Diophantine Approximation And The Atypical Numbers Of Nathanson And O'Bryant, 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Diophantine Approximation And The Atypical Numbers Of Nathanson And O'Bryant, David Seff

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

For any positive real number $\theta > 1$, and any natural number $n$, it is obvious that sequence $\theta^{1/n}$ goes to 1. Nathanson and O'Bryant studied the details of this convergence and discovered some truly amazing properties. One critical discovery is that for almost all $n$, $\displaystyle\floor{\frac{1}{\fp{\theta^{1/n}}}}$ is equal to $\displaystyle\floor{\frac{n}{\log\theta}-\frac{1}{2}}$, the exceptions, when $n > \log_2 \theta$, being termed atypical $n$ (the set of which for fixed $\theta$ being named $\mcA_\theta$), and that for $\log\theta$ rational, the number of atypical $n ...

Roman Domination In Complementary Prisms, 2017 East Tennessee State University

#### Roman Domination In Complementary Prisms, Alawi I. Alhashim

*Electronic Theses and Dissertations*

The complementary prism GG of a graph G is formed from the disjoint union of G and its complement G by adding the edges of a perfect match- ing between the corresponding vertices of G and G. A Roman dominating function on a graph G = (V,E) is a labeling f : V(G) → {0,1,2} such that every vertex with label 0 is adjacent to a vertex with label 2. The Roman domination number γR(G) of G is the minimum f(V ) = Σv∈V f(v) over all such functions of G. We study the Roman domination number ...

Rainbow Arithmetic Progressions, 2017 Iowa State University

#### Rainbow Arithmetic Progressions, Steve Butler, Craig Erickson, Leslie Hogben, Kirsten Hogenson, Lucas Kramer, Richard Kramer, Jephian C. H. Lin, Ryan R. Martin, Derrick Stolee, Nathan Warnberg, Michael Young

*Leslie Hogben*

In this paper, we investigate the anti-Ramsey (more precisely, anti-van der Waerden) properties of arithmetic progressions. For positive integers n and k, the expression aw([n]; k) denotes the smallest number of colors with which the integers f1; : : : ; ng can be colored and still guarantee there is a rainbow arithmetic progression of length k. We establish that aw([n]; 3) = (log n) and aw([n]; k) = n1o(1) for k 4. For positive integers n and k, the expression aw(Zn; k) denotes the smallest number of colors with which elements of the cyclic group of order n can be ...

Scaling Of Spectra Of Cantor-Type Measures And Some Number Theoretic Considerations, 2017 University of Central Florida

#### Scaling Of Spectra Of Cantor-Type Measures And Some Number Theoretic Considerations, Isabelle Kraus

*Honors in the Major Theses*

We investigate some relations between number theory and spectral measures related to the harmonic analysis of a Cantor set. Specifically, we explore ways to determine when an odd natural number *m* generates a complete or incomplete Fourier basis for a Cantor-type measure with scale *g*.

Mathematics Education From A Mathematicians Point Of View, 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

#### Mathematics Education From A Mathematicians Point Of View, Nan Woodson Simpson

*Masters Theses*

This study has been written to illustrate the development from early mathematical learning (grades 3-8) to secondary education regarding the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic and the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra. It investigates the progression of the mathematics presented to the students by the current curriculum adopted by the Rhea County School System and the mathematics academic standards set forth by the State of Tennessee.

On The Free And G-Saturated Weight Monoids Of Smooth Affine Spherical Varieties For G=Sl(N), 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### On The Free And G-Saturated Weight Monoids Of Smooth Affine Spherical Varieties For G=Sl(N), Won Geun Kim

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

Let $X$ be an affine algebraic variety over $\mathbb{C}$ equipped with an action of a connected reductive group $G$. The weight monoid $\Gamma(X)$ of $X$ is the set of isomorphism classes of irreducible representations of $G$ that occur in the coordinate ring $\mathbb{C}[X]$ of $X$. Losev has shown that if $X$ is a smooth affine spherical variety, that is, if $X$ is smooth and $\mathbb{C}[X]$ is multiplicity-free as a representation of $G$, then $\Gamma(X)$ determines $X$ up to equivariant automorphism.

Pezzini and Van Steirteghem have recently obtained a combinatorial characterization of the weight ...

