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Reconstructing Deep-Ocean Circulation During Cenozoic Climate Transitions From The Marine Sediment Record, Brian Romans 2020 Virginia Tech

Reconstructing Deep-Ocean Circulation During Cenozoic Climate Transitions From The Marine Sediment Record, Brian Romans

Sustainability Seminar Series

Ocean circulation plays a critical role in the Earth’s climate system through the storage and transfer of heat and carbon dioxide. The North Atlantic and Southern Ocean are of particular interest because these are regions where deep-water components of global circulation develop. Dr. Romans uses the deep-sea sedimentary record to reconstruct past ocean circulation and its relationship to past climatic and tectonic conditions. He integrates information from a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, from seismic-reflection data that reveals regional sedimentation patterns to high resolution records based on quantitative grain-size analysis from cores. Dr. Romans will present research ...


The Role Of Island-Marsh Couplings In The Long-Term Sustainability Barrier Islands In The Face Of Accelerated Sea-Level Rise, Christopher Hein 2020 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

The Role Of Island-Marsh Couplings In The Long-Term Sustainability Barrier Islands In The Face Of Accelerated Sea-Level Rise, Christopher Hein

Sustainability Seminar Series

Barrier islands are one of the most ubiquitous features of the coast . . . at least here along the US East Coast, which accounts for >10% of the world’s barrier islands. Little more than large, partially vegetated, subaerial sand bars, barrier island provide for recreation, ecosystem services, and protection of mainland communities from storm impacts. They are also some of the most dynamic features on earth, constantly changing in the face of waves, tides, wind, and currents. With examples from northern Massachusetts and the Virginia Eastern Shore, this talk will focus on the long-term sustainability of barrier islands, and how they ...


Changes In Atmospheric, Meteorological, And Ocean Parameters Associated With The 12 January 2020 Taal Volcanic Eruption, Feng Jing, Akshansa Chauhan, Ramesh P. Singh, Prasanjit Dash 2020 China Earthquake Administration

Changes In Atmospheric, Meteorological, And Ocean Parameters Associated With The 12 January 2020 Taal Volcanic Eruption, Feng Jing, Akshansa Chauhan, Ramesh P. Singh, Prasanjit Dash

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The Taal volcano erupted on 12 January 2020, the first time since 1977. About 35 mild earthquakes (magnitude greater than 4.0) were observed on 12 January 2020 induced from the eruption. In the present paper, we analyzed optical properties of volcanic aerosols, volcanic gas emission, ocean parameters using multi-satellite sensors, namely, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder), OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument), TROPOMI (TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument) and ground observations, namely, Argo, and AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) data. Our detailed analysis shows pronounced changes in all the parameters, which mainly occurred in the western and south-western regions because ...


Development Of A Sensor Suite For Atmospheric Boundary Layer Measurement With A Small Multirotor Unmanned Aerial System, Kevin A. Adkins, Christopher J. Swinford, Peter D. Wambolt, Gordon Bease 2020 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Development Of A Sensor Suite For Atmospheric Boundary Layer Measurement With A Small Multirotor Unmanned Aerial System, Kevin A. Adkins, Christopher J. Swinford, Peter D. Wambolt, Gordon Bease

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

Small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) are increasingly being used to conduct atmospheric research. Because of the dynamic nature and inhomogeneity of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), the ability of instrumented sUAS to make on-demand 3-dimensional high-resolution spatial measurements of atmospheric parameters makes them particularly suited to ABL investigations. Both fixed-wing and multirotor sUAS have been used for ABL investigations. Most investigations to date have included in-situ measurement of thermodynamic quantities such as temperature, pressure and humidity. When wind has been measured, a variety of strategies have been used. Two of the most popular techniques have been deducing wind from inertial ...


Barrier Layer Impact On Rapid Intensification Of Hurricanes (2000-2018) In The Atlantic Ocean, J. Gaston Hayworth 2019 Halmos College of Natural Sciences and Oceanography at NSU

Barrier Layer Impact On Rapid Intensification Of Hurricanes (2000-2018) In The Atlantic Ocean, J. Gaston Hayworth

HCNSO Student Capstones

Hurricane prediction is an evolving challenge that has seen much improvement over the years. While hurricane models have improved in predicting the path of storms, forecasts of hurricane intensity are unreliable due to the complexity of environmental data, lack of understanding of how relative humidity, vertical wind shear, hurricane structure and other possible factors affect intensity. Rapid Intensification (RI), which is a wind speed increase of +30 kts over a 24-hr period, can contribute to major destruction and loss of life to coastal communities affected by hurricanes, and is especially difficult to predict. Given the continued development of coastal regions ...


