Transfinite Ordinal Arithmetic, 2017 Governors State University

#### Transfinite Ordinal Arithmetic, James Roger Clark

*All Student Theses*

Following the literature from the origin of Set Theory in the late 19th century to more current times, an arithmetic of finite and transfinite ordinal numbers is outlined. The concept of a set is outlined and directed to the understanding that an ordinal, a special kind of number, is a particular kind of well-ordered set. From this, the idea of counting ordinals is introduced. With the fundamental notion of counting addressed: then addition, multiplication, and exponentiation are defined and developed by established fundamentals of Set Theory. Many known theorems are based upon this foundation. Ultimately, as part of the conclusion ...

Joint Laver Diamonds And Grounded Forcing Axioms, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Joint Laver Diamonds And Grounded Forcing Axioms, Miha Habič

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

In chapter 1 a notion of independence for diamonds and Laver diamonds is investigated. A sequence of Laver diamonds for κ is *joint* if for any sequence of targets there is a single elementary embedding *j* with critical point κ such that each Laver diamond guesses its respective target via *j*. In the case of measurable cardinals (with similar results holding for (partially) supercompact cardinals) I show that a single Laver diamond for κ yields a joint sequence of length κ, and I give strict separation results for all larger lengths of joint sequences. Even though the principles get strictly ...

Classification Of Vertex-Transitive Structures, 2017 Boise State University

#### Classification Of Vertex-Transitive Structures, Stephanie Potter

*Boise State University Theses and Dissertations*

When one thinks of objects with a significant level of symmetry it is natural to expect there to be a simple classification. However, this leads to an interesting problem in that research has revealed the existence of highly symmetric objects which are very complex when considered within the framework of Borel complexity. The tension between these two seemingly contradictory notions leads to a wealth of natural questions which have yet to be answered.

Borel complexity theory is an area of logic where the relative complexities of classification problems are studied. Within this theory, we regard a classification problem as an ...

The Classification Problem For Models Of Zfc, 2017 Boise State University

#### The Classification Problem For Models Of Zfc, Samuel Dworetzky

*Boise State University Theses and Dissertations*

Models of ZFC are ubiquitous in modern day set theoretic research. There are many different constructions that produce countable models of ZFC via techniques such as forcing, ultraproducts, and compactness. The models that these techniques produce have many different characteristics; thus it is natural to ask whether or not models of ZFC are classifiable. We will answer this question by showing that models of ZFC are unclassifiable and have maximal complexity. The notions of complexity used in this thesis will be phrased in the language of Borel complexity theory.

In particular, we will show that the class of countable models ...

The Density Topology On The Reals With Analogues On Other Spaces, 2016 Boise State University

#### The Density Topology On The Reals With Analogues On Other Spaces, Stuart Nygard

*Boise State University Theses and Dissertations*

A point *x* is a *density point* of a set *A* if all of the points except a measure zero set near to *x* are contained in *A*. In the usual topology on ℝ, a set is open if shrinking intervals around each point are eventually contained in the set. The density topology relaxes this requirement. A set is open in the density topology if for each point, the limit of the measure of A contained in shirking intervals to the measure of the shrinking intervals themselves is one. That is, for any point *x* and a small enough interval ...

Mathematical Reasoning And The Inductive Process: An Examination Of The Law Of Quadratic Reciprocity, 2016 California State University - San Bernardino

#### Mathematical Reasoning And The Inductive Process: An Examination Of The Law Of Quadratic Reciprocity, Nitish Mittal

*Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations*

This project investigates the development of four different proofs of the law of quadratic reciprocity, in order to study the critical reasoning process that drives discovery in mathematics. We begin with an examination of the first proof of this law given by Gauss. We then describe Gauss’ fourth proof of this law based on Gauss sums, followed by a look at Eisenstein’s geometric simplification of Gauss’ third proof. Finally, we finish with an examination of one of the modern proofs of this theorem published in 1991 by Rousseau. Through this investigation we aim to analyze the different strategies used ...