Explicit Formulae And Trace Formulae, 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Explicit Formulae And Trace Formulae, Tian An Wong

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

In this thesis, motivated by an observation of D. Hejhal, we show that the explicit formulae of A. Weil for sums over zeroes of Hecke L-functions, via the Maass-Selberg relation, occur in the continuous spectral terms in the Selberg trace formula over various number fields. In Part I, we discuss the relevant parts of the trace formulae classically and adelically, developing the necessary representation theoretic background. In Part II, we show how show the explicit formulae intervene, using the classical formulation of Weil; then we recast this in terms of Weil distributions and the adelic formulation of Weil. As an ...

P-Adic L-Functions And The Geometry Of Hida Families, 2016 Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### P-Adic L-Functions And The Geometry Of Hida Families, Joseph Kramer-Miller

*All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

A major theme in the theory of $p$-adic deformations of automorphic forms is how $p$-adic $L$-functions over eigenvarieties relate to the geometry of these eigenvarieties. In this talk we explain results in this vein for the ordinary part of the eigencurve (i.e. Hida families). We address how Taylor expansions of one variable $p$-adic $L$-functions varying over families can detect geometric phenomena: crossing components of a certain intersection multiplicity and ramification over the weight space. Our methods involve proving a converse to a result of Vatsal relating congruences between eigenforms to their algebraic special $L ...

Comparing Local Constants Of Ordinary Elliptic Curves In Dihedral Extensions, 2016 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

#### Comparing Local Constants Of Ordinary Elliptic Curves In Dihedral Extensions, Sunil Chetty

*Mathematics Faculty Publications*

We establish, for a substantial class of elliptic curves, that the arithmetic local constants introduced by Mazur and Rubin agree with quotients of analytic root numbers.

The Evolution Of Cryptology, 2016 California State University - San Bernardino

#### The Evolution Of Cryptology, Gwendolyn Rae Souza

*Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations*

We live in an age when our most private information is becoming exceedingly difficult to keep private. Cryptology allows for the creation of encryptive barriers that protect this information. Though the information is protected, it is not entirely inaccessible. A recipient may be able to access the information by decoding the message. This possible threat has encouraged cryptologists to evolve and complicate their encrypting methods so that future information can remain safe and become more difficult to decode. There are various methods of encryption that demonstrate how cryptology continues to evolve through time. These methods revolve around different areas of ...

Mathematical Reasoning And The Inductive Process: An Examination Of The Law Of Quadratic Reciprocity, 2016 California State University - San Bernardino

#### Mathematical Reasoning And The Inductive Process: An Examination Of The Law Of Quadratic Reciprocity, Nitish Mittal

*Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations*

This project investigates the development of four different proofs of the law of quadratic reciprocity, in order to study the critical reasoning process that drives discovery in mathematics. We begin with an examination of the first proof of this law given by Gauss. We then describe Gauss’ fourth proof of this law based on Gauss sums, followed by a look at Eisenstein’s geometric simplification of Gauss’ third proof. Finally, we finish with an examination of one of the modern proofs of this theorem published in 1991 by Rousseau. Through this investigation we aim to analyze the different strategies used ...

On The Dimension Of Algebraic-Geometric Trace Codes, 2016 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

#### On The Dimension Of Algebraic-Geometric Trace Codes, Phong Le, Sunil Chetty

*Mathematics Faculty Publications*

We study trace codes induced from codes defined by an algebraic curve X. We determine conditions on X which admit a formula for the dimension of such a trace code. Central to our work are several dimension reducing methods for the underlying functions spaces associated to X.

The History And Applications Of Fibonacci Numbers, 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

#### The History And Applications Of Fibonacci Numbers, Cashous W. Bortner, Allan C. Peterson

*UCARE Research Products*

The Fibonacci sequence is arguably the most observed sequence not only in mathematics, but also in nature. As we begin to learn more and more about the Fibonacci sequence and the numbers that make the sequence, many new and interesting applications of the have risen from different areas of algebra to market trading strategies. This poster analyzes not only the history of Leonardo Bonacci, but also the elegant sequence that is now his namesake and its appearance in nature as well as some of its current mathematical and non-mathematical applications.

Cyclic Critical Groups Of Graphs, 2016 Gettysburg College

#### Cyclic Critical Groups Of Graphs, Ryan P. Becker, Darren B. Glass

*Math Faculty Publications*

In this note, we describe a construction that leads to families of graphs whose critical groups are cyclic. For some of these families we are able to give a formula for the number of spanning trees of the graph, which then determines the group exactly.

