Winning Strategy For Multiplayer And Multialliance Geometric Game, 2021 Whitman College

#### Winning Strategy For Multiplayer And Multialliance Geometric Game, Jingkai Ye

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

The Geometric Sequence with common ratio 2 is one of the most well-known geometric sequences. Every term is a nonnegative power of 2. Using this popular sequence, we can create a Geometric Game which contains combining moves (combining two copies of the same terms into the one copy of next term) and splitting moves (splitting three copies of the same term into two copies of previous terms and one copy of the next term). For this Geometric Game, we are able to prove that the game is finite and the final game state is unique. Furthermore, we are able to ...

A Proof Of A Generalization Of Niven's Theorem Using Algebraic Number Theory, 2021 University of Maryland, College Park

#### A Proof Of A Generalization Of Niven's Theorem Using Algebraic Number Theory, Caroline Nunn

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

Niven’s theorem states that the sine, cosine, and tangent functions are rational for only a few rational multiples of π. Specifically, for angles θ that are rational multiples of π, the only rational values of sin(θ) and cos(θ) are 0, ±½, and ±1. For tangent, the only rational values are 0 and ±1. We present a proof of this fact, along with a generalization, using the structure of ideals in imaginary quadratic rings. We first show that the theorem holds for the tangent function using elementary properties of Gaussian integers, before extending the approach to other imaginary ...

Equisingular Approximation Of Analytic Germs, 2021 The University of Western Ontario

#### Equisingular Approximation Of Analytic Germs, Aftab Yusuf Patel

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

This thesis deals with the problem of approximating germs of real or complex analytic spaces by Nash or algebraic germs. In particular, we investigate the problem of approximating analytic germs in various ways while preserving the Hilbert-Samuel function, which is of importance in the resolution of singularities. We first show that analytic germs that are complete intersections can be arbitrarily closely approximated by algebraic germs which are complete intersections with the same Hilbert-Samuel function. We then show that analytic germs whose local rings are Cohen-Macaulay can be arbitrarily closely approximated by Nash germs whose local rings are Cohen- Macaulay and ...

Symmetric Representations Of Finite Groups And Related Topics, 2021 California State University, San Bernardino

#### Symmetric Representations Of Finite Groups And Related Topics, Connie Corona

*Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations*

In this thesis, we have presented our discovery of original symmetric presentations of a number of non-abelian simple groups, including several sporatic groups, linear groups, and classical groups.

We have constructed, using our technique of double coset enumeration, J2, M_{12}, J_{1}, PSU(3, 3):2, M_{11}, A_{10}, S(4,3), M_{22}:2, PSL(3, 4), S_{6}, 2:S_{5}, 2:PSL(3, 4) as homomorphic images of the involutory progenitors 2^{*32}:(2^{5}:A_{5}), 2^{*110}: PSL(2, 11), 2^{*5}:A_{5}, 3^{*4}:D_{8}, 2^{*110}:PSL(2, 11 ...

(R1466) Ideals And Filters On A Lattice In Neutrosophic Setting, 2021 University of M’sila

#### (R1466) Ideals And Filters On A Lattice In Neutrosophic Setting, Lemnaouar Zedam, Soheyb Milles, Abdelhamid Bennoui

*Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)*

The notions of ideals and filters have studied in many algebraic (crisp) fuzzy structures and used to study their various properties, representations and characterizations. In addition to their theoretical roles, they have used in some areas of applied mathematics. In a recent paper, Arockiarani and Antony Crispin Sweety have generalized and studied these notions with respect to the concept of neutrosophic sets introduced by Smarandache to represent imprecise, incomplete and inconsistent information. In this article, we aim to deepen the study of these important notions on a given lattice in the neutrosophic setting. We show their various properties and characterizations ...

A Study In Applications Of Continued Fractions, 2021 California State University, San Bernardino

#### A Study In Applications Of Continued Fractions, Karen Lynn Parrish

*Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations*

This is an expository study of continued fractions collecting ideas from several different sources including textbooks and journal articles. This study focuses on several applications of continued fractions from a variety of levels and fields of mathematics. Studies begin with looking at a number of properties that pertain to continued fractions and then move on to show how applications of continued fractions is relevant to high school level mathematics including approximating irrational numbers and developing new ideas for understanding and solving quadratics equations. Focus then continues to more advanced applications such as those used in the studies of number theory ...