Development Of Utility Theory And Utility Paradoxes, 2016 Lawrence University

#### Development Of Utility Theory And Utility Paradoxes, Timothy E. Dahlstrom

*Lawrence University Honors Projects*

Since the pioneering work of von Neumann and Morgenstern in 1944 there have been many developments in Expected Utility theory. In order to explain decision making behavior economists have created increasingly broad and complex models of utility theory. This paper seeks to describe various utility models, how they model choices among ambiguous and lottery type situations, and how they respond to the Ellsberg and Allais paradoxes. This paper also attempts to communicate the historical development of utility models and provide a fresh perspective on the development of utility models.

Exploring Argumentation, Objectivity, And Bias: The Case Of Mathematical Infinity, 2016 University of Ontario Institute of Technology

#### Exploring Argumentation, Objectivity, And Bias: The Case Of Mathematical Infinity, Ami Mamolo

*OSSA Conference Archive*

This paper presents an overview of several years of my research into individuals’ reasoning, argumentation, and bias when addressing problems, scenarios, and symbols related to mathematical infinity. There is a long history of debate around what constitutes “objective truth” in the realm of mathematical infinity, dating back to ancient Greece (e.g., Dubinsky et al., 2005). Modes of argumentation, hindrances, and intuitions have been largely consistent over the years and across levels of expertise (e.g., Brown et al., 2010; Fischbein et al., 1979, Tsamir, 1999). This presentation examines the interrelated complexities of notions of objectivity, bias, and argumentation as ...

The Development Of Notation In Mathematical Analysis, 2016 Loyola Marymount University

#### The Development Of Notation In Mathematical Analysis, Alyssa Venezia

*Honors Thesis*

The field of analysis is a newer subject in mathematics, as it only came into existence in the last 400 years. With a new field comes new notation, and in the era of universalism, analysis becomes key to understanding how centuries of mathematics were unified into a finite set of symbols, precise definitions, and rigorous proofs that would allow for the rapid development of modern mathematics. This paper traces the introduction of subjects and the development of new notations in mathematics from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century that allowed analysis to flourish. In following the development of analysis, we ...

On The Conjugacy Problem For Automorphisms Of Trees, 2016 Boise State University

#### On The Conjugacy Problem For Automorphisms Of Trees, Kyle Douglas Beserra

*Boise State University Theses and Dissertations*

In this thesis we identify the complexity of the conjugacy problem of automorphisms of regular trees. We expand on the results of Kechris, Louveau, and Friedman on the complexities of the isomorphism problem of classes of countable trees. We see in nearly all cases that the complexity of isomorphism of subtrees of a given regular countable tree is the same as the complexity of conjugacy of automorphisms of the same tree, though we present an example for which this does not hold.

Counting Convex Sets On Products Of Totally Ordered Sets, 2015 Western Kentucky University

#### Counting Convex Sets On Products Of Totally Ordered Sets, Brandy Amanda Barnette

*Masters Theses & Specialist Projects*

The main purpose of this thesis is to find the number of convex sets on a product of two totally ordered spaces. We will give formulas to find this number for specific cases and describe a process to obtain this number for all such spaces. In the first chapter we briefly discuss the motivation behind the work presented in this thesis. Also, the definitions and notation used throughout the paper are introduced here The second chapter starts with examining the product spaces of the form {1; 2; : : : ;n} × {1; 2}. That is, we begin by analyzing a two-row by n-column ...

My Finite Field, 2015 Idaho State University

#### My Finite Field, Matthew Schroeder

*Journal of Humanistic Mathematics*

A love poem written in the language of mathematics.

From Nonlinear Embedding To Graph Distances: A Spectral Perspective, 2015 University of Colorado Boulder

#### From Nonlinear Embedding To Graph Distances: A Spectral Perspective, Nathan D. Monnig

*Applied Mathematics Graduate Theses & Dissertations*

In this thesis, we explore applications of spectral graph theory to the analysis of complex datasets and networks. We consider spectral embeddings of general graphs, as well as data sampled from smooth manifolds in high dimension. We specifically focus on the development of algorithms that require minimal user input. Given the inherent difficulty in parameterizing these types of complex datasets, an ideal algorithm should avoid poorly-defined user-selected parameters.

A significant limitation of nonlinear dimensionality reduction embeddings computed from datasets is the absence of a mechanism to compute the inverse map. We address the problem of computing a stable inverse using ...

