On The Dirichlet L-Functions And The L-Functions Of Cusp Forms, 2021 Bowdoin College

#### On The Dirichlet L-Functions And The L-Functions Of Cusp Forms, Nawapan Wattanawanichkul

*Honors Projects*

The main objects of our study are L-functions, which are meromorphic functions on the complex plane that analytically continue from the series of the form \sum_{n=1}^{\infty} \frac{a_n}{n^s}, where {a_n} is a sequence of complex numbers. In particular, we are interested in two families of L-functions: ''The Dirichlet L-functions" and ''the L-functions of cusp forms." The former refers to the L-functions whose a_n's are determined by Dirichlet characters, whereas cusp forms determine the latter. We begin our study with the celebrated Riemann zeta function, the simplest Dirichlet L-function, and discuss some of its well-known properties: the Euler product, analytic continuation, functional …

Tiling Representations Of Zeckendorf Decompositions, 2021 Claremont Colleges

#### Tiling Representations Of Zeckendorf Decompositions, John Lentfer

*HMC Senior Theses*

Zeckendorf’s theorem states that every positive integer can be decomposed uniquely into a sum of non-consecutive Fibonacci numbers (where *f*_{1} = 1* *and *f*_{2} = 2). Previous work by Grabner and Tichy (1990) and Miller and Wang (2012) has found a generalization of Zeckendorf’s theorem to a larger class of recurrent sequences, called *Positive Linear Recurrence Sequences* (PLRS’s). We apply well-known tiling interpretations of recurrence sequences from Benjamin and Quinn (2003) to PLRS’s. We exploit that tiling interpretation to create a new tiling interpretation specific to PLRS’s that captures the behavior of the generalized Zeckendorf’s theorem.

Solving Neutrosophic Linear Equations Systems Using Symbolic Computation (Resolucion De Sistemas De Ecuaciones Lineales Neutrosóficas Mediante Computación Simbólica), 2021 University of New Mexico

#### Solving Neutrosophic Linear Equations Systems Using Symbolic Computation (Resolucion De Sistemas De Ecuaciones Lineales Neutrosóficas Mediante Computación Simbólica), Maykel Leyva-Vazquez, Florentin Smarandache

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In this paper, we apply the concept of neutrosophic numbers to solve a systems of neutrophic linear equations using symbolic computation. Also, we utilize Jupyter, which is supported in Google Colaboratory for performing symbolic computation. The sympy library of Python is used to perform the process of neutrosophic computation. Systems of neutrosophic linear equations are solved through symbolic computation in Python. A case study was developed for the determination of vehicular traffic with indeterminacy. This king of computation opens new ways to deal with indeterminacy in real-world problems.

On Properties Of Positive Semigroups In Lattices And Totally Real Number Fields, 2021 Claremont Colleges

#### On Properties Of Positive Semigroups In Lattices And Totally Real Number Fields, Siki Wang

*CMC Senior Theses*

In this thesis, we give estimates on the successive minima of positive semigroups in lattices and ideals in totally real number fields. In Chapter 1 we give a brief overview of the thesis, while Chapters 2 – 4 provide expository material on some fundamental theorems about lattices, number fields and height functions, hence setting the necessary background for the original results presented in Chapter 5. The results in Chapter 5 can be summarized as follows. For a full-rank lattice L ⊂ Rd, we are concerned with the semigroup L+ ⊆ L, which denotes the set of all vectors with nonnegative …

A Twisted Generalization Of The Classical Dedekind Sum, 2021 CUNY New York City College of Technology

#### A Twisted Generalization Of The Classical Dedekind Sum, Brad Isaacson

*Publications and Research*

In this paper, we express three different, yet related, character sums in terms of generalized Bernoulli numbers. Two of these sums are generalizations of sums introduced and studied by Berndt and Arakawa–Ibukiyama–Kaneko in the context of the theory of modular forms. A third sum generalizes a sum already studied by Ramanujan in the context of theta function identities. Our methods are elementary, relying only on basic facts from algebra and number theory.

Amm Problem #12219, 2021 CUNY New York City College of Technology

Three Imprimitive Character Sums, 2021 CUNY New York City College of Technology

#### Three Imprimitive Character Sums, Brad Isaacson

*Publications and Research*

We express three imprimitive character sums in terms of generalized Bernoulli numbers. These sums are generalizations of sums introduced and studied by Arakawa, Berndt, Ibukiyama, Kaneko and Ramanujan in the context of modular forms and theta function identities. As a corollary, we obtain a formula for cotangent power sums considered by Apostol.

