The Mean Sum Of Squared Linking Numbers Of Random Piecewise-Linear Embeddings Of $K_N$, 2023 University of Notre Dame

#### The Mean Sum Of Squared Linking Numbers Of Random Piecewise-Linear Embeddings Of $K_N$, Yasmin Aguillon, Xingyu Cheng, Spencer Eddins, Pedro Morales

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

DNA and other polymer chains in confined spaces behave like closed loops. Arsuaga et al. \cite{AB} introduced the uniform random polygon model in order to better understand such loops in confined spaces using probabilistic and knot theoretical techniques, giving some classification on the mean squared linking number of such loops. Flapan and Kozai \cite{flapan2016linking} extended these techniques to find the mean sum of squared linking numbers for random linear embeddings of complete graphs $K_n$ and found it to have order $\Theta(n(n!))$. We further these ideas by inspecting random piecewise-linear embeddings of complete graphs and give introductory-level summaries of the ideas …

Differential Calculus: From Practice To Theory, 2023 Pennsylvania State University

#### Differential Calculus: From Practice To Theory, Eugene Boman, Robert Rogers

*Milne Open Textbooks*

*Differential Calculus: From Practice to Theory* covers all of the topics in a typical first course in differential calculus. Initially it focuses on using calculus as a problem solving tool (in conjunction with analytic geometry and trigonometry) by exploiting an informal understanding of differentials (infinitesimals). As much as possible large, interesting, and important historical problems (the motion of falling bodies and trajectories, the shape of hanging chains, the Witch of Agnesi) are used to develop key ideas. Only after skill with the computational tools of calculus has been developed is the question of rigor seriously broached. At that point, the …

Geometry In Spectral Triples: Immersions And Fermionic Fuzzy Geometries, 2023 Western University

#### Geometry In Spectral Triples: Immersions And Fermionic Fuzzy Geometries, Luuk S. Verhoeven

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

We investigate the metric nature of spectral triples in two ways.

Given an oriented Riemannian embedding i:X->Y of codimension 1 we construct a family of unbounded KK-cycles i!(epsilon), each of which represents the shriek class of i in KK-theory. These unbounded KK-cycles are further equipped with connections, allowing for the explicit computation of the products of i! with the spectral triple of Y at the unbounded level. In the limit epsilon to 0 the product of these unbounded KK-cycles with the canonical spectral triple for Y admits an asymptotic expansion. The divergent part of this expansion is known and …

Generating Polynomials Of Exponential Random Graphs, 2023 The University of Western Ontario

#### Generating Polynomials Of Exponential Random Graphs, Mohabat Tarkeshian

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

The theory of random graphs describes the interplay between probability and graph theory: it is the study of the stochastic process by which graphs form and evolve. In 1959, Erdős and Rényi defined the foundational model of random graphs on n vertices, denoted G(n, p) ([ER84]). Subsequently, Frank and Strauss (1986) added a Markov twist to this story by describing a topological structure on random graphs that encodes dependencies between local pairs of vertices ([FS86]). The general model that describes this framework is called the exponential random graph model (ERGM).

In the past, determining when a probability distribution has strong …

One Theorem, Two Ways: A Case Study In Geometric Techniques, 2023 College of the Holy Cross

#### One Theorem, Two Ways: A Case Study In Geometric Techniques, John B. Little

*Journal of Humanistic Mathematics*

If the three sides of a triangle ABΓ in the Euclidean plane are cut by points H on AB, Θ on BΓ, and K on ΓA cutting those sides in same ratios:

AH : HB = BΘ : ΘΓ = ΓK : KA,

then Pappus of Alexandria proved that the triangles ABΓ and HΘK have the same centroid (center of mass). We present two proofs of this result: an English translation of Pappus's original synthetic proof and a modern algebraic proof making use of Cartesian coordinates and vector concepts. Comparing the two methods, we can see that while the algebraic …

Stability Of Cauchy's Equation On Δ+., 2023 University of Louisville

#### Stability Of Cauchy's Equation On Δ+., Holden Wells

*Electronic Theses and Dissertations*

The most famous functional equation f(x+y)=f(x)+f(y) known as Cauchy's equation due to its appearance in the seminal analysis text Cours d'Analyse (Cauchy 1821), was used to understand fundamental aspects of the real numbers and the importance of regularity assumptions in mathematical analysis. Since then, the equation has been abstracted and examined in many contexts. One such examination, introduced by Stanislaw Ulam and furthered by Donald Hyers, was that of stability. Hyers demonstrated that Cauchy's equation exhibited stability over Banach Spaces in the following sense: functions that approximately satisfy Cauchy's equation are approximated with the same level of error by functions …

Internal Yoneda Ext Groups, Central H-Spaces, And Banded Types, 2023 Western University

#### Internal Yoneda Ext Groups, Central H-Spaces, And Banded Types, Jarl Gunnar Taxerås Flaten

*Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository*

We develop topics in synthetic homotopy theory using the language of homotopy type theory, and study their semantic counterparts in an ∞-topos. Specifically, we study Grothendieck categories and Yoneda Ext groups in this setting, as well as a novel class of *central* H-spaces along with their associated *bands*. The former are fundamental notions from homological algebra that support important computations in traditional homotopy theory. We develop these tools with the goal of supporting similar computations in our setting. In contrast, our results about central H-spaces and bands are new, even when interpreted into the ∞-topos of spaces.

