Contributions To The Teaching And Learning Of Fluid Mechanics, 2021 Montclair State University

#### Contributions To The Teaching And Learning Of Fluid Mechanics, Ashwin Vaidya

*Department of Mathematics Facuty Scholarship and Creative Works*

This issue showcases a compilation of papers on fluid mechanics (FM) education, covering different sub topics of the subject. The success of the first volume [1] prompted us to consider another follow-up special issue on the topic, which has also been very successful in garnering an impressive variety of submissions. As a classical branch of science, the beauty and complexity of fluid dynamics cannot be overemphasized. This is an extremely well-studied subject which has now become a significant component of several major scientific disciplines ranging from aerospace engineering, astrophysics, atmospheric science (including climate modeling), biological and biomedical science …

Probability Distributions For Elliptic Curves In The Cgl Hash Function, 2021 Brown University

#### Probability Distributions For Elliptic Curves In The Cgl Hash Function, Dhruv Bhatia, Kara Fagerstrom, Max Watson

*Mathematical Sciences Technical Reports (MSTR)*

Hash functions map data of arbitrary length to data of predetermined length. Good hash functions are hard to predict, making them useful in cryptography. We are interested in the elliptic curve CGL hash function, which maps a bitstring to an elliptic curve by traversing an inputdetermined path through an isogeny graph. The nodes of an isogeny graph are elliptic curves, and the edges are special maps betwixt elliptic curves called isogenies. Knowing which hash values are most likely informs us of potential security weaknesses in the hash function. We use stochastic matrices to compute the expected probability distributions of the …

Arithmetics, Interrupted, 2021 Université de Montréal

#### Arithmetics, Interrupted, Matilde Lalín

*Journal of Humanistic Mathematics*

I share some of my adventures in mathematical research and homeschooling in the time of COVID-19.

Algorithms Related To Triangle Groups, 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### Algorithms Related To Triangle Groups, Bao The Pham

*LSU Doctoral Dissertations*

Given a finite index subgroup of $\PSL_2(\Z)$, one can talk about the different properties of this subgroup. These properties have been studied extensively in an attempt to classify these subgroups. Tim Hsu created an algorithm to determine whether a subgroup is a congruence subgroup by using permutations \cite{hsu}. Lang, Lim, and Tan also created an algorithm to determine if a subgroup is a congruence subgroup by using Farey Symbols \cite{llt}. Sebbar classified torsion-free congruence subgroups of genus 0 \cite{sebbar}. Pauli and Cummins computed and tabulated all congruence subgroups of genus less than 24 \cite{ps}. However, there are still some problems …

Irreducibility And Galois Groups Of Random Polynomials, 2021 Stanford University

#### Irreducibility And Galois Groups Of Random Polynomials, Hanson Hao, Eli Navarro, Henri Stern

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

In 2015, I. Rivin introduced an effective method to bound the number of irreducible integral polynomials with fixed degree d and height at most N. In this paper, we give a brief summary of this result and discuss the precision of Rivin's arguments for special classes of polynomials. We also give elementary proofs of classic results on Galois groups of cubic trinomials.

Disjointness Of Linear Fractional Actions On Serre Trees, 2021 Brown University

#### Disjointness Of Linear Fractional Actions On Serre Trees, Henry W. Talbott

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

Serre showed that, for a discrete valuation field, the group of linear fractional transformations acts on an infinite regular tree with vertex degree determined by the residue degree of the field. Since the p-adics and the polynomials over the finite field of order p act on isomorphic trees, we may ask whether pairs of actions from these two groups are ever conjugate as tree automorphisms. We analyze permutations induced on finite vertex sets, and show a permutation classification result for actions by these linear fractional transformation groups. We prove that actions by specific subgroups of these groups are conjugate only …

Determinant Formulas Of Some Hessenberg Matrices With Jacobsthal Entries, 2021 Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University

#### Determinant Formulas Of Some Hessenberg Matrices With Jacobsthal Entries, Taras Goy, Mark Shattuck

*Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)*

In this paper, we evaluate determinants of several families of Hessenberg matrices having various subsequences of the Jacobsthal sequence as their nonzero entries. These identities may be written equivalently as formulas for certain linearly recurrent sequences expressed in terms of sums of products of Jacobsthal numbers with multinomial coefficients. Among the sequences that arise in this way include the Mersenne, Lucas and Jacobsthal-Lucas numbers as well as the squares of the Jacobsthal and Mersenne sequences. These results are extended to Hessenberg determinants involving sequences that are derived from two general families of linear second-order recurrences. Finally, combinatorial proofs are provided …

Streaming Down The Stern-Brocot Tree: Finding And Expressing Solutions To Pell's Equation In Sl(2,Z), 2021 Jacksonville State University

#### Streaming Down The Stern-Brocot Tree: Finding And Expressing Solutions To Pell's Equation In Sl(2,Z), Marcus L. Shell