Finite Groups In Which The Number Of Cyclic Subgroups Is 3/4 The Order Of The Group, 2021 Missouri State University

#### Finite Groups In Which The Number Of Cyclic Subgroups Is 3/4 The Order Of The Group, James Alexander Cayley

*MSU Graduate Theses*

Let $G$ be a finite group, *c(G)* denotes the number of cyclic subgroups of *G* and *α(G) = c(G)/|G|*. In this thesis we go over some basic properties of alpha, calculate alpha for some families of groups, with an emphasis on groups with *α(G) = 3/4*, as all groups with *α(G) > 3/4* have been classified by Garonzi and Lima (2018). We find all Dihedral group with this property, show all groups with *α(G) = 3/4* have at least *|G|/2-1* involutions, and discuss existing work by Wall (1970) and Miller (1919) classifying all ...

Rigid Connections On The Projective Line With Elliptic Toral Singularities, 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### Rigid Connections On The Projective Line With Elliptic Toral Singularities, Alisina Azhang

*LSU Doctoral Dissertations*

We generalize two studies of rigid $G$-connections on $\pp$ which have an irregular singularity at origin and a regular singularity at infinity with unipotent monodromy: one is the work of Kamgarpour-Sage which classifies rigid homogeneous Coxeter $G$-connections with slope $\frac{r}{h}$, where $h$ is the Coxeter number of $G$, and the other is the work of Chen, which proves the existence of rigid homogeneous elliptic regular $G$-connections with slope $\frac{1}{m}$, where $m$ is an elliptic number for $G$. In our work, similar to Chen, we look for rigid homogeneous elliptic regular $G$-connections, but ...

Categorical Aspects Of Graphs, 2021 Western University

#### Categorical Aspects Of Graphs, Jacob D. Ender

*Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference*

In this article, we introduce a categorical characterization of directed and undirected graphs, and explore subcategories of reflexive and simple graphs. We show that there are a number of adjunctions between such subcategories, exploring varying combinations of graph types.

College Algebra Through Problem Solving (2021 Edition), 2021 CUNY Queensborough Community College

#### College Algebra Through Problem Solving (2021 Edition), Danielle Cifone, Karan Puri, Debra Maslanko, Ewa Stelmach

*Open Educational Resources*

This is a self-contained, open educational resource (OER) textbook for college algebra. Students can use the book to learn concepts and work in the book themselves. Instructors can adapt the book for use in any college algebra course to facilitate active learning through problem solving. Additional resources such as classroom assessments and online/printable homework is available from the authors.

Beurling-Lax Type Theorems And Cuntz Relations, 2021 Chapman University

#### Beurling-Lax Type Theorems And Cuntz Relations, Daniel Alpay, Fabrizio Colombo, Irene Sabadini, Baruch Schneider

*Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research*

We prove various Beurling-Lax type theorems, when the classical backward-shift operator is replaced by a general resolvent operator associated with a rational function. We also study connections to the Cuntz relations. An important tool is a new representation result for analytic functions, in terms of composition and multiplication operators associated with a given rational function. Applications to the theory of de Branges-Rovnyak spaces, also in the indefinite metric setting, are given.

Free Complexes Over The Exterior Algebra With Small Homology, 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

#### Free Complexes Over The Exterior Algebra With Small Homology, Erica Hopkins

*Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research Papers in Mathematics*

Let M be a graded module over a standard graded polynomial ring *S*. The Total Rank Conjecture by Avramov-Buchweitz predicts the total Betti number of M should be at least the total Betti number of the residue field. Walker proved this is indeed true in a large number of cases. One could then try to push this result further by generalizing this conjecture to finite free complexes which is known as the Generalized Total Rank Conjecture. However, Iyengar and Walker constructed examples to show this generalized conjecture is not always true.

In this thesis, we investigate other counterexamples of the ...

Algorithms Related To Triangle Groups, 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### Algorithms Related To Triangle Groups, Bao The Pham

*LSU Doctoral Dissertations*

Given a finite index subgroup of $\PSL_2(\Z)$, one can talk about the different properties of this subgroup. These properties have been studied extensively in an attempt to classify these subgroups. Tim Hsu created an algorithm to determine whether a subgroup is a congruence subgroup by using permutations \cite{hsu}. Lang, Lim, and Tan also created an algorithm to determine if a subgroup is a congruence subgroup by using Farey Symbols \cite{llt}. Sebbar classified torsion-free congruence subgroups of genus 0 \cite{sebbar}. Pauli and Cummins computed and tabulated all congruence subgroups of genus less than 24 \cite{ps}. However ...

