Differential Calculus: From Practice To Theory, 2023 Pennsylvania State University

#### Differential Calculus: From Practice To Theory, Eugene Boman, Robert Rogers

*Milne Open Textbooks*

*Differential Calculus: From Practice to Theory* covers all of the topics in a typical first course in differential calculus. Initially it focuses on using calculus as a problem solving tool (in conjunction with analytic geometry and trigonometry) by exploiting an informal understanding of differentials (infinitesimals). As much as possible large, interesting, and important historical problems (the motion of falling bodies and trajectories, the shape of hanging chains, the Witch of Agnesi) are used to develop key ideas. Only after skill with the computational tools of calculus has been developed is the question of rigor seriously broached. At that point, the …

Interpolation Problems And The Characterization Of The Hilbert Function, 2023 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

#### Interpolation Problems And The Characterization Of The Hilbert Function, Bryant Xie

*Mathematical Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses*

In mathematics, it is often useful to approximate the values of functions that are either too awkward and difficult to evaluate or not readily differentiable or integrable. To approximate its values, we attempt to replace such functions with more well-behaving examples such as polynomials or trigonometric functions. Over the algebraically closed field C, a polynomial passing through r distinct points with multiplicities m1, ..., mr on the affine complex line in one variable is determined by its zeros and the vanishing conditions up to its mi − 1 derivative for each point. A natural question would then be to consider …

A Strong-Type Furstenberg–Sárközy Theorem For Sets Of Positive Measure, 2023 Chapman University

#### A Strong-Type Furstenberg–Sárközy Theorem For Sets Of Positive Measure, Polona Durcik, Vjekoslav Kovač, Mario Stipčić

*Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research*

For every β ∈ (0,∞), β ≠ 1, we prove that a positive measure subset A of the unit square contains a point (x_{0}, y_{0}) such that A nontrivially intersects curves y − y0 = a(x −x0)^{β} for a whole interval I ⊆ (0,∞) of parameters a ∈ I . A classical Nikodym set counterexample prevents one to take β = 1, which is the case of straight lines. Moreover, for a planar set A of positive density, we show that the interval I can be arbitrarily large on the logarithmic scale. These results can …

On The Superabundance Of Singular Varieties In Positive Characteristic, 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

#### On The Superabundance Of Singular Varieties In Positive Characteristic, Jake Kettinger

*Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research Papers in Mathematics*

The geproci property is a recent development in the world of geometry. We call a set of points Z\subseq\P_k^3 an (a,b)-geproci set (for GEneral PROjection is a Complete Intersection) if its projection from a general point P to a plane is a complete intersection of curves of degrees a and b. Examples known as grids have been known since 2011. Previously, the study of the geproci property has taken place within the characteristic 0 setting; prior to the work in this thesis, a procedure has been known for creating an (a,b)-geproci half-grid for 4\leq a\leq b, but it was not …

Computational Aspects Of Mixed Characteristic Witt Vectors And Denominators In Canonical Liftings Of Elliptic Curves, 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

#### Computational Aspects Of Mixed Characteristic Witt Vectors And Denominators In Canonical Liftings Of Elliptic Curves, Jacob Dennerlein

*Doctoral Dissertations*

Given an ordinary elliptic curve *E* over a field 𝕜 of characteristic *p*, there is an elliptic curve **E** over the Witt vectors **W**(𝕜) for which we can lift the Frobenius morphism, called the canonical lifting of *E*. The Weierstrass coefficients and the elliptic Teichmüller lift of **E** are given by rational functions over 𝔽_*p* that depend only on the coefficients and points of *E*. Finotti studied the properties of these rational functions over fields of characteristic *p* ≥ 5. We investigate the same properties for fields of characteristic 2 and 3, make progress on …

Invariants Of 3-Braid And 4-Braid Links, 2023 United Arab Emirates University

#### Invariants Of 3-Braid And 4-Braid Links, Mark Essa Sukaiti

*Theses*

In this study, we established a connection between the Chebyshev polynomial of the first kind and the Jones polynomial of generalized weaving knots of type *W*(3,n,m).

Through our analysis, we demonstrated that the coefficients of the Jones polynomial of weaving knots are essentially the Whitney numbers of Lucas lattices which allowed us to find an explicit formula for the Alexander polynomial of weaving knots of type*W*(3,n).

