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Economies Of Scale In Integrated Pest Management In Vegetable And Fruit Production, Franklin Quarcoo, Conrad Bonsi, David Nii O. Tackie, Walter A. Hill, Gertrude Wall, George Hunter 2017 Tuskegee University

Economies Of Scale In Integrated Pest Management In Vegetable And Fruit Production, Franklin Quarcoo, Conrad Bonsi, David Nii O. Tackie, Walter A. Hill, Gertrude Wall, George Hunter

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Abstract

Pest management is achieved directly using a variety of tools, including pesticides, and indirectly through a number of agronomic/cultural practices such as irrigation and fertilizer application; collectively these practices function to positively effect general plant health. Healthier plants are more resistant to or tolerant of pests. This study explores the scale differences that impact the pest management significance and suitability of certain agronomic practices. Scale differences were discussed using literature-based information, direct field observations, and anecdotal information on the relative advantages of drip and sprinkler irrigation systems; organic and conventional cultivation of crops; crop rotation versus mono-cropping systems ...


Tree Fruits For Iowa, H. L. Lantz 2017 Iowa State College

Tree Fruits For Iowa, H. L. Lantz

Bulletin

This bulletin is intended to assist Iowa orchardists in the selection of satisfactory tree fruit varieties either for home or commercial production. By consulting the descriptions and discussions herein given and by informing himself as to the present status of varieties already grown in his locality, the prospective planter should be in a position to make a selection which will succeed and bring him satisfactory returns. Doubtless future years will place different valuations upon many of the varieties discussed for Iowa planting.


Functional Diseases Of The Apple In Storage, H. H. Plagge, T. J. Maney, B. S. Pickett 2017 Iowa State College

Functional Diseases Of The Apple In Storage, H. H. Plagge, T. J. Maney, B. S. Pickett

Bulletin

A systematic study of the storage diseases of apples includes the consideration of two general groups: (a) the functional, and (b) the parasitic diseases. Although most kinds of parasitic diseases are seldom found on good grades of apples, occasionally some of these escape inspection and develop considerably on ripe, fruit in storage. The fruit grower who is concerned with producing sound fruit is familiar with such parasitic diseases as apple scab, apple blotch and cedar-apple rust. The fruit dealer, storage operator and consumer, on the other hand, more frequently come in contact with the functional diseases such as Jonathan spot ...


Cold Storage Investigations With Wealthy Apples: Fifth Progress Report, H. H. Plagge, T. J. Maney 2017 Iowa State College

Cold Storage Investigations With Wealthy Apples: Fifth Progress Report, H. H. Plagge, T. J. Maney

Bulletin

1. Wealthy apples grown in northern Iowa when properly ripened and carefully handled kept well in cold storage until late in February.

2. Apple-scald does not appear to be a factor in the storage of Wealthy apples on well ripened fruit.

3. Soft-scald was most abundant on immature fruit and especially on delayed stored immature fruit. Soft-scald was practically eliminated by immediate storage. This held true with fruit picked in either an immature or in a mature condition.

4. Oiled wraps practically controlled apple-scald on Wealthy and in some cases apparently reduced the amount of soft-scald, but the results with ...


Grape Pruning—The Spur And Long Cane Systems Compared, T. J. Maney 2017 Iowa State College

Grape Pruning—The Spur And Long Cane Systems Compared, T. J. Maney

Bulletin

Grape pruning experiments carried on near Council Bluffs during the season of 1914 for a comparison of the “spur” with the "long cane and spur renewal” system, showed that the vines pruned alter the long cane system yielded, on the average, 41 per cent more grapes than the spur pruned vines. These results indicate that the long cane system is of value for the southwestern and other sections of Iowa where grapes are grown. However, it must be recognized that these results are for one year only. Further experiment with the two systems must be carried on before the long ...


An Apple Orchard Survey Of Mills County, Laurenz Greene 2017 Iowa State College

An Apple Orchard Survey Of Mills County, Laurenz Greene

Bulletin

In many sections of Iowa apples can be grown successfully land profitably in a large way, provided the industry is carefully ¡studied and its problems are dealt with correctly.

To furnish a basis for study, to get at the difficulties of orcharding in the state, and to help growers meet them successfully and put the industry on a more permanent and profitable basis, the Iowa Agricultural Experiment station, m the summers of 1911 and 1912, made a survey of the orchards of Mills county. This county was chosen because it ranked first in apple production and in the percentage of ...