In Chapter …

(R1977) On Geometry Of Equiform Smarandache Ruled Surfaces Via Equiform Frame In Minkowski 3-Space, 2023 Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU); Beni-Suef University

#### (R1977) On Geometry Of Equiform Smarandache Ruled Surfaces Via Equiform Frame In Minkowski 3-Space, Emad Solouma

*Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)*

In this paper, some geometric properties of equiform Smarandache ruled surfaces in Minkowski space E_{1}^{3} using an equiform frame are investigated. Also, we give the sufficient conditions that make these surfaces are equiform developable and equiform minimal related to the equiform curvatures and when the equiform base curve contained in a plane or general helix. Finally, we provide an example, such as these surfaces.

(R1957) Some Types Of Continuous Function Via N-Neutrosophic Crisp Topological Spaces, 2023 Government Arts College (Autonomous)

#### (R1957) Some Types Of Continuous Function Via N-Neutrosophic Crisp Topological Spaces, A. Vadivel, C. John Sundar

*Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)*

The aim of this article is to introduced a new type of continuous functions such as N-neutrosophic crisp gamma continuous and weakly N-neutrosophic crisp gamma continuous functions in a N-neutrosophic crisp topological space and also discuss a relation between them in a N-neutrosophic crisp topological spaces. We also investigate some of their properties in N-neutrosophic crisp gamma continuous function via N-neutrosophic crisp topological spaces. Further, a contra part of continuity called N-neutrosophic crisp gamma-contra continuous map in a N-neutrosophic crisp topology is also initiated. Finally, an application based on neutrosophic score function of medical diagnosis is examined with graphical representation.

(R1986) Neutrosophic Soft Contra E-Continuous Maps, Contra E-Irresolute Maps And Application Using Distance Measure, 2023 Annamalai University

#### (R1986) Neutrosophic Soft Contra E-Continuous Maps, Contra E-Irresolute Maps And Application Using Distance Measure, P. Revathi, K. Chitirakala, A. Vadivel

*Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)*

We introduce and investigate neutrosophic soft contra e-continuous maps and contra e-irresolute maps in neutrosophic soft topological spaces with examples. Also, neutrosophic soft contra econtinuous maps are compared with neutrosophic soft continuous maps, δ-continuous maps, δ- semi continuous maps, δ-pre continuous maps and e∗ continuous maps in neutrosophic soft topological spaces. We derive some useful results and properties related to them. An application in decision making problem using distance measure is given. An example of a candidate selection from a company interview is formulated as neutrosophic soft model problem and the hamming distance measure is applied to calculate the distance …

(R1965) Some More Properties On Generalized Double Fuzzy Z Alpha Open Sets, 2023 J. J. College of Arts and Science (Autonomous), Affiliated to Bharathidasan University

#### (R1965) Some More Properties On Generalized Double Fuzzy Z Alpha Open Sets, K. Jayapandian, A. Saivarajan, O. Uma Maheswari, J. Sathiyaraj

*Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)*

In this paper, a new class of sets termed as double fuzzy generalized Z alpha closed sets and double fuzzy generalized Z alpha open sets are introduced with the help of double fuzzy Z alpha open and double fuzzy Z alpha closed sets, respectively. Using these sets double fuzzy generalized Z alpha border, double fuzzy generalized Z alpha exterior and double fuzzy generalized Z alpha frontier of a fuzzy set in double fuzzy topological spaces are introduced. Also, the topological properties and characterizations of these sets and operators are studied. Furthermore, suitable examples have been provided to illustrate the theory.

(R2026) Special Smarandache Ruled Surfaces According To Flc Frame In E^3, 2023 Ordu University

#### (R2026) Special Smarandache Ruled Surfaces According To Flc Frame In E^3, Süleyman Şenyurt, Kebire Hilal Ayvacı, Davut Canlı

*Applications and Applied Mathematics: An International Journal (AAM)*

In this study, we introduce some special ruled surfaces according to the Flc frame of a given polynomial curve. We name these ruled surfaces as TD_{2}, TD_{1} ve D_{2}D_{1} Smarandache ruled surfaces and provide their characteristics such as Gauss and mean curvatures in order to specify their developability and minimality conditions. Moreover, we examine the conditions if the parametric curves of the surfaces are asymptotic, geodesic or curvature line. Such conditions are also argued in terms of the developability and minimality conditions. Finally, we give an example and picture the corresponding graphs of ruled …

Jones Polynomial Obstructions For Positivity Of Knots, 2023 Dartmouth College

#### Jones Polynomial Obstructions For Positivity Of Knots, Lizzie Buchanan

*Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations*

The fundamental problem in knot theory is distinguishing one knot from another. We accomplish this by looking at knot invariants. One such invariant is positivity. A knot is positive if it has a diagram in which all crossings are positive. A knot is almost-positive if it does not have a diagram where all crossings are positive, but it does have a diagram in which all but one crossings are positive. Given a knot with an almost-positive diagram, it is in general very hard to determine whether it might also have a positive diagram. This work provides positivity obstructions for three …

An Explicit Construction Of Sheaves In Context, 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### An Explicit Construction Of Sheaves In Context, Tyler A. Bryson

*Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

This document details the body of theory necessary to explicitly construct sheaves of sets on a site together with the development of supporting material necessary to connect sheaf theory with the wider mathematical contexts in which it is applied. Of particular interest is a novel presentation of the plus construction suitable for direct application to a site without first passing to the generated grothendieck topology.