*Theses*

This paper explores and elaborates on a method of solving Pell’s equation as introduced by Norman Wildberger. In the first chapters of the paper, foundational topics are introduced in expository style including an explanation of Pell’s equation. An explanation of continued fractions and their ability to express quadratic irrationals is provided as well as a connection to the Stern-Brocot tree and a convenient means of representation for each in terms of 2×2 matrices with integer elements. This representation will provide a useful way of navigating the Stern-Brocot tree computationally and permit us a means of computing continued fractions without the …

Zeta Function Regularization And Its Relationship To Number Theory, 2021 East Tennessee State University

#### Zeta Function Regularization And Its Relationship To Number Theory, Stephen Wang

*Electronic Theses and Dissertations*

While the "path integral" formulation of quantum mechanics is both highly intuitive and far reaching, the path integrals themselves often fail to converge in the usual sense. Richard Feynman developed regularization as a solution, such that regularized path integrals could be calculated and analyzed within a strictly physics context. Over the past 50 years, mathematicians and physicists have retroactively introduced schemes for achieving mathematical rigor in the study and application of regularized path integrals. One such scheme was introduced in 2007 by the mathematicians Klaus Kirsten and Paul Loya. In this thesis, we reproduce the Kirsten and Loya approach to …

2-Adic Valuations Of Square Spiral Sequences, 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

#### 2-Adic Valuations Of Square Spiral Sequences, Minh Nguyen

*Honors Theses*

The study of p-adic valuations is connected to the problem of factorization of integers, an essential question in number theory and computer science. Given a nonzero integer n and prime number p, the p-adic valuation of n, which is commonly denoted as νp(n), is the greatest non-negative integer ν such that p ν | n. In this paper, we analyze the properties of the 2-adic valuations of some integer sequences constructed from Ulam square spirals. Most sequences considered were diagonal sequences of the form 4n 2 + bn + c from the Ulam spiral with center value of 1. Other …

On Elliptic Curves, 2021 Missouri State University

#### On Elliptic Curves, Montana S. Miller

*MSU Graduate Theses*

An elliptic curve over the rational numbers is given by the equation *y ^{2} = x^{3}+Ax+B*. In our thesis, we study elliptic curves. It is known that the set of rational points on the elliptic curve form a finitely generated abelian group induced by the secant-tangent addition law. We present an elementary proof of associativity using Maple. We also present a relatively concise proof of the Mordell-Weil Theorem.

A Weighted Version Of Erdős-Kac Theorem, 2021 University of Mississippi

#### A Weighted Version Of Erdős-Kac Theorem, Unique Subedi

*Honors Theses*

Let $\omega(n)$ denote the number of distinct prime factors of a natural number $n$. A celebrated result of Erd{\H o}s and Kac states that $\omega(n)$ as a Gaussian distribution. In this thesis, we establish a weighted version of Erd{\H o}s-Kac Theorem. Specifically, we show that the Gaussian limiting distribution is preserved, but shifted, when $\omega(n)$ is weighted by the $k-$fold divisor function $\tau_k(n)$. We establish this result by computing all positive integral moments of $\omega(n)$ weighted by $\tau_k(n)$.

We also provide a proof of the classical identity of $\zeta(2n)$ for $n \in \mathbb{N}$ using Dirichlet's kernel.

A History And Translation Of Lagrange's "Sur Quelques Problèmes De L'Analyse De Diophante'', 2021 University of the Pacific

#### A History And Translation Of Lagrange's "Sur Quelques Problèmes De L'Analyse De Diophante'', Christopher Goff, Michael Saclolo

*Euleriana*

Among Lagrange's many achievements in number theory is a solution to the problem posed and solved by Fermat of finding a right triangle whose legs sum to a perfect square and whose hypotenuse is also a square. This article chronicles various appearances of the problem, including multiple solutions by Euler, all of which inadequately address completeness and minimality of solutions. Finally, we summarize and translate Lagrange's paper in which he solves the problem completely, thus successfully proving the minimality of Fermat's original solution.

Theory And Application Of Hypersoft Set, 2021 University of New Mexico

#### Theory And Application Of Hypersoft Set, Florentin Smarandache, Muhammad Saeed, Muhammad Saqlain, Mohamed Abdel-Baset

*Branch Mathematics and Statistics Faculty and Staff Publications*

Aims and Scope Florentin Smarandache generalize the soft set to the hypersoft set by transforming the function �� into a multi-argument function. This extension reveals that the hypersoft set with neutrosophic, intuitionistic, and fuzzy set theory will be very helpful to construct a connection between alternatives and attributes. Also, the hypersoft set will reduce the complexity of the case study. The Book “Theory and Application of Hypersoft Set” focuses on theories, methods, algorithms for decision making and also applications involving neutrosophic, intuitionistic, and fuzzy information. Our goal is to develop a strong relationship with the MCDM solving techniques and to …

Computational Thinking In Mathematics And Computer Science: What Programming Does To Your Head, 2021 Education Development Center

