Algebraic Structures And Variations: From Latin Squares To Lie Quasigroups, 2021 Northern Michigan University

#### Algebraic Structures And Variations: From Latin Squares To Lie Quasigroups, Erik Flinn

*All NMU Master's Theses*

In this Master's Thesis we give an overview of the algebraic structure of sets with a single binary operation. Specifically, we are interested in quasigroups and loops and their historical connection with Latin squares; considering them in both finite and continuous variations. We also consider various mappings between such algebraic objects and utilize matrix representations to give a negative conclusion to a question concerning isotopies in the case of quasigroups.

Introduction To Neutrosophic Genetics, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Introduction To Neutrosophic Genetics, Florentin Smarandache

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

Neutrosophic Genetics is the study of genetics using neutrosophic logic, set, probability, statistics, measure and other neutrosophic tools and procedures. In this paper, based on the Neutrosophic Theory of Evolution (that includes degrees of Evolution, Neutrality (or Indeterminacy), and Involution) – as extension of Darwin’s Theory of Evolution, we show the applicability of neutrosophy in genetics, and we present within the frame of neutrosophic genetics the following concepts: neutrosophic mutation, neutrosophic speciation, and neutrosophic coevolution.

Structure, Neutrostructure, And Antistructure In Science, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Structure, Neutrostructure, And Antistructure In Science, Florentin Smarandache

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In any science, a classical Theorem, defined on a given space, is a statement that is 100% true (i.e. true for all elements of the space). To prove that a classical theorem is false, it is sufficient to get a single counter-example where the statement is false. Therefore, the classical sciences do not leave room for partial truth of a theorem (or a statement). But, in our world and in our everyday life, we have many more examples of statements that are only partially true, than statements that are totally true. The NeutroTheorem and AntiTheorem are generalizations and alternatives ...

A Novel Framework Using Neutrosophy For Integrated Speech And Text Sentiment Analysis, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### A Novel Framework Using Neutrosophy For Integrated Speech And Text Sentiment Analysis, Florentin Smarandache, Kritika Mishra, Ilanthenral Kandasamy, Vasantha Kandasamy W.B.

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

With increasing data on the Internet, it is becoming difficult to analyze every bit and make sure it can be used efficiently for all the businesses. One useful technique using Natural Language Processing (NLP) is sentiment analysis. Various algorithms can be used to classify textual data based on various scales ranging from just positive-negative, positive-neutral-negative to a wide spectrum of emotions. While a lot of work has been done on text, only a lesser amount of research has been done on audio datasets. An audio file contains more features that can be extracted from its amplitude and frequency than a ...

True-False Set Is A Particular Case Of The Refined Neutrosophic Set, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### True-False Set Is A Particular Case Of The Refined Neutrosophic Set, Florentin Smarandache, Said Broumi

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

Borzooei, Mohseni Takallo, and Jun recently proposed a new type of set, called True-False Set [1], and they claimed it is a generalization of Neutrosophic Set [2]. We prove that this assertion is untrue. Actually it’s the opposite, the True-False Set is a particular case of the Refined Neutrosophic Set.

Plithogenic Cubic Sets, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Plithogenic Cubic Sets, Florentin Smarandache, S.P. Priyadharshini, F. Nirmala Irudayam

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In this article, using the concepts of cubic set and plithogenic set, the ideas of plithogenic fuzzy cubic set, plithogenic intuitionistic fuzzy cubic set, plithogenic neutrosophic cubic set are introduced and its corresponding internal and external cubic sets are discussed with examples.

A Novel Approach For Assessing The Reliability Of Data Contained In A Single Valued Neutrosophic Number And Its Application In Multiple Criteria Decision Making, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### A Novel Approach For Assessing The Reliability Of Data Contained In A Single Valued Neutrosophic Number And Its Application In Multiple Criteria Decision Making, Florentin Smarandache, Dragisa Stanujkic, Darjan Karabasevic, Gabrijela Popovic

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

Multiple criteria decision making is one of the many areas where neutrosophic sets have been applied to solve various problems so far.

On Product Of Smooth Neutrosophic Topological Spaces, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### On Product Of Smooth Neutrosophic Topological Spaces, Florentin Smarandache, Kalaivani Chandran, Swathi Sundari Sundaramoorthy, Saeid Jafari

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In this paper, we develop the notion of the basis for a smooth neutrosophic topology in a more natural way. As a sequel, we define the notion of symmetric neutrosophic quasi-coincident neighborhood systems and prove some interesting results that fit with the classical ones, to establish the consistency of theory developed. Finally, we define and discuss the concept of product topology, in this context, using the definition of basis.