Cherries And Cherry Growing In Iowa., H. C. Price, E. E. Little 2017 Iowa State College

Cherries And Cherry Growing In Iowa., H. C. Price, E. E. Little

Bulletin

The cherry was one of the first fruits cultivated by the early settlers. It was brought with them from the eastern states and the historic cherry pie added to the luxuries of the new home. The plantings were made to supply the home demand and it has only been in recent years that it has been planted essentially for commercial purposes. South of the 42 degree of latitude little difficulty was experienced in growing the varieties of cherries brought from the east, but north of this their cultivation was uncertain and the test winters destroyed many of the trees. Attempts ...


Cold Storage Of Apples., H. C. Price 2017 Iowa State College

Cold Storage Of Apples., H. C. Price

Bulletin

Iowa has an abundance of hardy and productive varieties of summer and fall apples, but there are really no satisfactory varieties of late keeping winter apples that can be grown in the northern part of the state. The varieties that are hardy are inferior in quality, size and productiveness. The hardy foreign varieties that have been introduced are of short season, and will not keep longer than the 1st of December. As a consequence of this condition, the people must either do without winter apples, buy eastern grown apples or depend upon keeping the apples that they can grow by ...


Effects Of Chemical And Enzymatic Modifications On Starch And Naringenin Complexation, Ana Isabel Gonzalez Conde 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Chemical And Enzymatic Modifications On Starch And Naringenin Complexation, Ana Isabel Gonzalez Conde

Theses and Dissertations

Naringenin is a flavanone naturally present in grapefruit and tomato skin, which has been demonstrated to have health benefits. However, because of the low water solubility and bioavailability, naringenin applications are limited. Starch inclusion complexes have been shown to improve the solubility and bioavailability of poorly water soluble bioactive compounds. The present study aimed to prepare and characterize complexes of naringenin with starches, including potato starch and high amylose corn starch (Hylon VII), which were chemically (acetylation or hydroxypropylation) and enzymatically modified (debranched or debrahced/β-amylase treated). Soluble and insoluble complexes were recovered, and their physicochemical properties were characterized. The ...


Studies In Blackberry: Development And Implementation Of A Phenotyping Protocol For Blackberry Seedling Populations And Impact Of Time Of Day Of Harvest On Red Drupelet Reversion For University Of Arkansas Blackberry Genotypes, Melinda Yin 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Studies In Blackberry: Development And Implementation Of A Phenotyping Protocol For Blackberry Seedling Populations And Impact Of Time Of Day Of Harvest On Red Drupelet Reversion For University Of Arkansas Blackberry Genotypes, Melinda Yin

Theses and Dissertations

There are two major public blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus rubus Watson) breeding programs in the United States: one at the University of Arkansas (UA) and another at the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Horticultural Crops Research Unit (USDA-ARS HCRU) based in Corvallis, OR. The germplasm and breeding objectives of these two breeding programs are diverse, but frequent collaboration necessitated a standardized method of characterizing plant and fruit traits. A phenotyping protocol for blackberry was developed at UA and implemented for two years on UA seedling populations. The protocol included plant traits (health, vigor, estimated crop load, peak ...


Apple Storage Investigations Fourth Progress Report, H. H. Plagge, T. J. Maney 2017 Iowa State College

Apple Storage Investigations Fourth Progress Report, H. H. Plagge, T. J. Maney

Bulletin

This is the fourth report* of the apple storage investigations begun in 1906 by the Pomology Section of the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station. The report embodies the results of investigations dealing mainly with the development and control of such storage diseases as Jonathan-spot, apple-scald and internal breakdown. The investigations are divided into two parts. Part I deals with the development and control of the storage diseases, Jonathan-spot and soft-scald on the Jonathan apple. Part II includes studies on the development and control of apple-scald and internal breakdown and the effect of certain odorous substances on apples.

The report embodies the ...


Grape Production And Distribution In Western Iowa, T. J. Maney 2017 Iowa State College

Grape Production And Distribution In Western Iowa, T. J. Maney

Bulletin

Commercial grape growing is unusually successful in the vicinity of Council Bluffs, not merely because this district is naturally adapted to this industry, but also largely because of the influence of the excellent cooperative marketing organization known as the Council Bluffs Grape Growers’ Association. This organization has for many years provided satisfactory markets for grapes at the best possible prices to growers and at a low cost of marketing, besides handling other fruits and buying supplies for its members. Due to its influence, grape growing near Council Bluffs is generally better organized and managed than elsewhere in Iowa.

The practices ...


Cold Storage For Iowa Apples: Third Progress Report, W. E. Whitehouse 2017 Iowa State College

Cold Storage For Iowa Apples: Third Progress Report, W. E. Whitehouse

Bulletin

This is the third report* of progress on the investigations pertaining to the holding of apples in storage which have been carried on since 1906 by the pomology section of the Iowa agricultural experiment station**. It covers work which has been in progress during the past five years and deals with several questions:

The temperature of fruit before and after storing; humidity of storage rooms; maturity of fruit when stored; size of apples; wrapping paper used in packing, and methods of storing; the control of certain apple rots which are liable to develop in storage, and the rate of cooling ...