Use Of Spectrofluorometry To Detect Petroleum Hydrocarbons In The Marine Environment, Mary Iris Abercrombie 2019 University of South Florida

Use Of Spectrofluorometry To Detect Petroleum Hydrocarbons In The Marine Environment, Mary Iris Abercrombie

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The genesis of this research was the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, which discharged petroleum and gas into the Gulf of Mexico for 87 days in 2010. High-resolution fluorescence spectroscopy was employed for the detection of petroleum in seawater samples following the oil spill. Fluorescence arises from the chemical structure of π-bonding in C=C bonds, especially those in aromatic structures. Spectrofluorometry was also used to observe and track the formation of petroleum plumes in seawater undergoing controlled physical dispersion in a wave tank, both with and without the addition of chemical dispersant. Further, the changing fluorescence characteristics of a broad ...


Untapped Potential Of Gorgonian Octocorals For Detecting Environmental Change In Biscayne National Park, Florida, Usa, Selena A. Kupfner Johnson 2019 University of South Florida

Untapped Potential Of Gorgonian Octocorals For Detecting Environmental Change In Biscayne National Park, Florida, Usa, Selena A. Kupfner Johnson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

One consequence of dramatic stony-coral loss has been recognition that gorgonian octocorals (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) have emerged among the dominant reef fauna. However, gorgonians are notoriously difficult to field-identify and consequently have been underrepresented in most monitoring efforts resulting in a lack of long-term data. The rich diversity of habitats, close proximity to the urban center of Miami, and connectivity to other areas of Florida have made Biscayne National Park an active location for reef research since its establishment in 1968. As such, a plethora of data (e.g., museum specimen and species abundance data) has been collected and stored in ...


Numerical Climate Model Simulations Investigating The Role Of Arctic Sea Ice Export Events In Modulating Deglacial Climate, Anthony J. Joyce 2019 University of Massachusetts-Amherst

Numerical Climate Model Simulations Investigating The Role Of Arctic Sea Ice Export Events In Modulating Deglacial Climate, Anthony J. Joyce

Doctoral Dissertations

Periods of abrupt climate cooling during the last deglaciation (20,000-8,000 yrs ago) are often attributed to glacial outburst floods slowing the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Yet, despite over 40 years of research, conclusive evidence that such events significantly impact climate remains elusive. This study uses a climate model to investigate an alternative freshwater forcing mechanism in which the episodic break-up and mobilization of thick perennial Arctic sea ice might have disrupted large-scale climate. The results presented here show the first evidence that (1) the Arctic Ocean stored enormous volumes of freshwater during colder periods as thick masses ...


The Stability Of Temperate Lakes Under The Changing Climate, Aleksey Paltsev 2019 The University of Western Ontario

The Stability Of Temperate Lakes Under The Changing Climate, Aleksey Paltsev

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

There is a collective prediction among ecologists that climate change will enhance phytoplankton biomass in temperate lakes. Yet there is noteworthy variation in the structure and regulating functions of lakes to make this statement challengeable and, perhaps, inaccurate. To generate a common understanding on the trophic transition of lakes, I examined the interactive effects of climate change and landscape properties on phytoplankton biomass in 12,644 lakes located in relatively intact forested landscapes. Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration was used as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass. Chl-a concentration was obtained via analyzing Landsat satellite imagery data over a 28-year period (1984-2011) and ...


Studying The Impact On Urban Health Over The Greater Delta Region In Egypt Due To Aerosol Variability Using Optical Characteristics From Satellite Observations And Ground-Based Aeronet Measurements, Wenzhao Li, Elham Ali, Islam Abou Al-Magd, Moustafa Mohamed Mourad, Hesham el-Askary 2019 Chapman University

Studying The Impact On Urban Health Over The Greater Delta Region In Egypt Due To Aerosol Variability Using Optical Characteristics From Satellite Observations And Ground-Based Aeronet Measurements, Wenzhao Li, Elham Ali, Islam Abou Al-Magd, Moustafa Mohamed Mourad, Hesham El-Askary

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This research addresses the aerosol characteristics and variability over Cairo and the Greater Delta region over the last 20 years using an integrative multi-sensor approach of remotely sensed and PM10 ground data. The accuracy of these satellite aerosol products is also evaluated and compared through cross-validation against ground observations from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) project measured at local stations. The results show the validity of using Multi-angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors on the Terra and Aqua platforms for quantitative aerosol optical depth (AOD) assessment as compared to Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), Sea-viewingWide Field-of-view ...


