the annual modulates of M2, denoted MA2 and MB2. Based on a comparison with independent CryoSat-2 data, the ...


An Assessment Of Atmospheric And Meteorological Factors Regulating Red Sea Phytoplankton Growth, Wenzhao Li, Hesham el-Askary, Mohamed A. Qurban, Emmanouil Proestakis, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova, Vassilis Amiridis, Antonis Gkikas, Eleni Marinou, Thomas Piechota, K. P. Manikandan 2018 Chapman University

An Assessment Of Atmospheric And Meteorological Factors Regulating Red Sea Phytoplankton Growth, Wenzhao Li, Hesham El-Askary, Mohamed A. Qurban, Emmanouil Proestakis, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova, Vassilis Amiridis, Antonis Gkikas, Eleni Marinou, Thomas Piechota, K. P. Manikandan

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This study considers the various factors that regulate nutrients supply in the Red Sea. Multi-sensor observation and reanalysis datasets are used to examine the relationships among dust deposition, sea surface temperature (SST), and wind speed, as they may contribute to anomalous phytoplankton blooms, through time-series and correlation analyses. A positive correlation was found at 0–3 months lag between chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) anomalies and dust anomalies over the Red Sea regions. Dust deposition process was further examined with dust aerosols’ vertical distribution using satellite lidar data. Conversely, a negative correlation was found at 0–3 months lag between SST ...


Numerical Experiment Of Sediment Dynamics Over A Dredged Pit On The Louisiana Shelf, Nazanin Chaichitehrani 2018 Louisiana State University

Numerical Experiment Of Sediment Dynamics Over A Dredged Pit On The Louisiana Shelf, Nazanin Chaichitehrani

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Sediment transport over Sandy Point dredge pit in the northern Gulf of Mexico was examined using field measurements and a finely resolved numerical model. Delft3D model with well-vetted computational grid and input parameters was used. Numerical experiments were performed to examine the effect of wind-generated waves, wind-driven currents and their interaction on sediment dynamics in our study area during a cold front in November 2014 and fair-weather conditions between July and August of 2015. Sediment dispersal from the lower Mississippi River, sediment resuspension, transport and deposition with high spatial and temporal resolution were simulated. A reliable satellite-derived near-surface suspended particulate ...


Spatio-Temporal Pattern Estimation Of Pm2.5 In Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region Based On Modis Aod And Meteorological Data Using The Back Propagation Neural Network, Xialing Ni, Chunxiang Cao, Yuke Zhou, Xianghui Cui, Ramesh Singh 2018 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Spatio-Temporal Pattern Estimation Of Pm2.5 In Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region Based On Modis Aod And Meteorological Data Using The Back Propagation Neural Network, Xialing Ni, Chunxiang Cao, Yuke Zhou, Xianghui Cui, Ramesh Singh

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

With the economic growth and increasing urbanization in the last three decades, the air quality over China has continuously degraded, which poses a great threat to human health. The concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) directly affects the mortality of people living in the polluted areas where air quality is poor. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, one of the well organized urban regions in northern China, has suffered with poor air quality and atmospheric pollution due to recent growth of the industrial sector and vehicle emissions. In the present study, we used the back propagation neural network model approach to ...


Estimating Live Fuel Moisture From Modis Satellite Data For Wildfire Danger Assessment In Southern California Usa, Boksoon Myoung, Seung Hee Kim, Son V. Nghiem, Shenyue Jia, Kristen Whitney, Menas Kafatos 2018 APEC Climate Center

Estimating Live Fuel Moisture From Modis Satellite Data For Wildfire Danger Assessment In Southern California Usa, Boksoon Myoung, Seung Hee Kim, Son V. Nghiem, Shenyue Jia, Kristen Whitney, Menas Kafatos

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

The goal of the research reported here is to assess the capability of satellite vegetation indices from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer onboard both Terra and Aqua satellites, in order to replicate live fuel moisture content of Southern California chaparral ecosystems. We compared seasonal and interannual characteristics of in-situ live fuel moisture with satellite vegetation indices that were averaged over different radial extents around each live fuel moisture observation site. The highest correlations are found using the Aqua Enhanced Vegetation Index for a radius of 10 km, independently verifying the validity of in-situ live fuel moisture measurements over a large ...


