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Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Phenolic And Volatile Compounds In Cranberries (Vaccinium Macrocarpon L), Katherine Moore 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Phenolic And Volatile Compounds In Cranberries (Vaccinium Macrocarpon L), Katherine Moore

Theses and Dissertations

The primary objective of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic and volatile compounds extracted from cranberries. The Griess Reagent System assay was used to measure the in vitro anti-inflammatory capabilities of cranberry phenolic and volatile extracts on RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells. This study tested the anti-inflammatory capabilities of the cranberry phenolic and volatile extracts before, as a preventative treatment, and after, as a means of treating pre-existing inflammation, inducing inflammation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). All experiments were conducted in the following manner, varying only in whether treated with the extracts before or after LPS: 1 ...


Bioavailability Of Bioactive Compounds, Wing Shun Lam 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Bioavailability Of Bioactive Compounds, Wing Shun Lam

Theses and Dissertations

Arachidin-1 (Ara-1) and arachidin-3 (Ara-3) are stilbenoids found in hairy peanut roots, which have been shown to possess similar, if not higher, efficacy in biological activities when compared to nonprenylated analogs such as piceatannol and resveratrol. Blackberry essences are concentrated volatiles, which are characterized by low molecular weight, lipophilic properties, and have also been demonstrated to have health benefits. As interest in dietary bioactive compounds functional ingredients increase, more emphasis has been placed on identifying which compounds have high efficacy as well as bioavailability. The ability of a compound to exert its health promoting effects depends on its bioavailable dose ...


Aiding Growers’ Decisions: Describing Arkansas Blackberry Growers’ Resources And Needs Regarding Blackberry Production, Lesley Marie Smith 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Aiding Growers’ Decisions: Describing Arkansas Blackberry Growers’ Resources And Needs Regarding Blackberry Production, Lesley Marie Smith

Theses and Dissertations

This study was a census of blackberry growers who attended the Blackberry Growers Association informal interest meetings held throughout the state during the month of April. The purpose of this study was to describe blackberry operations in Arkansas, describe the ideal blackberry cultivar growers want to produce, describe resources they use to research production information, and describe what changes to current resources growers would like to have. Questionnaire responses regarding blackberry production of 18 blackberry growers in the state of Arkansas were analyzed. Three growers elected to not participate resulting in an 86% response rate. The researcher hopes that this ...


Effects Of Bacillus Mycoides Supplement In A Reduced Frequency Fungicide Program On Chambourcin Grapevines (Vitis Vinifera L.), Ryan Alan Mairs 2018 Western Kentucky University

Effects Of Bacillus Mycoides Supplement In A Reduced Frequency Fungicide Program On Chambourcin Grapevines (Vitis Vinifera L.), Ryan Alan Mairs

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Fungal diseases pose significant challenges for grapevine producers in Kentucky due to the region’s abundant moisture and relative humidity. Methods to reduce fungicide application frequency would prove both economically and temporally valuable to producers. A field experiment was established in Bowling Green, KY in 2017 to investigate Bacillus mycoides isolate J (LifeGard) as a supplement to a fungicide program for systemic acquired resistance (SAR). Three fungicide treatment regimens were implemented consisting of a program modelled from the Midwest Fruit Pest Management Guide (2017) and an identical program supplemented with 140 g ha-1 LifeGard per application (both applied on 14 ...


Replacing Herbicides With Groundcovers To Enhance Vineyard Sustainability, Benjamin A. Loseke 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Replacing Herbicides With Groundcovers To Enhance Vineyard Sustainability, Benjamin A. Loseke

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

In many Midwestern vineyards a three to four-foot weed-free strip is maintained directly beneath the vines to reduce vine-weed competition. Conventionally, this strip has been conserved with repeated applications of herbicide, mainly glyphosate. The necessity for this weed-free strip to reduce vine-weed competition has been well documented in more arid climates. However, in areas with higher soil fertility and adequate rainfall, this strip may be unnecessary. Moreover, stand establishment and early vine growth have not been well documented when planting groundcovers (GC) immediately following the vine planting. The main objective of this project is to assess the severity of competition ...


Seasonal Phenology, Distribution And Treatments For Polyphagotarsonemus Latus (Banks) On Primocane-Fruiting Blackberries (Rubus L. Subgenus Rubus) In Arkansas, Jessica Anne LeFors 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Seasonal Phenology, Distribution And Treatments For Polyphagotarsonemus Latus (Banks) On Primocane-Fruiting Blackberries (Rubus L. Subgenus Rubus) In Arkansas, Jessica Anne Lefors

Theses and Dissertations

Worldwide, blackberries (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus) are an economically important crop. In 2007, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (broad mites), were first reported damaging primocane-fruiting blackberries in Fayetteville, Arkansas. Since this time, broad mite damage to blackberries and yield loss has been reported in many states and countries. Despite the increasing reports of this blackberry pest, little is known about their population dynamics, and few treatments are available. Growers with broad mite populations need a pest management program to minimize yield loss. Therefore, there was a need to develop sampling techniques, describe broad mite seasonal phenology in blackberry fields, and determine efficacy ...