Length Neutrosophic Subalgebras Of Bck/Bci-Algebras, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Length Neutrosophic Subalgebras Of Bck/Bci-Algebras, Florentin Smarandache, Young Bae Jun, Madad Khan, Seok-Zun Song

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

the notion of (i, j, k)-length neutrosophic subalgebras in BCK/BCI-algebras is introduced, and their properties are investigated. Characterizations of length neutrosophic subalgebras are discussed by using level sets of interval neutrosophic sets. Conditions for level sets of interval neutrosophic sets to be subalgebras are provided.

An Expanded Model Of Unmatter From Neutrosophic Logic Perspective: Towards Matter-Spirit Unity View, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### An Expanded Model Of Unmatter From Neutrosophic Logic Perspective: Towards Matter-Spirit Unity View, Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In Neutrosophic Logic, a basic assertion is that there are variations of about everything that we can measure; the variations surround three parameters called T, I, F (truth, indeterminacy, falsehood) which can take a range of values. A previous paper in IJNS, 2020 shortly reviews the links among aether and matter creation from the perspective of Neutrosophic Logic. In any case, matter creation process in nature stays a major puzzle for physicists, scientists and other science analysts. To this issue neutrosophic logic offers an answer: "unmatter." This paper examines an extended model of unmatter, to incorporate issue soul solidarity. So ...

A Review Of Fuzzy Soft Topological Spaces, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Topological Spaces And Neutrosophic Soft Topological Spaces, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### A Review Of Fuzzy Soft Topological Spaces, Intuitionistic Fuzzy Soft Topological Spaces And Neutrosophic Soft Topological Spaces, Florentin Smarandache, M. Parimala, M. Karthika

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

The notion of fuzzy sets initiated to overcome the uncertainty of an object. Fuzzy topological space, intuitionistic fuzzy sets in topological structure space, vagueness in topological structure space, rough sets in topological space, theory of hesitancy and neutrosophic topological space, etc. are the extension of fuzzy sets. Soft set is a family of parameters which is also a set. Fuzzy soft topological space, intuitionistic fuzzy soft and neutrosophic soft topological space are obtained by incorporating soft sets with various topological structures. This motivates to write a review and study on various soft set concepts. This paper shows the detailed review ...

The Polar Form Of A Neutrosophic Complex Number, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### The Polar Form Of A Neutrosophic Complex Number, Florentin Smarandache, Riad K. Al-Hamido, Mayas Ismail

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In this paper, we will define the exponential form of a neutrosophic complex number. We have proven some characteristics and theories, including the conjugate of the exponential form of a neutrosophic complex number, division of the exponential form of a neutrosophic complex numbers, multiplication of the exponential form of a neutrosophic complex numbers. In addition, we have given the method of changing from the exponential to the algebraic form of a complex number.

Combination Of The Single-Valued Neutrosophic Fuzzy Set And The Soft Set With Applications In Decision-Making, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Combination Of The Single-Valued Neutrosophic Fuzzy Set And The Soft Set With Applications In Decision-Making, Florentin Smarandache, Ahmed Mostafa Khalil, Dunqian Chao, A. A. Azzam, W. Alharby

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In this article, we propose a novel concept of the single-valued neutrosophic fuzzy soft set by combining the single-valued neutrosophic fuzzy set and the soft set. For possible applications, five kinds of operations (e.g., subset, equal, union, intersection, and complement) on single-valued neutrosophic fuzzy soft sets are presented. Then, several theoretical operations of single-valued neutrosophic fuzzy soft sets are given. In addition, the first type for the fuzzy decision-making based on single-valued neutrosophic fuzzy soft set matrix is constructed. Finally, we present the second type by using the AND operation of the single-valued neutrosophic fuzzy soft set for fuzzy ...

Intelligent Algorithm For Trapezoidal Interval Valued Neutrosophic Network Analysis, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Intelligent Algorithm For Trapezoidal Interval Valued Neutrosophic Network Analysis, Florentin Smarandache, Said Broumi, Deivanayagampillai Nagarajan, Malayalan Lathamaheswari, Mohamed Talea, Assia Bakali

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

The shortest path problem has been one of the most fundamental practical problems in network analysis. One of the good algorithms is Bellman-Ford, which has been applied in network, for the last some years. Due to complexity in the decision-making process, the decision makers face complications to express their view and judgment with an exact number for single valued membership degrees under neutrosophic environment. Though the interval number is a special situation of the neutrosophic, it did not solve the shortest path problems in an absolute manner. Hence, in this work, the authors have introduced the score function and accuracy ...