Counting Solutions To Discrete Non-Algebraic Equations Modulo Prime Powers, 2016 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

#### Counting Solutions To Discrete Non-Algebraic Equations Modulo Prime Powers, Abigail Mann

*Mathematical Sciences Technical Reports (MSTR)*

As society becomes more reliant on computers, cryptographic security becomes increasingly important. Current encryption schemes include the ElGamal signature scheme, which depends on the complexity of the discrete logarithm problem. It is thought that the functions that such schemes use have inverses that are computationally intractable. In relation to this, we are interested in counting the solutions to a generalization of the discrete logarithm problem modulo a prime power. This is achieved by interpolating to p-adic functions, and using Hensel's lemma, or other methods in the case of singular lifting, and the Chinese Remainder Theorem.

Statistical Analysis Of Binary Functional Graphs Of The Discrete Logarithm, 2016 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

#### Statistical Analysis Of Binary Functional Graphs Of The Discrete Logarithm, Mitchell Orzech

*Mathematical Sciences Technical Reports (MSTR)*

The increased use of cryptography to protect our personal information makes us want to understand the security of cryptosystems. The security of many cryptosystems relies on solving the discrete logarithm, which is thought to be relatively difficult. Therefore, we focus on the statistical analysis of certain properties of the graph of the discrete logarithm. We discovered the expected value and variance of a certain property of the graph and compare the expected value to experimental data. Our finding did not coincide with our intuition of the data following a Gaussian distribution given a large sample size. Thus, we found the ...

Automated Conjecturing Approach To The Discrete Riemann Hypothesis, 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

#### Automated Conjecturing Approach To The Discrete Riemann Hypothesis, Alexander Bradford

*Theses and Dissertations*

This paper is a study on some upper bounds of the Mertens function, which is often considered somewhat of a ``mysterious" function in mathematics and is closely related to the Riemann Hypothesis. We discuss some known bounds of the Mertens function, and also seek new bounds with the help of an automated conjecture-making program named CONJECTURING, which was created by C. Larson and N. Van Cleemput, and inspired by Fajtowicz's Dalmatian Heuristic. By utilizing this powerful program, we were able to form, validate, and disprove hypotheses regarding the Mertens function and how it is bounded.

Kronecker's Theory Of Binary Bilinear Forms With Applications To Representations Of Integers As Sums Of Three Squares, 2016 University of Kentucky

#### Kronecker's Theory Of Binary Bilinear Forms With Applications To Representations Of Integers As Sums Of Three Squares, Jonathan A. Constable

*Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics*

In 1883 Leopold Kronecker published a paper containing “a few explanatory remarks” to an earlier paper of his from 1866. His work loosely connected the theory of integral binary bilinear forms to the theory of integral binary quadratic forms. In this dissertation we discover the statements within Kronecker's paper and offer detailed arithmetic proofs. We begin by developing the theory of binary bilinear forms and their automorphs, providing a classification of integral binary bilinear forms up to equivalence, proper equivalence and complete equivalence.

In the second chapter we introduce the class number, proper class number and complete class number ...

A Measure Theoretic Approach To Problems Of Number Theory With Applications To The Proof Of The Prime Number Theorem, 2016 Minnesota State University Mankato

#### A Measure Theoretic Approach To Problems Of Number Theory With Applications To The Proof Of The Prime Number Theorem, Russell Lee Jahn

*All Theses, Dissertations, and Other Capstone Projects*

In this paper we demonstrate how the principles of measure theory can be applied effectively to problems of number theory. Initially, necessary concepts from number theory will be presented. Next, we state standard concepts and results from measure theory to which we will need to refer. We then develop our repertoire of measure theoretic machinery by constructing the needed measures and defining a generalized version of the multiplicative convolution of measures. A suitable integration by parts formula, one that is general enough to handle various combinations of measures, will then be derived. At this juncture we will be ready to ...

Tabulating Pseudoprimes And Tabulating Liars, 2016 Illinois Wesleyan University

#### Tabulating Pseudoprimes And Tabulating Liars, Andrew Shallue

*Scholarship*

This paper explores the asymptotic complexity of two problems related to the Miller-Rabin-Selfridge primality test. The first problem is to tabulate strong pseudoprimes to a single fixed base $a$. It is now proven that tabulating up to $x$ requires $O(x)$ arithmetic operations and $O(x\log{x})$ bits of space.The second problem is to find all strong liars and witnesses, given a fixed odd composite $n$.This appears to be unstudied, and a randomized algorithm is presented that requires an expected $O((\log{n})^2 + |S(n)|)$ operations (here $S(n)$ is the set of strong liars).Although ...