33 - On The Existence Of An Arbitrarily Large Number Of Generators For The Presentation Ideal Of A Semigroup Ring., 2018 Georgia State University

#### 33 - On The Existence Of An Arbitrarily Large Number Of Generators For The Presentation Ideal Of A Semigroup Ring., Arun Suresh

*Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)*

Consider K to be an arbitrary field, and P(n_{1},…, n_{m}) be the ideal of polynomials given by

P(n_{1},…, n_{m}) = {f(x_{1}, … , x_{m}) : f(x_{1},…,x_{m}) ∈ K[x_{1},…,x_{m}], f(t^{n}_{1}, … ,t^{n}_{m}) = 0, where t is transcendental over K}.

In 1970, J. Herzog showed that the least upper bound on the number of generators of K, for m = 3, is 3. It can be lowered to two, if n_{1}, n_{2}, n_{3} satisfy a few symmetry conditions. Following that, Bresinsky in 1975, showed ...

On Projection Of A Positive Definite Matrix On A Cone Of Nonnegative Definite Toeplitz Matrices, 2018 Poznań University Of Technology

#### On Projection Of A Positive Definite Matrix On A Cone Of Nonnegative Definite Toeplitz Matrices, Katarzyna Filipiak, Augustyn Markiewicz, Adam Mieldzioc, Aneta Sawikowska

*Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra*

We consider approximation of a given positive definite matrix by nonnegative definite banded Toeplitz matrices. We show that the projection on linear space of Toeplitz matrices does not always preserve nonnegative definiteness. Therefore we characterize a convex cone of nonnegative definite banded Toeplitz matrices which depends on the matrix dimensions, and we show that the condition of positive definiteness given by Parter [{\em Numer. Math. 4}, 293--295, 1962] characterizes the asymptotic cone. In this paper we give methodology and numerical algorithm of the projection basing on the properties of a cone of nonnegative definite Toeplitz matrices. This problem can be ...

Explicit Block-Structures For Block-Symmetric Fiedler-Like Pencils, 2018 University of California, Santa Barbara

#### Explicit Block-Structures For Block-Symmetric Fiedler-Like Pencils, M. I. Bueno, Madeline Martin, Javier Perez, Alexander Song, Irina Viviano

*Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra*

In the last decade, there has been a continued effort to produce families of strong linearizations of a matrix polynomial $P(\lambda)$, regular and singular, with good properties, such as, being companion forms, allowing the recovery of eigenvectors of a regular $P(\lambda)$ in an easy way, allowing the computation of the minimal indices of a singular $P(\lambda)$ in an easy way, etc. As a consequence of this research, families such as the family of Fiedler pencils, the family of generalized Fiedler pencils (GFP), the family of Fiedler pencils with repetition, and the family of generalized Fiedler pencils with ...

On The Largest Distance (Signless Laplacian) Eigenvalue Of Non-Transmission-Regular Graphs, 2018 East China Normal University

#### On The Largest Distance (Signless Laplacian) Eigenvalue Of Non-Transmission-Regular Graphs, Shuting Liu, Jinlong Shu, Jie Xue

*Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra*

Let $G=(V(G),E(G))$ be a $k$-connected graph with $n$ vertices and $m$ edges. Let $D(G)$ be the distance matrix of $G$. Suppose $\lambda_1(D)\geq \cdots \geq \lambda_n(D)$ are the $D$-eigenvalues of $G$. The transmission of $v_i \in V(G)$, denoted by $Tr_G(v_i)$ is defined to be the sum of distances from $v_i$ to all other vertices of $G$, i.e., the row sum $D_{i}(G)$ of $D(G)$ indexed by vertex $v_i$ and suppose that $D_1(G)\geq \cdots \geq D_n(G)$. The $Wiener~ index$ of $G$ denoted by $W ...

Bounded Linear Operators That Preserve The Weak Supermajorization On $\Ell^1(I)^+$, 2018 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Mathematics,University of Niš, Serbia

#### Bounded Linear Operators That Preserve The Weak Supermajorization On $\Ell^1(I)^+$, Martin Z. Ljubenović, Dragan S. Djordjevic

*Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra*

Linear preservers of weak supermajorization which is defined on positive functions contained in the discrete Lebesgue space $\ell^1(I)$ are characterized. Two different classes of operators that preserve the weak supermajorization are formed. It is shown that every linear preserver may be decomposed as sum of two operators from the above classes, and conversely, the sum of two operators which satisfy an additional condition is a linear preserver. Necessary and sufficient conditions under which a bounded linear operator is a linear preserver of the weak supermajorization are given. It is concluded that positive linear preservers of the weak supermajorization ...

Otto Holder's Formal Christening Of The Quotient Group Concept, 2018 Colorado State University-Pueblo

#### Otto Holder's Formal Christening Of The Quotient Group Concept, Janet Heine Barnett

*Abstract Algebra*

No abstract provided.

