A Stronger Strong Schottky Lemma For Euclidean Buildings, 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### A Stronger Strong Schottky Lemma For Euclidean Buildings, Michael E. Ferguson

*Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

We provide a criterion for two hyperbolic isometries of a Euclidean building to generate a free group of rank two. In particular, we extend the application of a Strong Schottky Lemma to buildings given by Alperin, Farb and Noskov. We then use this extension to obtain an infinite family of matrices that generate a free group of rank two. In doing so, we also introduce an algorithm that terminates in finite time if the lemma is applicable for pairs of certain kinds of matrices acting on the Euclidean building for the special linear group over certain discretely valued fields.

From Mirrors To Wallpapers: A Virtual Math Circle Module On Symmetry, 2023 Central New Mexico Community College

#### From Mirrors To Wallpapers: A Virtual Math Circle Module On Symmetry, Nicole A. Sullivant, Christina L. Duron, Douglas T. Pfeffer

*Journal of Math Circles*

Symmetry is a natural property that children see in their everyday lives; it also has deep mathematical connections to areas like tiling and objects like wallpaper groups. The Tucson Math Circle (TMC) presents a 7-part module on symmetry that starts with reflective symmetry and culminates in the deconstruction of wallpapers into their ‘generating tiles’. This module utilizes a scaffolded, hands-on approach to cover old and new mathematical topics with various interactive activities; all activities are made available through free web-based platforms. In this paper, we provide lesson plans for the various activities used, and discuss their online implementation with Zoom, …

(R1509) Topsis And Vikor Methods For Spherical Fuzzy Soft Set Aggregating Operator Framework, 2022 Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences

#### (R1509) Topsis And Vikor Methods For Spherical Fuzzy Soft Set Aggregating Operator Framework, M. Palanikumar, K. Arulmozhi, Lejo J. Manavalan

*Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)*

The Spherical Fuzzy Soft (SFS) set is a generalization of the Pythagorean fuzzy soft set and the intuitionistic fuzzy soft set. We introduce the concept of aggregating SFS decision matrices based on aggregated operations. The techniques for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) and viekriterijumsko kompromisno rangiranje (VIKOR) for the SFS approaches are the strong points of multi criteria group decision making (MCGDM), which is various extensions of fuzzy soft sets. We define a score function based on aggregating TOPSIS and VIKOR methods to the SFS-positive and SFS-negative ideal solutions. The TOPSIS and VIKOR methods provide decision-making …

(R1978) Heated Laminar Vertical Jet Of Psudoplastic Fluids-Against Gravity, 2022 Sarvajanik College of Engineering and Technology

#### (R1978) Heated Laminar Vertical Jet Of Psudoplastic Fluids-Against Gravity, Manisha Patel, M. G. Timol

*Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)*

A heated laminar jet of Pseudo-plastic fluid flowing vertically upwards from a long narrow slit into a region of the same fluid which is at a rest and at a uniform temperature is considered. The governing non-linear Partial differential equations (PDEs) for the defined flow problem are transformed into non-linear ordinary differential equations using the effective similarity technique-one parameter deductive group theory method. The obtained non-linear coupled Ordinary differential equations are solved and the results are presented by graphs. The effect of the Prandtl number and Grashof number on the velocity and temperature of the jet flow is discussed. Also, …

(R1979) Permanent Of Toeplitz-Hessenberg Matrices With Generalized Fibonacci And Lucas Entries, 2022 RECITS Laboratory

#### (R1979) Permanent Of Toeplitz-Hessenberg Matrices With Generalized Fibonacci And Lucas Entries, Hacène Belbachir, Amine Belkhir, Ihab-Eddine Djellas

*Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)*

In the present paper, we evaluate the permanent and determinant of some Toeplitz-Hessenberg matrices with generalized Fibonacci and generalized Lucas numbers as entries.We develop identities involving sums of products of generalized Fibonacci numbers and generalized Lucas numbers with multinomial coefficients using the matrix structure, and then we present an application of the determinant of such matrices.