On Generating Functions In Additive Number Theory, Ii: Lower-Order Terms And Applications To Pdes, 2020 University of Gothenburg

#### On Generating Functions In Additive Number Theory, Ii: Lower-Order Terms And Applications To Pdes, J. Brandes, Scott T. Parsell, C. Poulias, G. Shakan, R. C. Vaughn

*Mathematics Faculty Publications*

We obtain asymptotics for sums of the form

Sigma(p)(n=1) e(alpha(k) n(k) + alpha(1)n),

involving lower order main terms. As an application, we show that for almost all alpha(2) is an element of [0, 1) one has

sup(alpha 1 is an element of[0,1)) | Sigma(1 <= n <= P) e(alpha(1)(n(3) + n) + alpha(2)n(3))| << P3/4+epsilon,

and that in a suitable sense this is best possible. This allows us to improve bounds for the fractal dimension of solutions to the Schrodinger and Airy equations.

On The Local Theory Of Profinite Groups, 2020 Western Michigan University

#### On The Local Theory Of Profinite Groups, Mohammad Shatnawi

*Dissertations*

Let *G* be a finite group, and *H* be a subgroup of G. The transfer homomorphism emerges from the natural action of G on the cosets of *H.* The transfer was first introduced by Schur in 1902 [22] as a construction in group theory, which produce a homomorphism from a finite group *G* into *H/H ^{'}* an abelian group where

*H*is a subgroup of

*G*and

*H'*is the derived group of

*H*. One important first application is Burnside’s normal

*p*-complement theorem [5] in 1911, although he did not use the transfer homomorphism explicitly to prove it. …

Sum Of Cubes Of The First N Integers, 2020 California State University, San Bernardino

#### Sum Of Cubes Of The First N Integers, Obiamaka L. Agu

*Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations*

In Calculus we learned that Sum^{n}_{k=1} k = [n(n+1)]/2 , that Sum^{n}_{k=1} k^2 = [n(n+1)(2n+1)]/6 , and that Sum^{n}_{k=1} k^{3} = (n(n+1)/2)^{2}. These formulas are useful when solving for the area below quadratic or cubic function over an interval [a, b]. This tedious process, solving for areas under a quadratic or a cubic, served as motivation for the introduction of Riemman integrals. For the overzealous math student, these steps were replaced by a simpler method of evaluating antiderivatives at the endpoints a and b. From my recollection, a former instructor informed us to do the value of memorizing these formulas. …

The Name Tag Problem, 2020 Boise State University

#### The Name Tag Problem, Christian Carley

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

The Name Tag Problem is a thought experiment that, when formalized, serves as an introduction to the concept of an orthomorphism of $\Zn$. Orthomorphisms are a type of group permutation and their graphs are used to construct mutually orthogonal Latin squares, affine planes and other objects. This paper walks through the formalization of the Name Tag Problem and its linear solutions, which center around modular arithmetic. The characterization of which linear mappings give rise to these solutions developed in this paper can be used to calculate the exact number of linear orthomorphisms for any additive group Z/nZ, which is demonstrated …

New Theorems For The Digraphs Of Commutative Rings, 2020 Indiana Wesleyan University

#### New Theorems For The Digraphs Of Commutative Rings, Morgan Bounds

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

The digraphs of commutative rings under modular arithmetic reveal intriguing cycle patterns, many of which have yet to be explained. To help illuminate these patterns, we establish a set of new theorems. Rings with relatively prime moduli *a* and *b* are used to predict cycles in the digraph of the ring with modulus *ab*. Rings that use Pythagorean primes as their modulus are shown to always have a cycle in common. Rings with perfect square moduli have cycles that relate to their square root.

Applying The Data: Predictive Analytics In Sport, 2020 University of Washington, Tacoma

#### Applying The Data: Predictive Analytics In Sport, Anthony Teeter, Margo Bergman

*Access*: Interdisciplinary Journal of Student Research and Scholarship*

The history of wagering predictions and their impact on wide reaching disciplines such as statistics and economics dates to at least the 1700’s, if not before. Predicting the outcomes of sports is a multibillion-dollar business that capitalizes on these tools but is in constant development with the addition of big data analytics methods. Sportsline.com, a popular website for fantasy sports leagues, provides odds predictions in multiple sports, produces proprietary computer models of both winning and losing teams, and provides specific point estimates. To test likely candidates for inclusion in these prediction algorithms, the authors developed a computer model, and test …

Decision Making On Teachers’ Adaptation To Cybergogy In Saturated Interval- Valued Refined Neutrosophic Overset /Underset /Offset Environment, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Decision Making On Teachers’ Adaptation To Cybergogy In Saturated Interval- Valued Refined Neutrosophic Overset /Underset /Offset Environment, Florentin Smarandache, Nivetha Martin, Priya R.