Galois Groups Of Differential Equations And Representing Algebraic Sets, 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Galois Groups Of Differential Equations And Representing Algebraic Sets, Eli Amzallag

*All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

The algebraic framework for capturing properties of solution sets of differential equations was formally introduced by Ritt and Kolchin. As a parallel to the classical Galois groups of polynomial equations, they devised the notion of a differential Galois group for a linear differential equation. Just as solvability of a polynomial equation by radicals is linked to the equation’s Galois group, so too is the ability to express the solution to a linear differential equation in "closed form" linked to the equation’s differential Galois group. It is thus useful even outside of mathematics to be able to compute and ...

High Performance Sparse Multivariate Polynomials: Fundamental Data Structures And Algorithms, 2018 The University of Western Ontario

#### High Performance Sparse Multivariate Polynomials: Fundamental Data Structures And Algorithms, Alex Brandt

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

Polynomials may be represented sparsely in an effort to conserve memory usage and provide a succinct and natural representation. Moreover, polynomials which are themselves sparse – have very few non-zero terms – will have wasted memory and computation time if represented, and operated on, densely. This waste is exacerbated as the number of variables increases. We provide practical implementations of sparse multivariate data structures focused on data locality and cache complexity. We look to develop high-performance algorithms and implementations of fundamental polynomial operations, using these sparse data structures, such as arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) and interpolation. We revisit a sparse ...

The Largest Eigenvalue And Some Hamiltonian Properties Of Graphs, 2018 University of South Carolina Aiken

#### The Largest Eigenvalue And Some Hamiltonian Properties Of Graphs, Rao Li

*Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra*

In this note, sufficient conditions, based on the largest eigenvalue, are presented for some Hamiltonian properties of graphs.

Proof Of A Conjecture Of Graham And Lovasz Concerning Unimodality Of Coefficients Of The Distance Characteristic Polynomial Of A Tree, 2018 Iowa State University

#### Proof Of A Conjecture Of Graham And Lovasz Concerning Unimodality Of Coefficients Of The Distance Characteristic Polynomial Of A Tree, Ghodratollah Aalipour, Aida Abiad, Zhanar Berikkyzy, Leslie Hogben, Franklin H.J. Kenter, Jephian C.-H. Lin, Michael Tait

*Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra*

The conjecture of Graham and Lov ́asz that the (normalized) coefficients of the distance characteristic polynomial of a tree are unimodal is proved; it is also shown that the (normalized) coefficients are log-concave. Upper and lower bounds on the location of the peak are established.

Extremal Octagonal Chains With Respect To The Spectral Radius, 2018 Anhui University of Science and Technology

#### Extremal Octagonal Chains With Respect To The Spectral Radius, Xianya Geng, Shuchao Li, Wei Wei

*Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra*

Octagonal systems are tree-like graphs comprised of octagons that represent a class of polycyclic conjugated hydrocarbons. In this paper, a roll-attaching operation for the calculation of the characteristic polynomials of octagonal chain graphs is proposed. Based on these characteristic polynomials, the extremal octagonal chains with n octagons having the maximum and minimum spectral radii are identified.

The Effects Of Motivation, Technology And Satisfaction On Student Achievement In Face-To-Face And Online College Algebra Classes, 2018 South Texas College

#### The Effects Of Motivation, Technology And Satisfaction On Student Achievement In Face-To-Face And Online College Algebra Classes, Hanan Jamal Amro, Marie-Anne Mundy, Lori Kupczynski

*TxDLA Journal of Distance Learning*

Demand for online learning has increased in recent years due to the convenience of class delivery. However, some students appear to have difficulties with online education resulting in lack of completion. The study utilized a quantitative approach with archival data and survey design. The factors of demographics, motivation, technology, and satisfaction were compared for face-to-face and online students. MANCOVA tests were performed to analyze the data while controlling age and gender to uncover significant differences between the two groups. The sample and population for this study were predominantly Hispanic students.

Motivation and Technology were non-significant, but satisfaction was proven to ...

Application Of Jordan Algebra For Testing Hypotheses About Structure Of Mean Vector In Model With Block Compound Symmetric Covariance Structure, 2018 Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science and Econometrics, University of Zielona Góra,

#### Application Of Jordan Algebra For Testing Hypotheses About Structure Of Mean Vector In Model With Block Compound Symmetric Covariance Structure, Roman Zmyślony, Ivan Zezula, Arkadiusz Kozioł

*Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra*

In this article authors derive test for structure of mean vector in model with block compound symmetric covariance structure for two-level multivariate observations. One possible structure is so called structured mean vector when its components remain constant over sites or over time points, so that mean vector is of the form $\boldsymbol{1}_{u}\otimes\boldsymbol{\mu}$ with $\boldsymbol{\mu}=(\mu_1,\mu_2,\ldots,\mu_m)'\in\mathbb{R}^m$. This hypothesis is tested against alternative of unstructured mean vector, which can change over sites or over time points.