Investigating Marine Resources In The Gulf Of Mexico At Multiple Spatial And Temporal Scales Of Inquiry, Joshua Paul Kilborn 2017 University of South Florida

Investigating Marine Resources In The Gulf Of Mexico At Multiple Spatial And Temporal Scales Of Inquiry, Joshua Paul Kilborn

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The work in this dissertation represents an attempt to investigate multiple temporal and spatial scales of inquiry relating to the variability of marine resources throughout the Gulf of Mexico large marine ecosystem (Gulf LME). This effort was undertaken over two spatial extents within the greater Gulf LME using two different time-series of fisheries monitoring data. Case studies demonstrating simple frameworks and best practices are presented with the aim of aiding researchers seeking to reduce errors and biases in scientific decision making. Two of the studies focused on three years of groundfish survey data collected across the West Florida Shelf (WFS ...


Calibration-Free Spectrophotometric Measurements Of Carbonate Saturation States In Seawater, Erin E. Cuyler 2017 University of South Florida

Calibration-Free Spectrophotometric Measurements Of Carbonate Saturation States In Seawater, Erin E. Cuyler

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This work describes efforts to improve methodologies and instrumentation for investigation of the marine CO2 system. In the first section of my thesis, a method was developed that provides simple, calibration-free measurements of seawater carbonate saturation states (Ωspec) based solely on the use of a laboratory spectrophotometer. Measurements of pH are made in paired optical cells, one with and one without added nitric acid. The amount of added nitric acid is determined through the direct proportionality between nitrate concentration and UV absorbance. After an initial calibration, the method is calibration-free and requires no volumetric or gravimetric analyses thereafter ...


Stable Isotopes In The Eye Lenses Of Doryteuthis Plei: Exploring Natal Origins And Migratory Patterns In The Eastern Gulf Of Mexico, Brenna A. Meath 2017 University of South Florida

Stable Isotopes In The Eye Lenses Of Doryteuthis Plei: Exploring Natal Origins And Migratory Patterns In The Eastern Gulf Of Mexico, Brenna A. Meath

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Stable isotope analysis is an emerging tool to examine trophic pathways and migratory patterns of marine organisms. Squid are widely distributed in coastal and deep water regions of the Gulf of Mexico. Stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen found within cephalopod tissues can provide information on both trophic level and habitat of their food sources. More recently, ontogenetic changes in stable isotope ratios within squid eye lenses have been documented. Concentric layers of crystallin proteins are added to the lens as the squid ages; the center of the lens contains the oldest layer and the youngest layers are on ...


Thermal Radiation Anomalies Associated With Major Earthquakes, Dimitar Ouzounov, Sergey Pulinets, Menas Kafatos, Patrick Taylor 2017 Chapman University

Thermal Radiation Anomalies Associated With Major Earthquakes, Dimitar Ouzounov, Sergey Pulinets, Menas Kafatos, Patrick Taylor

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Recent developments of remote sensing methods for Earth satellite data analysis contribute to our understanding of earthquake related thermal anomalies. It was realized that the thermal heat fluxes over areas of earthquake preparation is a result of air ionization by radon (and other gases) and consequent water vapor condensation on newly formed ions. Latent heat (LH) is released as a result of this process and leads to the formation of local thermal radiation anomalies (TRA) known as OLR (outgoing Longwave radiation, Ouzounov et al, 2007). We compare the LH energy, obtained by integrating surface latent heat flux (SLHF) over the ...


Ocean Wind Speed Measurement Using Wideband Gnss-R Signals, Brandon J. Kozel, Han Zhang, James L. Garrison, Benjamin Nold 2017 Purdue University

Ocean Wind Speed Measurement Using Wideband Gnss-R Signals, Brandon J. Kozel, Han Zhang, James L. Garrison, Benjamin Nold

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The use of Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) for remote sensing of ocean wind speeds has been explored for nearly two decades and has become an important passive remote sensing technique for verification of hurricane formation models. To obtain wind speed measurements, reflected GNSS signals are first cross-correlated with locally generated copies to construct delay-doppler maps (DDMs). Through statistical models, DDMs can provide information about the mean-square slope (MSS) of the ocean surface, which is related to wind speed. Previous studies have focused on legacy signals such as GPS L1. However, it is expected that the MSS relationship with ocean ...


Utilizing A Consumer-Grade Camera System To Quantify Surface Reflectance, Joseph J. Lehnert 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Utilizing A Consumer-Grade Camera System To Quantify Surface Reflectance, Joseph J. Lehnert

Theses and Dissertations in Geography

Consumer-grade camera systems are often employed in aerial remote sensing to provide insight into patterns and processes of interest to science and industry, a trend that has largely been encouraged by the rapid growth of the small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS) industry. However, little research exists on the ability of these systems to accurately measure surface reflectance in specific wavebands, a crucial consideration for many remote sensing applications. This research was conducted on the premise that with proper equipment and calibration techniques consumer-grade cameras would be capable of accurately measuring surface reflectance in user-defined wavebands of interest. A stereo-pair, Fujifilm ...