Pairings In A Ring Spectrum-Based Bousfield-Kan Spectral Sequence, 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

#### Pairings In A Ring Spectrum-Based Bousfield-Kan Spectral Sequence, Jonathan Toledo

*Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects*

Bousfield and Kan traditionally formulated their homotopy spectral sequence over a simplicial set X resolved with respect to a ring R. By considering an adequate category of ring spectra, one can take a ring spectrum E, create from it a functor of a triple on the category of simplicial sets, and build a cosimplicial simplicial set **EX**. The homotopy spectral sequence can then be formed over such cosimplicial spaces by a similar construction to the original. Pairings can be established on these spectral sequences, and, for nice enough spaces, these pairings on the E_{2}-terms coincide with certain …

A Strong-Type Furstenberg–Sárközy Theorem For Sets Of Positive Measure, 2023 Chapman University

#### A Strong-Type Furstenberg–Sárközy Theorem For Sets Of Positive Measure, Polona Durcik, Vjekoslav Kovač, Mario Stipčić

*Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research*

For every β ∈ (0,∞), β ≠ 1, we prove that a positive measure subset A of the unit square contains a point (x_{0}, y_{0}) such that A nontrivially intersects curves y − y0 = a(x −x0)^{β} for a whole interval I ⊆ (0,∞) of parameters a ∈ I . A classical Nikodym set counterexample prevents one to take β = 1, which is the case of straight lines. Moreover, for a planar set A of positive density, we show that the interval I can be arbitrarily large on the logarithmic scale. These results can …

Motion Planning Algorithm In A Y-Graph, 2023 Wright College, City Colleges, Chicago

#### Motion Planning Algorithm In A Y-Graph, David Baldi

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

We present an explicit algorithm for two robots to move autonomously and without collisions on a track shaped like the letter Y. Configuration spaces are of practical relevance in designing safe control schemes for automated guided vehicles. The topological complexity of a configuration space is the minimal number of continuous instructions required to move robots between any initial configuration to any final one without collisions. Using techniques from topological robotics, we calculate the topological complexity of two robots moving on a Y-track and exhibit an optimal algorithm realizing this exact number of instructions given by the topological complexity.

Effective Non-Hermiticity And Topology In Markovian Quadratic Bosonic Dynamics, 2023 Dartmouth College

#### Effective Non-Hermiticity And Topology In Markovian Quadratic Bosonic Dynamics, Vincent Paul Flynn

*Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations*

Recently, there has been an explosion of interest in re-imagining many-body quantum phenomena beyond equilibrium. One such effort has extended the symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phase classification of non-interacting fermions to driven and dissipative settings, uncovering novel topological phenomena that are not known to exist in equilibrium which may have wide-ranging applications in quantum science. Similar physics in non-interacting bosonic systems has remained elusive. Even at equilibrium, an "effective non-Hermiticity" intrinsic to bosonic Hamiltonians poses theoretical challenges. While this non-Hermiticity has been acknowledged, its implications have not been explored in-depth. Beyond this dynamical peculiarity, major roadblocks have arisen in the search …

Constructing Spanning Sets Of Affine Algebraic Curvature Tensors, 2023 University of Chicago

#### Constructing Spanning Sets Of Affine Algebraic Curvature Tensors, Stephen J. Kelly

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

In this paper, we construct two spanning sets for the affine algebraic curvature tensors. We then prove that every 2-dimensional affine algebraic curvature tensor can be represented by a single element from either of the two spanning sets. This paper provides a means to study affine algebraic curvature tensors in a geometric and algebraic manner similar to previous studies of canonical algebraic curvature tensors.

A Note On The Involutive Concordance Invariants For Certain (1,1)-Knots, 2023 Yale University

#### A Note On The Involutive Concordance Invariants For Certain (1,1)-Knots, Anna Antal, Sarah Pritchard

*Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal*

A knot K is a smooth embedding of the circle into the three-dimensional sphere; two knots are said to be concordant if they form the boundary of an annulus properly embedded into the product of the three-sphere with an interval. Heegaard Floer knot homology is an invariant of knots introduced by P. Ozsváth and Z. Szabó in the early 2000's which associates to a knot a filtered chain complex CFK(K), which improves on classical invariants of the knot. Involutive Heegaard Floer homology is a variant theory introduced in 2015 by K. Hendricks and C. Manolescu which additionally considers a chain …