Notes On Strawberries., H. C. Price, E. E. Little 2017 Iowa State College

Notes On Strawberries., H. C. Price, E. E. Little

Bulletin

The following pages give the results of a variety test of strawberries begun in the spring of 1899. At this time seventy-five varieties were set in plats ten feet long and each plat containing two rows, four feet apart and the plants twelve inches apart in the row, so that each plat contained twenty plants. The matted row system of culture was used, and the plants were allowed to spread until they formed rows about two feet wide. In the spring of 1900 seventeen more varieties were added to the plantation. The results obtained from the plantation in 1900 were ...


Facts And Opinions About Plums And Plum Growing In Iowa., John Craig 2017 Iowa State College

Facts And Opinions About Plums And Plum Growing In Iowa., John Craig

Bulletin

In the following pages the writer attempts to set forth some of the facts gained during a brief investigation of the plum growing industry in this state, and presents in addition an epitome of the experience of many orchardists, some of them particularly interested in this branch of their calling.

At least two prominent factors have contributed in recent years to direct attention to plum growing. First, the introduction of the Japanese plums, and their marvellously rapid distribution; and second, the striking progress made by a few specialists in improving native plums. The fact that while the Japanese varieties, the ...


Experiments With New Orchard Fruits, Trees, And Shrubs., J. L. Budd 2017 Iowa State College

Experiments With New Orchard Fruits, Trees, And Shrubs., J. L. Budd

Bulletin

In 1883 a Bulletin was issued by the Horticultural Department giving an outline of our trial since 1879, of some of the fruits and ligneous plants of the steppe sections of Eastern Europe and North Central Asia.

In 1885 we gave in Bulletin form a “Revised list of names of, and notes on, some of the fruits and shrubs of Northeast Europe, on trial on the college grounds and which have been sent out for trial during the past six years.” In this Bulletin full lists were given of our importations to which was added notes on their behavior on ...


Treatment Of Currants And Cherries To Prevent Spot Diseases., L. H. Pammel, G. W. Carver 2017 Iowa State College

Treatment Of Currants And Cherries To Prevent Spot Diseases., L. H. Pammel, G. W. Carver

Bulletin

In former bulletins of the Experiment Station, this subject has been treated. The experiments reported show quite conclusively that these diseases can be prevented by treating with Bordeaux mixture. The experiments were however repeated because Mr. D. G. Fairchild* put the currant disease in the doubtful column of those to be treated.


Second Report On The Sand Cherry As A Stock., J. L. Budd, N. E. Hansen 2017 Iowa State College

Second Report On The Sand Cherry As A Stock., J. L. Budd, N. E. Hansen

Bulletin

In Bulletin No. 22 appeared the first report of an experiment with the Sand Cherry (Prunus pumila) as a stock for the plum and cherry, and it should be read in connection with the following, which gives the result of the second year’s experience. The stocks were grown in 1892 from seed gathered in northwest Nebraska. In the fall of 1892 the largest of the seedlings were taken up for crown-grafting during the winter, leaving the others for budding. The grafts were planted in the spring of 1893, and the budding was done during July of the same year ...


The Use Of The Sand Cherry For Stocks, J. L. Budd, N. E. Hansen 2017 Iowa State College

The Use Of The Sand Cherry For Stocks, J. L. Budd, N. E. Hansen

Bulletin

During the past few years the use of the Sand cherry (Primus pumila), as a stock for the cherry and plum, has been much discussed, but as yet we have had no convincing experience favorable to its use in cherry propagation. But in Utah and in various parts of the prairie States we have plum trees on this stock of several years’ growth, which favor the belief that our cultivated varieties will unite perfectly with its wood, come into bearing earlier, and become dwarfed in size of tree.

With a view to more exact conclusions we grew, in 1892, about ...


Experiments With New Orchard Fruits, Trees, And Shrubs, J. L. Budd 2017 Iowa State College

Experiments With New Orchard Fruits, Trees, And Shrubs, J. L. Budd

Bulletin

In the spring of 1883 a Bulletin was issued by this Department giving an outline of our experiments with, and investigations of, some of the fruits and ligneous plants of the steppe sections of East Europe and North Central Asia. Since that time we have made several importations of scions and rooted plants from the parts of East Europe where the summer heat is nearly or quite equal to ours, and we have sent out many thousands of plants for trial across the continent on our northern borders. The present notes are a summary of the reports received from our ...


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