#### Computational Thinking In Mathematics And Computer Science: What Programming Does To Your Head, Al Cuoco, E. Paul Goldenberg

*Journal of Humanistic Mathematics*

How you think about a phenomenon certainly influences how you create a program to model it. The main point of this essay is that the influence goes both ways: creating programs influences how you think. The programs we are talking about are not just the ones we write for a computer. Programs can be implemented on a computer or with physical devices or in your mind. The implementation can bring your ideas to life. Often, though, the implementation and the ideas develop in tandem, each acting as a mirror on the other. We describe an example of how programming and …

A Case Study On Hooley's Conditional Proof Of Artin's Primitive Root Conjecture, 2021 University of Warwick, Coventry

#### A Case Study On Hooley's Conditional Proof Of Artin's Primitive Root Conjecture, Shalome Kurian

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

Artin’s Primitive Root Conjecture represents one of many famous problems in elementary number theory that has resisted complete solution thus far. Significant progress was made in 1967, when Christopher Hooley published a conditional proof of the conjecture under the assumption of a certain case of the Generalised Riemann Hypothesis. In this survey we present a description of the conjecture and the underlying algebraic theory, and provide a detailed account of Hooley’s proof which is intended to be accessible to those with only undergraduate level knowledge. We also discuss a result concerning the qx+1 problem, whose proof requires similar techniques to …

Mathematical Magic: A Study Of Number Puzzles, 2021 Maryville College

#### Mathematical Magic: A Study Of Number Puzzles, Nicasio M. Velez

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

Within this paper, we will briefly review the history of a collection of number puzzles which take the shape of squares, polygons, and polyhedra in both modular and nonmodular arithmetic. Among other results, we develop construction techniques for solutions of both Modulo and regular Magic Squares. For other polygons in nonmodular arithmetic, specifically of order 3, we present a proof of why there are only four Magic Triangles using linear algebra, disprove the existence of the Magic Tetrahedron in two ways, and utilizing the infamous 3-SUM combinatorics problem we disprove the existence of the Magic Octahedron.

Solubility Of Additive Forms Over Local Fields, 2021 University of Kentucky

#### Solubility Of Additive Forms Over Local Fields, Drew Duncan

*Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics*

Michael Knapp, in a previous work, conjectured that every additive sextic form over $\mathbb{Q}_2(\sqrt{-1})$ and $\mathbb{Q}_2(\sqrt{-5})$ in seven variables has a nontrivial zero. In this dissertation, I show that this conjecture is true, establishing that $$\Gamma^*(6, \mathbb{Q}_2(\sqrt{-1})) = \Gamma^*(6, \mathbb{Q}_2(\sqrt{-5})) = 7.$$ I then determine the minimal number of variables $\Gamma^*(d, K)$ which guarantees a nontrivial solution for every additive form of degree $d=2m$, $m$ odd, $m \ge 3$ over the six ramified quadratic extensions of $\mathbb{Q}_2$. We prove that if $$K \in \{\mathbb{Q}_2(\sqrt{2}), \mathbb{Q}_2(\sqrt{10}), \mathbb{Q}_2(\sqrt{-2}), \mathbb{Q}_2(\sqrt{-10})\},$$ then $$\Gamma^*(d,K) = \frac{3}{2}d,$$ and if $$K \in \{\mathbb{Q}_2(\sqrt{-1}), \mathbb{Q}_2(\sqrt{-5})\},$$ then $$\Gamma^*(d,K) = …

The Plus-Minus Davenport Constant Of Finite Abelian Groups, 2021 University of Kentucky

#### The Plus-Minus Davenport Constant Of Finite Abelian Groups, Darleen S. Perez-Lavin

*Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics*

Let G be a finite abelian group, written additively. The Davenport constant, *D(G)*, is the smallest positive number *s* such that any subset of the group *G*, with cardinality at least *s*, contains a non-trivial zero-subsum. We focus on a variation of the Davenport constant where we allow addition and subtraction in the non-trivial zero-subsum. This constant is called the plus-minus Davenport constant, *D*_{±}(*G*). In the early 2000’s, Marchan, Ordaz, and Schmid proved that if the cardinality of *G* is less than or equal to 100, then the *D*_{±}(*G*) …

The Smallest Solution Of An Isotropic Quadratic Form, 2021 University of Kentucky

#### The Smallest Solution Of An Isotropic Quadratic Form, Deborah H. Blevins

*Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics*

An isotropic quadratic form f(*x*_{1},...,*x _{n}*) = ∑

^{n}_{i=1}∑

^{n}_{j=1}

*f*defined on a Z- lattice has a smallest solution, where the size of the solution is measured using the infinity norm (∥ ∥

_{ij}x_{i}x_{j}_{∞}), the

*l*

_{1}norm (∥ ∥

_{1}), or the Euclidean norm (∥ ∥

_{2}). Much work has been done to find the least upper bound and greatest lower bound on the smallest solution, beginning with Cassels in the mid-1950’s. Defining

**F**:= (

*f*

_{11},...,

*f …*