On Some Min-Max Cardinals On Boolean Algebras, 2015 University of Colorado Boulder

#### On Some Min-Max Cardinals On Boolean Algebras, Kevin Selker

*Mathematics Graduate Theses & Dissertations*

This thesis is concerned with cardinal functions on Boolean Algebras (BAs) in general, and especially with min-max type functions on atomless BAs. The thesis is in two parts:

(1) We make use of a forcing technique for extending Boolean algebras.

elsewhere. Using and modifying a lemma of Koszmider, and using CH, we prove some general extension lemmas, and in particular obtain an atomless BA, *A* such that *f*(A) = s_{mm}(A) = *w* < *u*(A) = *w*_{1}.

(2) We investigate cardinal functions of min-max and max type and also spectrum functions on moderate products of Boolean algebras. We prove several ...

Exploring A Generalized Partial Borda Count Voting System, 2015 Bard College

#### Exploring A Generalized Partial Borda Count Voting System, Christiane Koffi

*Senior Projects Spring 2015*

The main purpose of an election is to generate a fair end result in which everyone's opinion is gathered into a collective decision. This project focuses on Voting Theory, the mathematical study of voting systems. Because different voting systems yield different end results, the challenge begins with finding a voting system that will result in a fair election. Although there are many different voting systems, in this project we focus on the Partial Borda Count Voting System, which uses partially ordered sets (posets), instead of the linearly ordered ballots used in traditional elections, to rank its candidates. We introduce ...

Corrigendum To "Using Fuzzy Dematel To Evaluate The Green Supply Chain Management Practices" [Journal Of Cleaner Production 40 (2013): 32-39], 2014 Allameh Tabatabaie University

#### Corrigendum To "Using Fuzzy Dematel To Evaluate The Green Supply Chain Management Practices" [Journal Of Cleaner Production 40 (2013): 32-39], Amin Vafadarnikjoo

*Amin Vafadarnikjoo*

Morphological Operations Applied To Digital Art Restoration, 2014 University of Minnesota, Morris

#### Morphological Operations Applied To Digital Art Restoration, M. Kirbie Dramdahl

*Scholarly Horizons: University of Minnesota, Morris Undergraduate Journal*

This paper provides an overview of the processes involved in detecting and removing cracks from digitized works of art. Speciﬁc attention is given to the crack detection phase as completed through the use of morphological operations. Mathematical morphology is an area of set theory applicable to image processing, and therefore lends itself eﬀectively to the digital art restoration process.

The Mathematics Of The Card Game Set, 2014 Rhode Island College

#### The Mathematics Of The Card Game Set, Paola Y. Reyes

*Honors Projects Overview*

SET is a card game of visual perception. The goal is to be the first to see a SET from the 12 cards laid face up on the table. Each card has four attributes, which can vary as follows: 1. Shape: oval, squiggle, or diamond 2. Color: red, green, or blue 3. Number: the number of copies of each symbol can be 1, 2, or 3 4. Filling: solid, unfilled, stripped Each card has a unique combination, for a total of 34 = 81 different cards in a deck. A SET consist of three cards for which each of the four ...

Permutation Groups And Puzzle Tile Configurations Of Instant Insanity Ii, 2014 East Tennessee State University

#### Permutation Groups And Puzzle Tile Configurations Of Instant Insanity Ii, Amanda N. Justus

*Electronic Theses and Dissertations*

The manufacturer claims that there is only one solution to the puzzle Instant Insanity II. However, a recent paper shows that there are two solutions. Our goal is to find ways in which we only have one solution. We examine the permutation groups of the puzzle and use modern algebra to attempt to fix the puzzle. First, we find the permutation group for the case when there is only one empty slot at the top. We then examine the scenario when we add an extra column or an extra row to make the game a 4 × 5 puzzle or a ...

Axioms Of Set Theory And Equivalents Of Axiom Of Choice, 2014 Boise State University

#### Axioms Of Set Theory And Equivalents Of Axiom Of Choice, Farighon Abdul Rahim

*Mathematics Undergraduate Theses*

Sets are all around us. A bag of potato chips, for instance, is a set containing certain number of individual chip's that are its elements. University is another example of a set with students as its elements. By elements, we mean members. But sets should not be confused as to what they really are. A daughter of a blacksmith is an element of a set that contains her mother, father, and her siblings. Then this set is an element of a set that contains all the other families that live in the nearby town. So a set itself can ...