The Mean And Turbulent Properties Of A Wildfire Convective Plume, Neil Lareau, Craig Clements 2017 San Jose State University

The Mean And Turbulent Properties Of A Wildfire Convective Plume, Neil Lareau, Craig Clements

Faculty Publications

The time-mean and time-varying smoke and velocity structure of a wildfire convective plume is examined using a high-resolution scanning Doppler lidar. The mean plume is shown to exhibit the archetypal form of a bent-over plume in a crosswind, matching the well-established Briggs plume-rise equation. The plume cross section is approximately Gaussian and the plume radius increases linearly with height, consistent with plumerise theory. The Briggs plume-rise equation is subsequently inverted to estimate the mean fire-generated sensible heat flux, which is found to be 87 kW m22 . The mean radial velocity structure of the plume indicates flow convergence into the plume ...


The Mean And Turbulent Properties Of A Wildfire Convective Plume, Neil P. Lareau, Craig B. Clements 2017 San Jose State University

The Mean And Turbulent Properties Of A Wildfire Convective Plume, Neil P. Lareau, Craig B. Clements

Craig B. Clements

The time-mean and time-varying smoke and velocity structure of a wildfire convective plume is examined using a high-resolution scanning Doppler lidar. The mean plume is shown to exhibit the archetypal form of a bent-over plume in a crosswind, matching the well-established Briggs plume-rise equation. The plume cross section is approximately Gaussian and the plume radius increases linearly with height, consistent with plumerise theory. The Briggs plume-rise equation is subsequently inverted to estimate the mean fire-generated sensible heat flux, which is found to be 87 kW m22 . The mean radial velocity structure of the plume indicates flow convergence into the plume ...


Synergistic Use Of Remote Sensing And Modeling To Assess An Anomalously High Chlorophyll-A Event During Summer 2015 In The South Central Red Sea, Wenzhao Li, Hesham el-Askary, K. P. ManiKandan, Mohamed A. Qurban, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova 2017 Chapman University

Synergistic Use Of Remote Sensing And Modeling To Assess An Anomalously High Chlorophyll-A Event During Summer 2015 In The South Central Red Sea, Wenzhao Li, Hesham El-Askary, K. P. Manikandan, Mohamed A. Qurban, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

An anomalously high chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) event (>2 mg/m3) during June 2015 in the South Central Red Sea (17.5° to 22°N, 37° to 42°E) was observed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the Terra and Aqua satellite platforms. This differs from the low Chl-a values (<0.5 mg/m3) usually encountered over the same region during summertime. To assess this anomaly and possible causes, we used a wide range of oceanographical and meteorological datasets, including Chl-a concentrations, sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), mixed layer depth (MLD), ocean current velocity and aerosol optical depth (AOD) obtained from different sensors and models. Findings confirmed this anomalous behavior in the spatial domain using Hovmöller data analysis techniques, while a time series analysis addressed monthly and daily variability. Our analysis suggests that a combination of factors controlling nutrient supply contributed to the anomalous phytoplankton growth. These factors include horizontal transfer of upwelling water through eddy circulation and possible mineral fertilization from atmospheric dust deposition. Coral reefs might have provided extra nutrient supply, yet this is out of the scope of our analysis. We thought that dust deposition from a coastal dust jet event in late June, coinciding with the phytoplankton blooms in the area under investigation, might have also contributed as shown by our AOD findings. However, a lag cross correlation showed a two- month lag between strong dust outbreak and the high Chl-a anomaly. The high Chl-a concentration at the edge of the eddy emphasizes the importance of horizontal advection in fertilizing oligotrophic (nutrient poor) Red Sea waters.


Estimation Of Bubble-Mediated Air–Sea Gas Exchange From Concurrent Dms And Co2 Transfer Velocities At Intermediate–High Wind Speeds, Thomas G. Bell, Sebastian Landwehr, Scott D. Miller, Warren J. De Bruyn, Adrian H. Callaghan, Brian Scanlon, Brian Ward, Mingxi Yang, Eric S. Saltzman 2017 Plymouth Marine Laboratory

Estimation Of Bubble-Mediated Air–Sea Gas Exchange From Concurrent Dms And Co2 Transfer Velocities At Intermediate–High Wind Speeds, Thomas G. Bell, Sebastian Landwehr, Scott D. Miller, Warren J. De Bruyn, Adrian H. Callaghan, Brian Scanlon, Brian Ward, Mingxi Yang, Eric S. Saltzman

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Simultaneous air–sea fluxes and concentration differences of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and carbon dioxide (CO2/ were measured during a summertime North Atlantic cruise in 2011. This data set reveals significant differences between the gas transfer velocities of these two gases (1kw/ over a range of wind speeds up to 21ms􀀀1. These differences occur at and above the approximate wind speed threshold when waves begin breaking. Whitecap fraction (a proxy for bubbles) was also measured and has a positive relationship with 1kw, consistent with enhanced bubble-mediated transfer of the less soluble CO2 relative to that of the more soluble DMS. However ...