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

Neutrosophic overset, neutrosophic underset and neutrosophic offset introduced by Smarandache are the special kinds of neutrosophic sets with values beyond the range [0,1] and these sets are pragmatic in nature as it represents the real life situations. This paper introduces the concept of saturated refined neutrosophic sets and extends the same to the special kinds of neutrosophic sets. The proposed concept is applied in decision making on Teacher’s adaptation to cybergogy. The decision making environment is characterized by different types of teachers, online teaching skills and various training methods. Fuzzy relation is used to match the most suitable method to …

Numerical Computations Of Vortex Formation Length In Flow Past An Elliptical Cylinder, 2020 University of Pittsburgh

#### Numerical Computations Of Vortex Formation Length In Flow Past An Elliptical Cylinder, Matthew Karlson, Bogdan Nita, Ashwin Vaidya

*Department of Mathematics Facuty Scholarship and Creative Works*

We examine two dimensional properties of vortex shedding past elliptical cylinders through numerical simulations. Specifically, we investigate the vortex formation length in the Reynolds number regime 10 to 100 for elliptical bodies of aspect ratio in the range 0.4 to 1.4. Our computations reveal that in the steady flow regime, the change in the vortex length follows a linear profile with respect to the Reynolds number, while in the unsteady regime, the time averaged vortex length decreases in an exponential manner with increasing Reynolds number. The transition in profile is used to identify the critical Reynolds number which marks the …

Arithmetical Structures On Paths With A Doubled Edge, 2020 Gettysburg College

#### Arithmetical Structures On Paths With A Doubled Edge, Darren B. Glass, Joshua R. Wagner

*Math Faculty Publications*

An arithmetical structure on a graph is given by a labeling of the vertices that satisfies certain divisibility properties. In this note, we look at several families of graphs and attempt to give counts on the number of arithmetical structures for graphs in these families.

Small Gaps Between Almost Primes, The Parity Problem, And Some Conjectures Of Erdős On Consecutive Integers Ii, 2020 San Jose State University

#### Small Gaps Between Almost Primes, The Parity Problem, And Some Conjectures Of Erdős On Consecutive Integers Ii, Daniel A. Goldston, Sidney W. Graham, Apoorva Panidapu, Janos Pintz, Jordan Schettler, Cem Y. Yıldırım

*Faculty Publications*

We show that for any positive integer *n*, there is some fixed *A* such that *d(x)* = *d(x +n)* = *A* infinitely often where *d(x) *denotes the number of divisors of *x*. In fact, we establish the stronger result that both *x* and *x +n* have the same fixed exponent pattern for infinitely many *x*. Here the exponent pattern of an integer *x* > 1is the multiset of nonzero exponents which appear in the prime factorization of *x*.

Harmony Amid Chaos, 2020 Olivet Nazarene University

#### Harmony Amid Chaos, Drew Schaffner

*Pence-Boyce STEM Student Scholarship*

We provide a brief but intuitive study on the subjects from which Galois Fields have emerged and split our study up into two categories: harmony and chaos. Specifically, we study finite fields with elements where is prime. Such a finite field can be defined through a logarithm table. The Harmony Section is where we provide three proofs about the overall symmetry and structure of the Galois Field as well as several observations about the order within a given table. In the Chaos Section we make two attempts to analyze the tables, the first by methods used by Vladimir Arnold as …

Cross-Cultural Comparisons: The Art Of Computing The Greatest Common Divisor, 2020 University of St. Thomas - Houston

#### Cross-Cultural Comparisons: The Art Of Computing The Greatest Common Divisor, Mary K. Flagg

*Number Theory*

No abstract provided.

Multiparty Non-Interactive Key Exchange And More From Isogenies On Elliptic Curves, 2020 Stanford University

#### Multiparty Non-Interactive Key Exchange And More From Isogenies On Elliptic Curves, Dan Boneh, Darren B. Glass, Daniel Krashen, Kristin Lauter, Shahed Sharif, Alice Silverberg, Mehdi Tibouchi, Mark Zhandry

*Math Faculty Publications*

We describe a framework for constructing an efficient non-interactive key exchange (NIKE) protocol for *n* parties for any *n* ≥ 2. Our approach is based on the problem of computing isogenies between isogenous elliptic curves, which is believed to be difficult. We do not obtain a working protocol because of a missing step that is currently an open mathematical problem. What we need to complete our protocol is an efficient algorithm that takes as input an abelian variety presented as a product of isogenous elliptic curves, and outputs an isomorphism invariant of the abelian variety.

Our framework builds a *cryptographic …*