Inertia Sets Allowed By Matrix Patterns, 2018 Saint Olaf College

#### Inertia Sets Allowed By Matrix Patterns, Adam H. Berliner, Dale D. Olesky, Pauline Van Den Driessche

*Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra*

Motivated by the possible onset of instability in dynamical systems associated with a zero eigenvalue, sets of inertias $\sn_n$ and $\SN{n}$ for sign and zero-nonzero patterns, respectively, are introduced. For an $n\times n$ sign pattern $\mc{A}$ that allows inertia $(0,n-1,1)$, a sufficient condition is given for $\mc{A}$ and every superpattern of $\mc{A}$ to allow $\sn_n$, and a family of such irreducible sign patterns for all $n\geq 3$ is specified. All zero-nonzero patterns (up to equivalence) that allow $\SN{3}$ and $\SN{4}$ are determined, and are described by their associated digraphs.

Some Graphs Determined By Their Distance Spectrum, 2018 Department of mathematics & statistics, McGill University, Montreal

#### Some Graphs Determined By Their Distance Spectrum, Stephen Drury, Huiqiu Lin

*Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra*

Let $G$ be a connected graph with order $n$. Let $\lambda_1(D(G))\geq \cdots\geq \lambda_n(D(G))$ be the distance spectrum of $G$. In this paper, it is shown that the complements of $P_n$ and $C_n$ are determined by their $D$-spectrum. Moreover, it is shown that the cycle $C_n$ ($n$ odd) is also determined by its $D$-spectrum.

A Tensor's Torsion, 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

#### A Tensor's Torsion, Neil Steinburg

*Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research Papers in Mathematics*

While tensor products are quite prolific in commutative algebra, even some of their most basic properties remain relatively unknown. We explore one of these properties, namely a tensor's torsion. In particular, given any finitely generated modules, M and N over a ring R, the tensor product $M\otimes_R N$ almost always has nonzero torsion unless one of the modules M or N is free. Specifically, we look at which rings guarantee nonzero torsion in tensor products of non-free modules over the ring. We conclude that a specific subclass of one-dimensional Gorenstein rings will have this property.

Adviser: Roger Wiegand ...

Factorization In Integral Domains., 2018 University of Louisville

#### Factorization In Integral Domains., Ryan H. Gipson

*Electronic Theses and Dissertations*

We investigate the atomicity and the AP property of the semigroup rings F[X; M], where F is a field, X is a variable and M is a submonoid of the additive monoid of nonnegative rational numbers. In this endeavor, we introduce the following notions: essential generators of M and elements of height (0, 0, 0, . . .) within a cancellative torsion-free monoid Γ. By considering the latter, we are able to determine the irreducibility of certain binomials of the form Xπ − 1, where π is of height (0, 0, 0, . . .), in the monoid domain. Finally, we will consider relations between the ...

Developments In Multivariate Post Quantum Cryptography., 2018 University of Louisville

#### Developments In Multivariate Post Quantum Cryptography., Jeremy Robert Vates

*Electronic Theses and Dissertations*

Ever since Shor's algorithm was introduced in 1994, cryptographers have been working to develop cryptosystems that can resist known quantum computer attacks. This push for quantum attack resistant schemes is known as post quantum cryptography. Specifically, my contributions to post quantum cryptography has been to the family of schemes known as Multivariate Public Key Cryptography (MPKC), which is a very attractive candidate for digital signature standardization in the post quantum collective for a wide variety of applications. In this document I will be providing all necessary background to fully understand MPKC and post quantum cryptography as a whole. Then ...

On N/P-Asymptotic Distribution Of Vector Of Weighted Traces Of Powers Of Wishart Matrices, 2018 Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden

#### On N/P-Asymptotic Distribution Of Vector Of Weighted Traces Of Powers Of Wishart Matrices, Jolanta Maria Pielaszkiewicz, Dietrich Von Rosen, Martin Singull

*Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra*

The joint distribution of standardized traces of $\frac{1}{n}XX'$ and of $\Big(\frac{1}{n}XX'\Big)^2$, where the matrix $X:p\times n$ follows a matrix normal distribution is proved asymptotically to be multivariate normal under condition $\frac{{n}}{p}\overset{n,p\rightarrow\infty}{\rightarrow}c>0$. Proof relies on calculations of asymptotic moments and cumulants obtained using a recursive formula derived in Pielaszkiewicz et al. (2015). The covariance matrix of the underlying vector is explicitely given as a function of $n$ and $p$.

A Note On The Matrix Arithmetic-Geometric Mean Inequality, 2018 University of Central Florida

#### A Note On The Matrix Arithmetic-Geometric Mean Inequality, Teng Zhang

*Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra*

This note proves the following inequality: If $n=3k$ for some positive integer $k$, then for any $n$ positive definite matrices $\bA_1,\bA_2,\dots,\bA_n$, the following inequality holds: \begin{equation*}\label{eq:main} \frac{1}{n^3} \, \Big\|\sum_{j_1,j_2,j_3=1}^{n}\bA_{j_1}\bA_{j_2}\bA_{j_3}\Big\| \,\geq\, \frac{(n-3)!}{n!} \, \Big\|\sum_{\substack{j_1,j_2,j_3=1,\\\text{$j_1$, $j_2$, $j_3$ all distinct}}}^{n}\bA_{j_1}\bA_{j_2}\bA_{j_3}\Big\|, \end{equation*} where $\|\cdot\|$ represents the operator norm. This inequality is a special case of a recent conjecture proposed by Recht and R ...