Nuclear Weapons In A Changing Climate: Probability, Increasing Risks, And Perception, Adam Liska, Tyler R. White, Eric Holley, Robert J. Oglesby 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Nuclear Weapons In A Changing Climate: Probability, Increasing Risks, And Perception, Adam Liska, Tyler R. White, Eric Holley, Robert J. Oglesby

Adam Liska Papers

Many people tend to think that the outcome of any nuclear weapons use today will result in an escalatory situation with apocalyptic outcomes for the countries involved. Yet many factors are increasing the probability of the limited use of nuclear weapons (e.g., 1 to 20 warheads) in a range of conflict scenarios. Previous atmospheric model simulations of regional nuclear conflicts employing many relatively small bombs have been estimated to cause a global “nuclear autumn,” with great reductions in agricultural productivity, stratospheric ozone loss, and spread of hazardous radioactive fallout. The totality of these effects would result in widespread ...


Using An Altimeter-Derived Internal Tide Model To Remove Tides From In Situ Data, Edward D. Zaron, Richard D. Ray 2017 Portland State University

Using An Altimeter-Derived Internal Tide Model To Remove Tides From In Situ Data, Edward D. Zaron, Richard D. Ray

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Internal waves at tidal frequencies, i.e., the internal tides, are a prominent source of variability in the ocean associated with significant vertical isopycnal displacements and currents. Because the isopycnal displacements are caused by ageostrophic dynamics, they contribute uncertainty to geostrophic transport inferred from vertical profiles in the ocean. Here it is demonstrated that a newly developed model of the main semidiurnal (M2) internal tide derived from satellite altimetry may be used to partially remove the tide from vertical profile data, as measured by the reduction of steric height variance inferred from the profiles. It is further demonstrated that the ...


Characterizing Gross Lesions In Corals On Fringing Reefs Of Taiwan And Hainan Island, China, Adrienne George 2017 University of South Florida

Characterizing Gross Lesions In Corals On Fringing Reefs Of Taiwan And Hainan Island, China, Adrienne George

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Visible lesions on coral colonies are potential indicators that environmental stressors are influencing a reef. To test this hypothesis, pairs of near-shore reefs on Taiwan were surveyed along an anthropogenically influenced gradient that included locations near the cities of Taipei and Taitung, and more remote reefs off Green Island. Two fringing reefs at Sanya, Hainan Island, a popular Chinese resort area, were also assessed. Field surveys were undertaken to detect, quantify and visually describe the occurrence of lesions at each site. Coral mucus samples were collected from both normal-appearing polyps and lesion-afflicted areas of colonies to assess carbon requirements of ...


Characterizing South American Mesoscale Convective Complexes Using Isotope Hydrology, Kyle J. Hogancamp 2017 Western Kentucky University

Characterizing South American Mesoscale Convective Complexes Using Isotope Hydrology, Kyle J. Hogancamp

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs) over subtropical South America contribute an average annual volume of precipitation equal to approximately seven km3 and occur with an average regularity in the region, with more than 30 per warm season. Isotopic characteristics of precipitation, such as δ2H and δ18O values, provide information that can be used to identify unique processes and sources related to precipitation events. The largest database of isotope characteristics of precipitation within the region is the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), which provides varying temporal resolution data from stations around the world, including subtropical South America.

Using this database ...


Assessing Seasonal And Spatial Variability In The Hydrogeochemistry Of Glacial Meltwater In Iceland, Anisha Tuladhar 2017 Western Kentucky University

Assessing Seasonal And Spatial Variability In The Hydrogeochemistry Of Glacial Meltwater In Iceland, Anisha Tuladhar

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

A detailed comparative geochemical characterization of three different types of Iceland glacial systems was conducted during June, August, and October, 2016. The study was carried out at a total of 11 outlet glacier rivers flowing from the icecaps Vatnajökull, Eyjafjallajökull, and Mýrdalsjökull. A total of 75 grab samples were collected (25 for each sampling period). The hydrogeochemical variations of Icelandic glacial meltwater are influenced by volcanic activity, temporal changes, and geographical location, which differed between the sampling sites within the glaciers and icecaps. Lower pH range, and comparatively higher and variable specific conductivity, SO4, S and F is linked to ...


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