Breeding For Resistance In California Strawberry To Verticillium Dahliae, Zachary Christman 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Breeding For Resistance In California Strawberry To Verticillium Dahliae, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Since 1930 the University of California, Davis, has been developing strawberry cultivars that are adapted to the agricultural industry and regional farms. Developing cultivars that require fewer inputs are of significant economic importance in agronomy. Developing a crop resistant to a disease is beneficial for horticulturists since less labor and chemicals are needed for a high yield.6

In commercial strawberry cultivars, complete resistance to V. dahlia is extremely rare. The majority of Californian strawberry cultivars are highly susceptible to it.2 Over the last 18 years of plant breeding for strawberry cultivars with a high degree of resistance and ...


Arthropod Fauna Associated With Wild And Cultivated Cranberries In Wisconsin, Shawn A. Steffan, Merritt E. Singleton, Michael L. Draney, Elissa M. Chasen, Kyle E. Johnson, Juan E. Zalapa 2018 USDA, Agricultural Research Service

Arthropod Fauna Associated With Wild And Cultivated Cranberries In Wisconsin, Shawn A. Steffan, Merritt E. Singleton, Michael L. Draney, Elissa M. Chasen, Kyle E. Johnson, Juan E. Zalapa

The Great Lakes Entomologist

The cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton) is an evergreen, trailing shrub native to North American peatlands. It is cultivated commercially in the US and Canada, with major production centers in Wisconsin, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Washington, Québec, and British Columbia. Despite the agricultural importance of cranberry in Wisconsin, relatively little is known of its arthropod associates, particularly the arachnid fauna. Here we report preliminary data on the insect and spider communities associated with wild and cultivated cranberries in Wisconsin. We then compare the insect and spider communities of wild cranberry systems to those of cultivated cranberries, indexed by region. Approximately 7,400 ...


Grower Surveys Of Resistance Management Concerns, Knowledge And Implementation, Katherine Ghantous, Hilary A. Sandler, Laura McDermott, Martha Sylvia 2018 UMass Amherst

Grower Surveys Of Resistance Management Concerns, Knowledge And Implementation, Katherine Ghantous, Hilary A. Sandler, Laura Mcdermott, Martha Sylvia

Cranberry Station Resistance Management

No abstract provided.


Evaluation Of Fresh-Market Potential Of Arkansas-Grown Fruit: Blackberries, Peaches, Table Grapes, And Muscadine Grapes, Molly Felts 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Fresh-Market Potential Of Arkansas-Grown Fruit: Blackberries, Peaches, Table Grapes, And Muscadine Grapes, Molly Felts

Theses and Dissertations

Fresh-market produce is a major component of commercial market sales. However, shelf-life of fresh-market produce is limited, so evaluating postharvest potential (time from harvest to consumption) is critical. Fresh-market fruit can be impacted by many factors that deteriorate the quality of the fruit. Understanding the postharvest physiology of fruit can lead to better handling and storage conditions for extended shelf life and enhanced quality for the consumer. This research project was a collaborative effort within the University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture between the Food Science and Horticulture Departments to evaluate the fresh-market potential of Arkansas-grown fruit. Physiochemical and ...


Eighth Year Performance Of Honeycrisp Grafted On Dwarfing Rootstocks Of The Nc-140 Regional Apple Rootstock Trial, Mark Rippke, Diana Cochran, Lynn Schroeder 2018 Iowa State University

Eighth Year Performance Of Honeycrisp Grafted On Dwarfing Rootstocks Of The Nc-140 Regional Apple Rootstock Trial, Mark Rippke, Diana Cochran, Lynn Schroeder

Farm Progress Reports

Dwarfing rootstocks have the potential to increase profitability for tree-fruit growers by controlling tree size to allow more trees/acre. Although the initial installation cost can be 10 to 30 times greater than lower-density plantings, the long-range returns can far exceed the traditional plantings. However, to be viable as a commercial rootstock, dwarfing rootstocks must be adapted to a range of agro-climatic conditions, moderately disease resistant, high yielding, and produce quality fruit. To evaluate the adaptability and performance of new and promising apple rootstocks, an NC-140 regional rootstock trial was established in 2010 at 11 sites in the United States ...


Validation Of Anthracnose Fruit Rot Disease-Warning System On Strawberry–Year 1, Xiaoyu Zhang, Mark Gleason, Hanli Yang 2018 Iowa State University

Validation Of Anthracnose Fruit Rot Disease-Warning System On Strawberry–Year 1, Xiaoyu Zhang, Mark Gleason, Hanli Yang

Farm Progress Reports

Anthracnose fruit rot (AFR), caused by the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum acutatum, is one of the top two disease threats (along with Botrytis fruit rot) to strawberry production in the United States. The pathogen is able to damage almost all parts of the plant and fruit rot is the most important symptom. Transplants with infected root systems establish poorly and produce a minimal early crop. In 2013, emergence of strobilurin (Qo-I) fungicide-resistant C. acutatum isolates in Florida became a threat to both the disease-warning system (Strawberry Advisory System; StAS) and traditional calendar-based timing for fungicide sprays. The hidden nature of C ...


