Meertens Number And Its Variations, 2022 International Business Machines

#### Meertens Number And Its Variations, Chai Wah Wu

*Communications on Number Theory and Combinatorial Theory*

In 1998, Bird introduced Meertens numbers as numbers that are invariant under a map similar to the Gödel encoding. In base 10, the only known Meertens number is 81312000. We look at some properties of Meertens numbers and consider variations of this concept. In particular, we consider variations of Meertens numbers where there is a finite time algorithm to decide whether such numbers exist, exhibit infinite families of these variations and provide bounds on parameters needed for their existence.

(R1979) Permanent Of Toeplitz-Hessenberg Matrices With Generalized Fibonacci And Lucas Entries, 2022 RECITS Laboratory

#### (R1979) Permanent Of Toeplitz-Hessenberg Matrices With Generalized Fibonacci And Lucas Entries, Hacène Belbachir, Amine Belkhir, Ihab-Eddine Djellas

*Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)*

In the present paper, we evaluate the permanent and determinant of some Toeplitz-Hessenberg matrices with generalized Fibonacci and generalized Lucas numbers as entries.We develop identities involving sums of products of generalized Fibonacci numbers and generalized Lucas numbers with multinomial coefficients using the matrix structure, and then we present an application of the determinant of such matrices.

A Comparison Of Cryptographic Methods, 2022 Liberty University

#### A Comparison Of Cryptographic Methods, Christopher Gilmore

*Senior Honors Theses*

While elliptic curve cryptography and quantum cryptography are significantly different branches of cryptography, they provide a suitable reference point for comparison of the value of developing methods used in the present and investing in methods to be used in the future. Elliptic curve cryptography is quite common today, as it is generally secure and efficient. However, as the field of cryptography advances, the value of quantum cryptography’s inherent security from its basic properties should be considered, as a fully realized quantum cryptosystem has the potential to be quite powerful. Ultimately, it is of critical importance to determine the value of …

(Si10-062) Comprehensive Study On Methodology Of Orthogonal Interleavers, 2022 Pranveer Singh Institue of Technology

#### (Si10-062) Comprehensive Study On Methodology Of Orthogonal Interleavers, Priyanka Agarwal, Shivani Dixit, M. Shukla, Gaurish Joshi

*Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)*

Interleaving permutes the data bits by employing a user defined sequence to reduce burst error which at times exceeds the minimum hamming distance. It serves as the sole medium to distinguish user data in the overlapping channel and is the heart of Interleave Division Multiple Access (IDMA) scheme. Versatility of interleavers relies on various design parameters such as orthogonality, correlation, latency and performance parameters like bit error rate (BER), memory occupancy and computation complexity. In this paper, a comprehensive study of interleaving phenomenon and discussion on numerous interleavers is presented. Also, the BER performance of interleavers using IDMA scheme is …

The Local Lifting Problem For Curves With Quaternion Actions, 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### The Local Lifting Problem For Curves With Quaternion Actions, George Mitchell

*Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

The lifting problem asks whether one can lift Galois covers of curves defined over positive characteristic to Galois covers of curves over characteristic zero. The lifting problem has an equivalent local variant, which asks if a Galois extension of complete discrete valuation rings over positive characteristic, with algebraically closed residue field, can be lifted to characteristic zero. In this dissertation, we content ourselves with the study of the local lifting problem when the prime is 2, and the Galois group of the extension is the group of quaternions. In this case, it is known that certain quaternion extensions cannot be …

Proving Dirichlet's Theorem On Arithmetic Progressions, 2022 Western University

#### Proving Dirichlet's Theorem On Arithmetic Progressions, Owen T. Abma

*Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference*

First proved by German mathematician Dirichlet in 1837, this important theorem states that for coprime integers a, m, there are an infinite number of primes p such that p = a (mod m). This is one of many extensions of Euclid’s theorem that there are infinitely many prime numbers. In this paper, we will formulate a rather elegant proof of Dirichlet’s theorem using ideas from complex analysis and group theory.

Reduction Of L-Functions Of Elliptic Curves Modulo Integers, 2022 The University of Western Ontario

#### Reduction Of L-Functions Of Elliptic Curves Modulo Integers, Félix Baril Boudreau

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

Let $\mathbb{F}_q$ be a finite field of size $q$, where $q$ is a power of a prime $p \geq 5$. Let $C$ be a smooth, proper, and geometrically connected curve over $\mathbb{F}_q$. Consider an elliptic curve $E$ over the function field $K$ of $C$ with nonconstant $j$-invariant. One can attach to $E$ its $L$-function $L(T,E/K)$, which is a generating function that contains information about the reduction types of $E$ at the different places of $K$. The $L$-function of $E/K$ was proven to be a polynomial in $\mathbb{Z}[T]$.