Adsorption Driven Regolith-Atmospheric Water Vapor Transfer On Mars: An Analysis Of Phoenix Tecp Data, Holly Nicole Farris 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Adsorption Driven Regolith-Atmospheric Water Vapor Transfer On Mars: An Analysis Of Phoenix Tecp Data, Holly Nicole Farris

Theses and Dissertations

NASA’s Phoenix mission allowed for investigations of Martian diurnal water vapor cycles through the collection of temperature, relative humidity, and electric conductivity data by the Thermal and Electric Conductivity Probe (TECP) instrument. Using this data and previous experimental data, we propose a regolith-driven adsorption-desorption regime at the Phoenix landing site, where parameters intrinsic to the regolith are controlling localized relative humidity at the surface. To constrain these parameters, we model adsorption as a function of temperature and relative humidity across various Mars-relevant materials, defined by two layer-based adsorption theories: Langmuir (monolayer) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller or BET (multilayer). Langmuir serves as ...


Response And Recovery Of Horn And Petit Bois Islands, Mississippi, Usa To Tropical Cyclone Impacts: 2004 – 2016, Shara Gremillion 2019 University of Southern Mississippi

Response And Recovery Of Horn And Petit Bois Islands, Mississippi, Usa To Tropical Cyclone Impacts: 2004 – 2016, Shara Gremillion

Master's Theses

Horn and Petit Bois islands are two of five Mississippi (MS) barrier islands that provide physical protection from tropical cyclones threatening the MS Gulf Coast, in addition to critical habitat for the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM). In September 2004, Hurricane Ivan removed a large volume of sediment from the eastern ends of Horn and Petit Bois islands with its 1-2 m storm surge and ~194 kph wind speeds. Then, in August 2005 Hurricane Katrina severely impacted the two islands again with its 3.5-5.5 m storm surge on Horn and Petit Bois islands, and up to 204 kph ...


The Role Of The Southern Ocean On Global Ocean Circulation And Climate, Brady Scott Ferster 2019 University of South Carolina

The Role Of The Southern Ocean On Global Ocean Circulation And Climate, Brady Scott Ferster

Theses and Dissertations

The Southern Ocean (SO) is a unique and highly dynamic region with strong temperature and salinity gradients. A comparison between satellite-derived salinity and observations indicates strong differences along coastal boundaries, areas of low temperature, and regions of strong currents. Although differences throughout much of the SO are shown to be negligible, resolution and smoothing in the products create large biases in horizontal gradients and errors in estimating the water cycle. The three-dimensional movement of water within the SO plays an important role in the global Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC), where the Southern Hemisphere westerlies drive both zonal and meridional transports ...


Coupling Ocean Currents And Waves With Wind Stress Over The Gulf Stream, Qi Shi, Mark A. Bourassa 2019 Michigan Technological University

Coupling Ocean Currents And Waves With Wind Stress Over The Gulf Stream, Qi Shi, Mark A. Bourassa

Michigan Tech Publications

This study provides the first detailed analysis of oceanic and atmospheric responses to the current-stress, wave-stress, and wave-current-stress interactions around the Gulf Stream using a high-resolution three-way coupled regional modeling system. In general, our results highlight the substantial impact of coupling currents and/or waves with wind stress on the air–sea fluxes over the Gulf Stream. The stress and the curl of the stress are crucial to mixed-layer energy budgets and sea surface temperature. In the wave-current-stress coupled experiment, wind stress increased by 15% over the Gulf Stream. Alternating positive and negative bands of changes of Ekman-related vertical velocity ...


Tropospheric And Ionospheric Anomalies Induced By Volcanic And Saharan Dust Events As Part Of Geosphere Interaction Phenomena, Valerio Tramutoli, Francesco Marchese, Alfredo Falconieri, Carolina Filizzola, Nicola Genzano, Katsumi Hattori, Mariano Lisi, Jann-Yenq Liu, Dimitar Ouzounov, Michel Parrot, Nicola Pergola, Sergey Pulinets 2019 University of Basilicata

Tropospheric And Ionospheric Anomalies Induced By Volcanic And Saharan Dust Events As Part Of Geosphere Interaction Phenomena, Valerio Tramutoli, Francesco Marchese, Alfredo Falconieri, Carolina Filizzola, Nicola Genzano, Katsumi Hattori, Mariano Lisi, Jann-Yenq Liu, Dimitar Ouzounov, Michel Parrot, Nicola Pergola, Sergey Pulinets

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

In this work, we assessed the possible relation of ionospheric perturbations observed by Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions (DEMETER), Global Positioning System total electron content (GPS TEC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-derived outgoing longwave-Earth radiation (OLR), and atmospheric chemical potential (ACP) measurements, with volcanic and Saharan dust events identified by ground and satellite-based medium infrared/thermal infrared (MIR/TIR) observations. The results indicated that the Mt. Etna (Italy) volcanic activity of 2006 was probably responsible for the ionospheric perturbations revealed by DEMETER on 4 November and 6 December and by GPS TEC observations on 4 ...