Irreducibility And Galois Groups Of Random Polynomials, 2021 Stanford University

#### Irreducibility And Galois Groups Of Random Polynomials, Hanson Hao, Eli Navarro, Henri Stern

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

In 2015, I. Rivin introduced an effective method to bound the number of irreducible integral polynomials with fixed degree d and height at most N. In this paper, we give a brief summary of this result and discuss the precision of Rivin's arguments for special classes of polynomials. We also give elementary proofs of classic results on Galois groups of cubic trinomials.

Disjointness Of Linear Fractional Actions On Serre Trees, 2021 Brown University

#### Disjointness Of Linear Fractional Actions On Serre Trees, Henry W. Talbott

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

Serre showed that, for a discrete valuation field, the group of linear fractional transformations acts on an infinite regular tree with vertex degree determined by the residue degree of the field. Since the p-adics and the polynomials over the finite field of order p act on isomorphic trees, we may ask whether pairs of actions from these two groups are ever conjugate as tree automorphisms. We analyze permutations induced on finite vertex sets, and show a permutation classification result for actions by these linear fractional transformation groups. We prove that actions by specific subgroups of these groups are conjugate only ...

Directed Graphs Of The Finite Tropical Semiring, 2021 Dordt University

#### Directed Graphs Of The Finite Tropical Semiring, Caden G. Zonnefeld

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

The focus of this paper lies at the intersection of the fields of tropical algebra and graph theory. In particular the interaction between tropical semirings and directed graphs is investigated. Originally studied by Lipvoski, the directed graph of a ring is useful in identifying properties within the algebraic structure of a ring. This work builds off research completed by Beyer and Fields, Hausken and Skinner, and Ang and Shulte in constructing directed graphs from rings. However, we will investigate the relationship (x, y)→(min(x, y), x+y) as defined by the operations of tropical algebra and applied to tropical ...

Computable Model Theory On Loops, 2021 Northern Michigan University

#### Computable Model Theory On Loops, Josiah Schmidt

*All NMU Master's Theses*

We give an introduction to the problem of computable algebras. Specifically, the algebras of loops and groups. We start by defining a loop and group, then give some of their properties. We then give an overview of comptability theory, and apply it to loops and groups. We conclude by showing that a finitely presented residually finite algebra has a solvable word problem.

Negative Representability Degree Structures Of Linear Orders With Endomorphisms, 2021 National University of Uzbekistan

#### Negative Representability Degree Structures Of Linear Orders With Endomorphisms, Nadimulla Kasymov, Sarvar Javliyev

*Bulletin of National University of Uzbekistan: Mathematics and Natural Sciences*

The structure of partially ordered sets of degrees of negative representability of linear orders with endomorphisms is studied. For these structures, the existence of incomparable, maximum and minimum degrees, infinite chains and antichains is established,and also considered connections with the concepts of reducibility of enumerations, splittable degrees and positive representetions.

Noncommutative Tensor Triangular Geometry And Its Applications To Representation Theory, 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### Noncommutative Tensor Triangular Geometry And Its Applications To Representation Theory, Kent Barton Vashaw

*LSU Doctoral Dissertations*

One of the cornerstones of the representation theory of Hopf algebras and finite tensor categories is the theory of support varieties. Balmer introduced tensor triangular geometry for symmetric monoidal triangulated categories, which united various support variety theories coming from disparate areas such as homotopy theory, algebraic geometry, and representation theory. In this thesis a noncommutative version will be introduced and developed. We show that this noncommutative analogue of Balmer's theory can be determined in many concrete situations via the theory of abstract support data, and can be used to classify thick tensor ideals. We prove an analogue of prime ...

On The Generalization Of Interval Valued Fuzzy Generalized Bi-Ideals In Ordered Semigroups, 2021 Hazara University

#### On The Generalization Of Interval Valued Fuzzy Generalized Bi-Ideals In Ordered Semigroups, Muhammad S. Ali Khan, Saleem Abdullah, Kostaq Hila

*Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)*

In this paper, a new general form than interval valued fuzzy generalized bi-ideals in ordered semigroups is introduced. The concept of interval valued fuzzy generalized bi-ideals is initiated and several properties and characterizations are provided. A condition for an interval valued fuzzy generalized bi-ideal to be an interval valued fuzzy generalized bi-ideal is obtained. Using implication operators and the notion of implication-based an interval valued fuzzy generalized bi-ideal, characterizations of an interval valued fuzzy generalized bi-ideal and an interval valued fuzzy generalized bi-ideal are considered.