In 1985, Schoof devised an algorithm to compute the zeta function of an …

The Hfd Property In Orders Of A Number Field, 2022 Clemson University

#### The Hfd Property In Orders Of A Number Field, Grant Moles

*All Theses*

We will examine orders *R* in a number field *K*. In particular, we will look at how the generalized class number of *R* relates to the class number of its integral closure *R*. We will then apply this to the case when *K* is a quadratic field to produce a more specific relation. After this, we will focus on orders *R* which are half-factorial domains (HFDs), in which the irreducible factorization of any element *α*∈*R* has fixed length. We will determine two cases in which *R* is an HFD if and only if its ring of …

Efficiency Of Homomorphic Encryption Schemes, 2022 Clemson University

#### Efficiency Of Homomorphic Encryption Schemes, Kyle Yates

*All Theses*

In 2009, Craig Gentry introduced the first fully homomorphic encryption scheme using bootstrapping. In the 13 years since, a large amount of research has gone into improving efficiency of homomorphic encryption schemes. This includes implementing leveled homomorphic encryption schemes for practical use, which are schemes that allow for some predetermined amount of additions and multiplications that can be performed on ciphertexts. These leveled schemes have been found to be very efficient in practice. In this thesis, we will discuss the efficiency of various homomorphic encryption schemes. In particular, we will see how to improve sizes of parameter choices in homomorphic …

On The Iwasawa Invariants Of Nonordinary Modular Forms, 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

#### On The Iwasawa Invariants Of Nonordinary Modular Forms, Rylan J. Gajek-Leonard

*Doctoral Dissertations*

We extend known results on the behavior of Iwasawa invariants attached to Mazur-Tate elements for p-nonordinary modular forms of weight k=2 to higher weight modular forms with a_p=0. This is done by using a decomposition of the p-adic L-function due to R. Pollack in order to construct explicit lifts of Mazur-Tate elements to the full Iwasawa algebra. We then study the behavior of Iwasawa invariants upon projection to finite layers, allowing us to express the invariants of Mazur-Tate elements in terms of those coming from plus/minus p-adic L-functions. Our results combine with work of Pollack and Weston to relate the …

Unomaha Problem Of The Week (2021-2022 Edition), 2022 University of Nebraska at Omaha

#### Unomaha Problem Of The Week (2021-2022 Edition), Brad Horner, Jordan M. Sahs

*UNO Student Research and Creative Activity Fair*

The University of Omaha math department's Problem of the Week was taken over in Fall 2019 from faculty by the authors. The structure: each semester (Fall and Spring), three problems are given per week for twelve weeks, with each problem worth ten points - mimicking the structure of arguably the most well-regarded university math competition around, the Putnam Competition, with prizes awarded to top-scorers at semester's end. The weekly competition was halted midway through Spring 2020 due to COVID-19, but relaunched again in Fall 2021, with massive changes.

Now there are three difficulty tiers to POW problems, roughly corresponding to …

On Isomorphic K-Rational Groups Of Isogenous Elliptic Curves Over Finite Fields, 2022 University of Rochester

#### On Isomorphic K-Rational Groups Of Isogenous Elliptic Curves Over Finite Fields, Ben Kuehnert, Geneva Schlafly, Zecheng Yi

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

It is well known that two elliptic curves are isogenous if and only if they have same number of rational points. In fact, isogenous curves can even have isomorphic groups of rational points in certain cases. In this paper, we consolidate all the current literature on this relationship and give a extensive classification of the conditions in which this relationship arises. First we prove two ordinary isogenous elliptic curves have isomorphic groups of rational points when they have the same $j$-invariant. Then, we extend this result to certain isogenous supersingular elliptic curves, namely those with equal $j$-invariant of either 0 …

An Overview Of Monstrous Moonshine, 2022 Cedarville University

#### An Overview Of Monstrous Moonshine, Catherine E. Riley

*Channels: Where Disciplines Meet*

The Conway-Norton monstrous moonshine conjecture set off a quest to discover the connection between the Monster and the *J*-function. The goal of this paper is to give an overview of the components of the conjecture, the conjecture itself, and some of the ideas that led to its solution. Special focus is given to Klein's *J*-function.

Structure Of Number Theoretic Graphs, 2022 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

#### Structure Of Number Theoretic Graphs, Lee Trent

*Mathematical Sciences Technical Reports (MSTR)*

The tools of graph theory can be used to investigate the structure

imposed on the integers by various relations. Here we investigate two

kinds of graphs. The first, a square product graph, takes for its vertices

the integers 1 through n, and draws edges between numbers whose product

is a square. The second, a square product graph, has the same vertex set,

and draws edges between numbers whose sum is a square.