Analysis Of 2017 Multi-Agency Field Campaign Data For Wintertime Surface Pollution In The Cache Valley Of Utah, Gerardo Diaz Jr. 2019 Western Kentucky University

Analysis Of 2017 Multi-Agency Field Campaign Data For Wintertime Surface Pollution In The Cache Valley Of Utah, Gerardo Diaz Jr.

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Atmospheric motions resulting from rising airborne parcels help to scatter emissions, including PM, away from their sources, decreasing local pollution levels. However this pattern shifts during the wintertime, as cold air damming and inversion layers create stable conditions that limit the vertical transport of air masses. Both point and area sources of emissions currently dot the western United States and are responsible for the production of the vast majority of agricultural pollution in the region. At the same time, population-growth has resulted in an ever-increasing amount of urbansource emissions. The entrapment of PM, which are produced when a wide array ...


Fish Communities On Natural And Artificial Reefs In The Eastern Gulf Of Mexico, Elizabeth C. Viau 2019 University of South Florida

Fish Communities On Natural And Artificial Reefs In The Eastern Gulf Of Mexico, Elizabeth C. Viau

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Artificial reefs have been deployed throughout the world’s oceans to act as habitat and fishing enhancement tools. To expand current research on the role of artificial reefs in the marine community, ordination and multivariate regression methods were used here to analyze survey data of natural and artificial reefs. The reefs, located in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM) and on the West Florida Shelf (WFS), had been previously surveyed from 2004 to 2015 using remote operated vehicle and stationary video techniques. This study tested the hypothesis that similar functional roles are accounted for at both natural and artificial reef ...


Species Abundance, Spatial And Vertical Distributionsof Large Heteropods (Pterotracheidae And Carinariidae)In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Kristine A. Clark 2019 University of South Florida

Species Abundance, Spatial And Vertical Distributionsof Large Heteropods (Pterotracheidae And Carinariidae)In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico, Kristine A. Clark

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

A description of species abundance, richness and distribution, and eye size of heteropod molluscs from the families Pterotracheidae and Carinariidae in the oligotrophic ecosystem of the northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is described based on discrete-depth sampling protocols. The collections were comprised from two midwater sampling programs conducted sequentially after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWHOS): the Offshore Nekton Sampling and Analysis Program (ONSAP, 2011) and the Deep Pelagic Nekton Dynamics of the Gulf of Mexico (DEEPEND, 2015-2018). Study materials from DEEPEND were collected during the initial five cruises of 2015-2017. These programs collected over 3,495 heteropods in ...


Zooplankton Community Structure In The Ne Gulf Of Mexico: Impacts Of Environmental Variability And The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Kate M. Dubickas 2019 University of South Florida

Zooplankton Community Structure In The Ne Gulf Of Mexico: Impacts Of Environmental Variability And The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Kate M. Dubickas

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, relating changes in zooplankton communities to environmental factors is crucial to understanding the marine ecosystem and impacts of perturbations such as oil spills on marine ecosystems. Zooplankton samples were collected each year between 2005–2014 in spring and summer in the vicinity of the oil spill (Deepwater Horizon) that occurred in spring 2010. Zooplankton assemblages and environmental conditions significantly differed seasonally, driven by strong variations in zooplankton at continental shelf stations, and by environmental factors including Mississippi River discharge, wind direction, temperature, and chlorophyll concentrations. Total zooplankton abundances were greatest at shelf stations, intermediate ...


Seasonal Origins Of Soil Water Used By Trees, Scott T. Allen, James W. Kirchner, Sabine Braun, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Gregory R. Goldsmith 2019 ETH Zurich

Seasonal Origins Of Soil Water Used By Trees, Scott T. Allen, James W. Kirchner, Sabine Braun, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Gregory R. Goldsmith

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Rain recharges soil water storages and either percolates downward into aquifers and streams or is returned to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration. Although it is commonly assumed that summer rainfall recharges plant-available water during the growing season, the seasonal origins of water used by plants have not been systematically explored. We characterize the seasonal origins of waters in soils and trees by comparing their midsummer isotopic signatures (δ2H) to seasonal isotopic cycles in precipitation, using a new seasonal origin index. Across 182 Swiss forest sites, xylem water isotopic signatures show that summer rain was not the predominant water source for ...


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