(R1500) Type-I Generalized Spherical Interval Valued Fuzzy Soft Sets In Medical Diagnosis For Decision Making, 2022 Annamalai University

#### (R1500) Type-I Generalized Spherical Interval Valued Fuzzy Soft Sets In Medical Diagnosis For Decision Making, M. Palanikumar, K. Arulmozhi

*Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)*

In the present communication, we introduce the concept of Type-I generalized spherical interval valued fuzzy soft set and define some operations. It is a generalization of the interval valued fuzzy soft set and the spherical fuzzy soft set. The spherical interval valued fuzzy soft set theory satisfies the condition that the sum of its degrees of positive, neutral, and negative membership does not exceed unity and that these parameters are assigned independently. We also propose an algorithm to solve the decision making problem based on a Type-I generalized soft set model. We introduce a similarity measure based on the Type-I …

Voting Rules And Properties, 2022 William & Mary

#### Voting Rules And Properties, Zhuorong Mao

*Undergraduate Honors Theses*

This thesis composes of two chapters. Chapter one considers the higher order of Borda Rules (Bp) and the Perron Rule (P) as extensions of the classic Borda Rule. We study the properties of those vector-valued voting rules and compare them with Simple Majority Voting (SMV). Using simulation, we found that SMV can yield different results from B1, B2, and P even when it is transitive. We also give a new condition that forces SMV to be transitive, and then quantify the frequency of transitivity when it fails.

In chapter two, we study the `protocol paradox' of approval voting. In approval …

Cohen-Macaulay Type Of Weighted Path Ideals, 2022 Clemson University

#### Cohen-Macaulay Type Of Weighted Path Ideals, Shuai Wei

*All Dissertations*

In this dissertation we give a combinatorial characterization of all the weighted $r$-path suspensions for which the $f$-weighted $r$-path ideal is Cohen-Macaulay. In particular, it is shown that the $f$-weighted $r$-path ideal of a weighted $r$-path suspension is Cohen-Macaulay if and only if it is unmixed. Type is an important invariant of a Cohen-Macaulay homogeneous ideal in a polynomial ring $R$ with coefficients in a field. We compute the type of $R/I$ when $I$ is any Cohen-Macaulay $f$-weighted $r$-path ideal of any weighted $r$-path suspension, for some chosen function $f$. In particular, this computes the type for all weighted trees …

Extension Of Fundamental Transversals And Euler’S Polyhedron Theorem, 2022 University of South Florida

#### Extension Of Fundamental Transversals And Euler’S Polyhedron Theorem, Joy Marie D'Andrea

*Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research*

No abstract provided.

A Cluster Structure On The Coordinate Ring Of Partial Flag Varieties, 2022 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### A Cluster Structure On The Coordinate Ring Of Partial Flag Varieties, Fayadh Kadhem

*LSU Doctoral Dissertations*

The main goal of this dissertation is to show that the (multi-homogeneous) coordinate ring of a partial flag variety C[G/P_K^−] contains a cluster algebra for every semisimple complex algebraic group G. We use derivation properties and a canonical lifting map to prove that the cluster algebra structure A of the coordinate ring C[N_K] of a Schubert cell constructed by Goodearl and Yakimov can be lifted, in an explicit way, to a cluster structure \hat{A} living in the coordinate ring of the corresponding partial flag variety. Then we use a minimality condition to prove that the cluster algebra \hat{A} is equal …

College Algebra Slide Decks, 2022 Fort Hays State University

#### College Algebra Slide Decks, Bader Abukhodair, Michelle Zeng

*Open Educational Resources*

This collection of slide decks is designed to be used in concert with the following Open Eduational Resources:

- OpenStax College Algebra 2e Open Texbook

- Department of Mathematics Video Playlist

- Homework questions from myOpenMath

Concepts include are: A study of equations, graphs, and inequalities for linear, quadratic, polynomial, rational, logarithmic, exponential, and absolute value functions. Transformations on graphs, complex numbers, circles, systems of inequalities, and systems of equations including matrices.

(Si10-063) Number Of Automorphisms Of Some Non-Abelian P-Groups Of Order P^4, 2022 Shri Jagdishprasad Jhabarmal Tibrewala University

#### (Si10-063) Number Of Automorphisms Of Some Non-Abelian P-Groups Of Order P^4, Muniya ., Harsha Arora, Mahender Singh

*Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)*

The automorphism of a group is a way of mapping the object to itself while preserving all of its structure, and the set of automorphisms of an object forms a group called the automorphism group. It is simply a bijective homomorphism. One of the earliest group automorphism was given by Irish mathematician William Rowan Hamilton in 1856, in his icosian calculus where he discovered an order two automorphism. In this paper, we compute the automorphisms of some non-Abelian groups of order p^{4}, where p is an odd prime and GAP (Group Algorithm Programming) software has been used for …

Generalizations Of Commutativity In Dihedral Groups, 2022 Rose Hulman Institute of Technology

#### Generalizations Of Commutativity In Dihedral Groups, Noah A. Heckenlively

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

The probability that two elements commute in a non-Abelian finite group is at most 5 8 . We prove several generalizations of this result for dihedral groups. In particular, we give specific values for the probability that a product of an arbitrary number of dihedral group elements is equal to its reverse, and also for the probability that a product of three elements is equal to a permutation of itself or to a cyclic permutation of itself. We also show that for any r and n, there exists a dihedral group such that the probability that a product of n …