We investigate the structure of these graphs. For square product

graphs, we provide a rather complete characterization of their structure as

a union of disjoint complete graphs. For …

Nessie Notation: A New Tool In Sequential Substitution Systems And Graph Theory For Summarizing Concatenations, 2022 Southern Adventist University

#### Nessie Notation: A New Tool In Sequential Substitution Systems And Graph Theory For Summarizing Concatenations, Colton Davis

*Student Research*

While doing research looking for ways to categorize causal networks generated by Sequential Substitution Systems, I created a new notation to compactly summarize concatenations of integers or strings of integers, including infinite sequences of these, in the same way that sums, products, and unions of sets can be summarized. Using my method, any sequence of integers or strings of integers with a closed-form iterative pattern can be compactly summarized in just one line of mathematical notation, including graphs generated by Sequential Substitution Systems, many Primitive Pythagorean Triplets, and various Lucas sequences including the Fibonacci sequence and the sequence of square …

John Horton Conway: The Man And His Knot Theory, 2022 East Tennessee State University

#### John Horton Conway: The Man And His Knot Theory, Dillon Ketron

*Electronic Theses and Dissertations*

John Horton Conway was a British mathematician in the twentieth century. He made notable achievements in fields such as algebra, number theory, and knot theory. He was a renowned professor at Cambridge University and later Princeton. His contributions to algebra include his discovery of the Conway group, a group in twenty-four dimensions, and the Conway Constellation. He contributed to number theory with his development of the surreal numbers. His Game of Life earned him long-lasting fame. He contributed to knot theory with his developments of the Conway polynomial, Conway sphere, and Conway notation.

Symmetric Presentations Of Finite Groups And Related Topics, 2022 California State University - San Bernardino

#### Symmetric Presentations Of Finite Groups And Related Topics, Samar Mikhail Kasouha

*Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations*

A progenitor is an infinite semi-direct product of the form m∗n : N, where N ≤ Sn and m∗n : N is a free product of n copies of a cyclic group of order m. A progenitor of this type, in particular 2∗n : N, gives finite non-abelian simple groups and groups involving these, including alternating groups, classical groups, and the sporadic group. We have conducted a systematic search of finite homomorphic images of numerous progenitors. In this thesis we have presented original symmetric presentations of the sporadic simple groups, M12, J1 as homomorphic images of the progenitor 2∗12 : …

The Examination Of The Arithmetic Surface (3, 5) Over Q, 2022 California State University - San Bernardino

#### The Examination Of The Arithmetic Surface (3, 5) Over Q, Rachel J. Arguelles

*Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations*

This thesis is centered around the construction and analysis of the principal arithmetic surface (3, 5) over Q. By adjoining the two symbols i,j, where i^{2} = 3, j^{2} = 5, such that ij = -ji, I can produce a quaternion algebra over Q. I use this quaternion algebra to find a discrete subgroup of SL_{2}(R), which I identify with isometries of the hyperbolic plane. From this quaternion algebra, I produce a large list of matrices and apply them via Mobius transformations to the point (0, 2), which is the center of my Dirichlet domain. This …

A Study Of Semiprime Arithmetic Sequences, 2022 Belmont University

#### A Study Of Semiprime Arithmetic Sequences, Sam C. Uselton

*Honors Scholars Collaborative Projects*

Semiprimes are positive integers of the form n = p*q where p and q are primes that are not necessarily distinct. Semiprimes can occur in arithmetic sequence, and the upper bound changes depending on the distance, d, between semiprimes in the sequence. The goal of this work is to present and prove theorems for different cases of semiprime arithmetic sequences, including d = 2k+1 where k is greater than or equal to 0 and d=2k where k is positive and not a multiple of 3, as well as a general case for finding upper bounds for varying distances. The building …

A Strange Attractor Of Primes, 2022 Ohio Northern University

#### A Strange Attractor Of Primes, Alexander Hare

*ONU Student Research Colloquium*

The greatest prime factor sequences (GPF sequences), born at ONU in 2005, are integer sequences satisfying recursions in which every term is the greatest prime factor of a linear combination with positive integer coefficients of the preceding *k* terms (where *k* is the order of the sequence), possibly including a positive constant. The very first GPF sequence that was introduced satisfies the recursion x(n+1)=GPF(2*x(n)+1). In 2005 it was conjectured that no matter the seed, this particular GPF sequence enters the limit cycle (attractor) 3-7-5-11-23-47-19-13. In our current work, of a computational nature, we introduce the functions “depth” – where depth(n) …