Plithogenic Cognitive Maps In Decision Making, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Plithogenic Cognitive Maps In Decision Making, Florentin Smarandache, Nivetha Martin

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

Plithogenic sets introduced by Smarandache (2018) have disclosed new research vistas and this paper introduces the novel concept of plithogenic cognitive maps (PCM) and its applications in decision making. The new approach of defining instantaneous state neutrosophic vector with the confinement of indeterminacy to (0,1] is proposed to quantify the degree of indeterminacy. The resultant vector is obtained by applying instantaneous state vector through the connection matrix together with plithogenic operators comprising the contradiction degrees. The connection matrix is represented as fuzzy matrix and neutrosophic matrix and the resultant vector is determined by applying plithogenic fuzzy operators and plithogenic ...

Harmony Amid Chaos, 2020 Olivet Nazarene University

#### Harmony Amid Chaos, Drew Schaffner

*Pence-Boyce STEM Student Scholarship*

We provide a brief but intuitive study on the subjects from which Galois Fields have emerged and split our study up into two categories: harmony and chaos. Specifically, we study finite fields with elements where is prime. Such a finite field can be defined through a logarithm table. The Harmony Section is where we provide three proofs about the overall symmetry and structure of the Galois Field as well as several observations about the order within a given table. In the Chaos Section we make two attempts to analyze the tables, the first by methods used by Vladimir Arnold as ...

Derivable Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs Based On Km-Fuzzy Metric, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Derivable Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs Based On Km-Fuzzy Metric, Florentin Smarandache, Mohammad Hamidi

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In this paper we consider the concept of KM-fuzzy metric spaces and we introduce a novel concept of KM-single valued neutrosophic metric graphs based on KM-fuzzy metric spaces. Then we investigate the finite KM-fuzzy metric spaces with respect to KM-fuzzy metrics and we construct the KMfuzzy metric spaces on any given non-empty sets. We try to extend the concept of KM-fuzzy metric spaces to a larger class of KM-fuzzy metric spaces such as union and product of KM-fuzzy metric spaces and in this regard we investigate the class of products of KM-single valued neutrosophic metric graphs. In the final, we ...

Symmetric Presentations And Related Topics, 2020 California State University, San Bernardino

#### Symmetric Presentations And Related Topics, Mayra Mcgrath

*Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations*

In this thesis, we have investigated several permutation and monomialprogenitors for finite images. We have found original symmetric presen-tations for several important non-abelian simple groups, including lineargroups, unitary groups, alternating groups, and sporadic simple groups.We have found a number of finite images, including : L(2,41), PSL(2,11)×2, L(2,8), and L(2,19), as homomorphic images of the permutation progenitors. We have also found PGL(2,16) : 2 =Aut(PSL(2,16)) and PSL(2,16) as homomorphic images of monomial progenitors. We have performed manual double coset enumeration of finte images. In addition, we ...

Extension Of Hypergraph To N-Superhypergraph And To Plithogenic N-Superhypergraph, And Extension Of Hyperalgebra To N-Ary (Classical-/Neutro-/Anti-)Hyperalgebra, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### Extension Of Hypergraph To N-Superhypergraph And To Plithogenic N-Superhypergraph, And Extension Of Hyperalgebra To N-Ary (Classical-/Neutro-/Anti-)Hyperalgebra, Florentin Smarandache

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

We recall and improve our 2019 concepts of n-Power Set of a Set, n-SuperHyperGraph, Plithogenic n-SuperHyperGraph, and n-ary HyperAlgebra, n-ary NeutroHyperAlgebra, n-ary AntiHyperAlgebra respectively, and we present several properties and examples connected with the real world.

(Φ, Ψ)-Weak Contractions In Neutrosophic Cone Metric Spaces Via Fixed Point Theorems, 2020 University of New Mexico

#### (Φ, Ψ)-Weak Contractions In Neutrosophic Cone Metric Spaces Via Fixed Point Theorems, Florentin Smarandache, Wadei F. Al-Omeri

*Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

In this manuscript, we obtain common fixed point theorems in the neutrosophic cone metric space. Also, notion of (Φ, Ψ)-weak contraction is defined in the neutrosophic cone metric space by using the idea of altering distance function. Finally, we review many examples of cone metric spaces to verify some properties.