Automorphism-Preserving Color Substitutions On Profinite Graphs, 2022 The University of Western Ontario

#### Automorphism-Preserving Color Substitutions On Profinite Graphs, Michal Cizek

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

Profinite groups are topological groups which are known to be Galois groups. Their free product was extensively studied by Luis Ribes and Pavel Zaleskii using the notion of a profinite graph and having profinite groups act freely on such graphs. This thesis explores a different approach to study profinite groups using profinite graphs and that is with the notion of automorphisms and colors. It contains a generalization to profinite graphs of the theorem of Frucht (1939) that shows that every finite group is a group of automorphisms of a finite connected graph, and establishes a profinite analog of the theorem …

Reduction Of L-Functions Of Elliptic Curves Modulo Integers, 2022 The University of Western Ontario

#### Reduction Of L-Functions Of Elliptic Curves Modulo Integers, Félix Baril Boudreau

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

Let $\mathbb{F}_q$ be a finite field of size $q$, where $q$ is a power of a prime $p \geq 5$. Let $C$ be a smooth, proper, and geometrically connected curve over $\mathbb{F}_q$. Consider an elliptic curve $E$ over the function field $K$ of $C$ with nonconstant $j$-invariant. One can attach to $E$ its $L$-function $L(T,E/K)$, which is a generating function that contains information about the reduction types of $E$ at the different places of $K$. The $L$-function of $E/K$ was proven to be a polynomial in $\mathbb{Z}[T]$.

In 1985, Schoof devised an algorithm to compute the zeta function of an …

The Hfd Property In Orders Of A Number Field, 2022 Clemson University

#### The Hfd Property In Orders Of A Number Field, Grant Moles

*All Theses*

We will examine orders *R* in a number field *K*. In particular, we will look at how the generalized class number of *R* relates to the class number of its integral closure *R*. We will then apply this to the case when *K* is a quadratic field to produce a more specific relation. After this, we will focus on orders *R* which are half-factorial domains (HFDs), in which the irreducible factorization of any element *α*∈*R* has fixed length. We will determine two cases in which *R* is an HFD if and only if its ring of …

Lyubeznik Ideals Minimally Generated By Four Or Fewer Elements, 2022 Clemson University

#### Lyubeznik Ideals Minimally Generated By Four Or Fewer Elements, Nathan S. Fontes

*All Theses*

Free resolutions for an ideal are constructions that tell us useful information about the structure of the ideal. Every ideal has one minimal free resolution which tells us significantly more about the structure of the ideal. In this thesis, we consider a specific type of resolution, the Lyubeznik resolution, for a monomial ideal *I*, which is constructed using a total order on the minimal generating set *G(I)*. An ideal is called Lyubeznik if some total order on *G(I)* produces a minimal Lyubeznik resolution for *I*. We investigate the problem of characterizing whether an ideal I is Lyubeznik …

Efficiency Of Homomorphic Encryption Schemes, 2022 Clemson University

#### Efficiency Of Homomorphic Encryption Schemes, Kyle Yates

*All Theses*

In 2009, Craig Gentry introduced the first fully homomorphic encryption scheme using bootstrapping. In the 13 years since, a large amount of research has gone into improving efficiency of homomorphic encryption schemes. This includes implementing leveled homomorphic encryption schemes for practical use, which are schemes that allow for some predetermined amount of additions and multiplications that can be performed on ciphertexts. These leveled schemes have been found to be very efficient in practice. In this thesis, we will discuss the efficiency of various homomorphic encryption schemes. In particular, we will see how to improve sizes of parameter choices in homomorphic …

Identifying Trace Affine Linear Sets Using Homotopy Continuation, 2022 Clemson University

#### Identifying Trace Affine Linear Sets Using Homotopy Continuation, Julianne Mckay

*All Theses*

We investigate how the coefficients of a sparse polynomial system influence the sum, or the trace, of its solutions. We discuss an extension of the classical trace test in numerical algebraic geometry to sparse polynomial systems. Two known methods for identifying a trace affine linear subset of the support of a sparse polynomial system use sparse resultants and polyhedral geometry, respectively. We introduce a new approach which provides more precise classifications of trace affine linear sets than was previously known. For this new approach, we developed software in Macaulay2.

Conductors And Rings With Shared Ideals, 2022 Clemson University

#### Conductors And Rings With Shared Ideals, Sydney Maibach

*All Theses*

Given an additive subgroup $I$ of a field $K$, we define the colon ideal (I:I) = {\alpha \in K: \alpha I \subseteq I}. We then use this to construct collections of rings with shared ideals and explore relationships between these concepts and the complete integral closure.