In addition to confirming Fox’s trapezoidal conjecture, we also discussed the zeroes of the Alexander Polynomial of weaving knots of type *W*(3,n) as they relate to Hoste’s conjecture. In addition, …

Topological Data Analysis Of Weight Spaces In Convolutional Neural Networks, 2023 University of Missouri-St. Louis

#### Topological Data Analysis Of Weight Spaces In Convolutional Neural Networks, Adam Wagenknecht

*Dissertations*

Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) have become one of the most commonly used tools for performing image classification. Unfortunately, as with most machine learning algorithms, CNNs suffer from a lack of interpretability. CNNs are trained by using a training data set and a loss function to tune a set of parameters known as the layer weights. This tuning process is based on the classical method of gradient descent, but it relies on a strong stochastic component, which makes the weight behavior during training difficult to understand. However, since CNNs are governed largely by the weights that make up each of the …

Explorations In Well-Rounded Lattices, 2023 Claremont Colleges

#### Explorations In Well-Rounded Lattices, Tanis Nielsen

*HMC Senior Theses*

Lattices are discrete subgroups of Euclidean spaces. Analogously to vector spaces, they can be described as spans of collections of linearly independent vectors, but with integer (instead of real) coefficients. Lattices have many fascinating geometric properties and numerous applications, and lattice theory is a rich and active field of theoretical work. In this thesis, we present an introduction to the theory of Euclidean lattices, along with an overview of some major unsolved problems, such as sphere packing. We then describe several more specialized topics, including prior work on well-rounded ideal lattices and some preliminary results on the study of planar …

Surjectivity Of The Wahl Map On Cubic Graphs, 2023 University of Kentucky

#### Surjectivity Of The Wahl Map On Cubic Graphs, Angela C. Hanson

*Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics*

Much of algebraic geometry is the study of curves. One tool we use to study curves is whether they can be embedded in a K3 surface or not. If the Wahl map is surjective on a curve, that curve cannot be embedded in a K3 surface. Therefore, studying if the Wahl map is surjective for a particular curve gives us more insight into the properties of that curve. We simplify this problem by converting graph curves to dual graphs. Then the information for graphs can be used to study the underlying curves. We will discuss conditions for the Wahl map …

Toric Bundles As Mori Dream Spaces, 2023 University of Kentucky

#### Toric Bundles As Mori Dream Spaces, Courtney George

*Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics*

A projective, normal variety is called a Mori dream space when its Cox ring is finitely generated. These spaces are desirable to have, as they behave nicely under the Minimal Model Program, but no complete classification of them yet exists. Some early work identified that all toric varieties are examples of Mori dream spaces, as their Cox rings are polynomial rings. Therefore, a natural next step is to investigate projectivized toric vector bundles. These spaces still carry much of the combinatorial data as toric varieties, but have more variable behavior that means that they aren't as straightforward as Mori dream …

Geometry Of Pipe Dream Complexes, 2023 University of Kentucky

#### Geometry Of Pipe Dream Complexes, Benjamin Reese

*Theses and Dissertations--Mathematics*

In this dissertation we study the geometry of pipe dream complexes with the goal of gaining a deeper understanding of Schubert polynomials. Given a pipe dream complex PD(w) for w a permutation in the symmetric group, we show its boundary is Whitney stratified by the set of all pipe dream complexes PD(v) where v > w in the strong Bruhat order. For permutations w in the symmetric group on n elements, we introduce the pipe dream complex poset P(n). The dual of this graded poset naturally corresponds to the poset of strata associated to the Whitney stratification of the boundary of …

Elliptic Curves Over Finite Fields, 2023 Colby College

#### Elliptic Curves Over Finite Fields, Christopher S. Calger

*Honors Theses*

The goal of this thesis is to give an expository report on elliptic curves over finite fields. We begin by giving an overview of the necessary background in algebraic geometry to understand the definition of an elliptic curve. We then explore the general theory of elliptic curves over arbitrary fields, such as the group structure, isogenies, and the endomorphism ring. We then study elliptic curves over finite fields. We focus on the number of **F**_{q}-rational solutions, Tate modules, supersingular curves, and applications to elliptic curves over **Q**. In particular, we approach the topic largely through the use …

Studying Extended Sets From Young Tableaux, 2022 Butler University

#### Studying Extended Sets From Young Tableaux, Eric Nofziger

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

Young tableaux are combinatorial objects related to the partitions of an integer and have various applications in representation theory. They are particularly useful in the study of the fibers arising from the Springer resolution. In recent work of Graham-Precup-Russell, an association has been made between a given row-strict tableau and three disjoint subsets of {1,2,...,n}. These subsets are then used in the study of extended Springer fibers, so we call them extended sets. In this project, we use combinatorial techniques to classify which of these extended sets correlate to a valid row-strict or standard tableau and give bounds on the …

A Cluster Structure On The Coordinate Ring Of Partial Flag Varieties, 2022 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

#### A Cluster Structure On The Coordinate Ring Of Partial Flag Varieties, Fayadh Kadhem

*LSU Doctoral Dissertations*

The main goal of this dissertation is to show that the (multi-homogeneous) coordinate ring of a partial flag variety C[G/P_K^−] contains a cluster algebra for every semisimple complex algebraic group G. We use derivation properties and a canonical lifting map to prove that the cluster algebra structure A of the coordinate ring C[N_K] of a Schubert cell constructed by Goodearl and Yakimov can be lifted, in an explicit way, to a cluster structure \hat{A} living in the coordinate ring of the corresponding partial flag variety. Then we use a minimality condition to prove that the cluster algebra \hat{A} is equal …

The Neutrosophic Delta-Beta Connected Topological Spaces, 2022 Department of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Prince Mohammad Bin Fahd University Al-Khobar

#### The Neutrosophic Delta-Beta Connected Topological Spaces, Raja Mohammad Latif

*International Journal of Emerging Multidisciplinaries: Mathematics*

Real-life situations always include indeterminacy. The Mathematical tool which is well known in dealing with indeterminacy is neutrosophic. The notion of neutrosophic set is generally referred to as the generalization of intuitionistic fuzzy sets. In this paper, the notion of neutrosophic Î´Î²-connectedness and Î´Î²-disconnectedness in neutrosophic topological spaces is introduced. Also, we introduce neutrosophic Î´Î²-separated sets, neutrosophic super Î´Î²-connected spaces, neutrosophic extremely Î´Î²-disconnected spaces, and neutrosophic strongly Î´Î²-connected spaces. We investigate and study several properties and characterizations concerning connectedness in these spaces.

Generalization Of Bi-Canonical Degrees, 2022 University of Central Florida

#### Generalization Of Bi-Canonical Degrees, Joseph Brennan, Laura Ghezzi, Jooyoun Hong, Wolmer Vasconcelos

*Publications and Research*

We discuss invariants of Cohen-Macaulay local rings that admit a canonical module ω. Attached to each such ring R, when ω is an ideal, there are integers–the type of R, the reduction number of ω–that provide valuable metrics to express the deviation of R from being a Gorenstein ring. In (Ghezzi et al. in JMS 589:506–528, 2017) and (Ghezzi et al. in JMS 571:55–74, 2021) we enlarged this list with the canonical degree and the bi-canonical degree. In this work we extend the bi-canonical degree to rings where ω is not necessarily an ideal. We also discuss generalizations to rings …

The Local Lifting Problem For Curves With Quaternion Actions, 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### The Local Lifting Problem For Curves With Quaternion Actions, George Mitchell

*Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

The lifting problem asks whether one can lift Galois covers of curves defined over positive characteristic to Galois covers of curves over characteristic zero. The lifting problem has an equivalent local variant, which asks if a Galois extension of complete discrete valuation rings over positive characteristic, with algebraically closed residue field, can be lifted to characteristic zero. In this dissertation, we content ourselves with the study of the local lifting problem when the prime is 2, and the Galois group of the extension is the group of quaternions. In this case, it is known that certain quaternion extensions cannot be …

Reduction Of L-Functions Of Elliptic Curves Modulo Integers, 2022 The University of Western Ontario

#### Reduction Of L-Functions Of Elliptic Curves Modulo Integers, Félix Baril Boudreau

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

Let $\mathbb{F}_q$ be a finite field of size $q$, where $q$ is a power of a prime $p \geq 5$. Let $C$ be a smooth, proper, and geometrically connected curve over $\mathbb{F}_q$. Consider an elliptic curve $E$ over the function field $K$ of $C$ with nonconstant $j$-invariant. One can attach to $E$ its $L$-function $L(T,E/K)$, which is a generating function that contains information about the reduction types of $E$ at the different places of $K$. The $L$-function of $E/K$ was proven to be a polynomial in $\mathbb{Z}[T]$.

In 1985, Schoof devised an algorithm to compute the zeta function of an …

The Design And Implementation Of A High-Performance Polynomial System Solver, 2022 The University of Western Ontario

#### The Design And Implementation Of A High-Performance Polynomial System Solver, Alexander Brandt

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

This thesis examines the algorithmic and practical challenges of solving systems of polynomial equations. We discuss the design and implementation of triangular decomposition to solve polynomials systems exactly by means of symbolic computation.

Incremental triangular decomposition solves one equation from the input list of polynomials at a time. Each step may produce several different components (points, curves, surfaces, etc.) of the solution set. Independent components imply that the solving process may proceed on each component concurrently. This so-called component-level parallelism is a theoretical and practical challenge characterized by irregular parallelism. Parallelism is not an algorithmic property but rather a geometrical …

Recognizing And Reducing Ambiguity In Mathematics Curriculum And Relations Of Θ-Functions In Genus One And Two: A Geometric Perspective, 2022 Utah State University

#### Recognizing And Reducing Ambiguity In Mathematics Curriculum And Relations Of Θ-Functions In Genus One And Two: A Geometric Perspective, Shantel Spatig

*All Graduate Plan B and other Reports, Spring 1920 to Spring 2023*

Anxiety and mathematics come hand in hand for many individuals. This is due, in

part, to the fact that the only experience they have with mathematics is what some

mathematics educators refer to as "schoolmath," which uses a somewhat different

language than real mathematics. The language of schoolmath can cause individu-

als to have confusion and develop misconceptions related to several mathematical

concepts. One such concept is a fraction. In chapter one of this report, one possible

reason for this is discussed and a possible solution is purposed.

In chapter three of this report, genus-two curves admitting an elliptic involution …