Evaluating Consumer Sensory And Composition Attributes Of Arkansas-Grown Fresh-Market Blackberries, Aubrey N. Dunteman, Renee T. Threlfall, John R. Clark, Margaret L. Worthington 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluating Consumer Sensory And Composition Attributes Of Arkansas-Grown Fresh-Market Blackberries, Aubrey N. Dunteman, Renee T. Threlfall, John R. Clark, Margaret L. Worthington

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Blackberries are grown worldwide for commercial fresh markets. Three Arkansas-grown fresh-market blackberry genotypes (‘Natchez’, ‘Ouachita’, and A-2418) were evaluated for consumer sensory and compositional attributes at the University of Arkansas Food Science Department, Fayetteville. The compositional attributes of the blackberries were within an acceptable range for commercial markets (soluble solids=8.20-11.90%, pH=2.79-3.18, titratable acidity=1.09-1.32%). In terms of soluble solids to titratable acidity ratio, ‘Ouachita’ (10.92) had the highest ratio, followed by ‘Natchez’ (8.93) and A-2418 (6.25). A consumer sensory panel (n=80) evaluated fresh-market blackberry attributes using a 9-point ...


Ripeness Attributes Of Arkansas-Grown Peaches And Nectarines At Harvest And During Postharvest Storage, Mary C. Siebenmorgen, Renee T. Threlfall, Margaret Worthington 2018 University of Arkansas

Ripeness Attributes Of Arkansas-Grown Peaches And Nectarines At Harvest And During Postharvest Storage, Mary C. Siebenmorgen, Renee T. Threlfall, Margaret Worthington

Discovery, The Student Journal of Dale Bumpers College of Agricultural, Food and Life Sciences

Since peaches and nectarines are a valued fresh-market crop worldwide, evaluating postharvest potential helps determine feasibility for commercial markets. The ripeness attributes of 10 peach and nectarine genotypes were evaluated at harvest (day 0) and after 7 and 14 d storage at 4° C. The fruit was hand harvested at tree ripeness (ripened on the tree) and commercial ripeness (ripened during storage). The attributes of the tree-ripened fruit and commercially-ripened fruit varied at harvest and included chlorophyll (0.04-0.86 abs), peach weight (132-264 g), soluble solids (7.23-12.57%), pH (3.18-4.66), titratable acidity (0.16-1.21%), and ...


Evaluating Row Cover Establishment Systems For Cantaloupe And Summer Squash, H. Mark Hanna, Brian L. Steward, Kurt A. Rosentrater 2018 Iowa State University

Evaluating Row Cover Establishment Systems For Cantaloupe And Summer Squash, H. Mark Hanna, Brian L. Steward, Kurt A. Rosentrater

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Use of row covers offer an alternative to pesticide application for management of insect feeding and disease transmission and can be beneficial for extending the growing season. Unfortunately, labor required to establish cover is significant (particularly for single rows) and larger pieces of multi-row cover are subject to fatigue from wind and sun. Development of a mechanized single-row cover system or a durable multi-row cover system advances potential for use of covers. Field tests of a commercial semi-mechanized cover implement were conducted. Successful wire insertion ranged from 74 to 100% and depended on careful adjustment of the implement. Success was ...


Seasonality And Management Of Spotted Wing Drosophila On Berry Crops And Wild Hosts In Arkansas, Lizabeth Rubi Herrera 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Seasonality And Management Of Spotted Wing Drosophila On Berry Crops And Wild Hosts In Arkansas, Lizabeth Rubi Herrera

Theses and Dissertations

Spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is a serious invasive pest of small fruit production in North and South America and Europe since 2008. The primary control method is to apply insecticides every 5-7 days. Therefore, it is necessary to develop control tactics that are less chemical dependent to enhance an integrated approach for SWD management. The objectives of this study were to monitor SWD populations in different crop systems and adjacent landscape habitats; identify wild hosts of SWD; evaluate the effectiveness of insect exclusion netting in tunnels to prevent blackberry and blueberry infestations, and compare effects of netted ...


Evaluation Of The Impact Of Tart Cherries Polyphenols On The Human Gut Microbiota And Phenolic Metabolites In Vitro And In Vivo, Alba Claudia Mayta-Apaza 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of The Impact Of Tart Cherries Polyphenols On The Human Gut Microbiota And Phenolic Metabolites In Vitro And In Vivo, Alba Claudia Mayta-Apaza

Theses and Dissertations

Tart cherries are polyphenol abundant stone fruits claimed to exert health benefits further of its nutritional properties. The abundant phytochemicals content in tart cherries also referred as dietary polyphenols have been considered as an effective natural antioxidant when added in daily diet. However, it has been hypothesized the intervention of gut microbiota on the overall functionality of such compounds. This thesis contains a wide-ranging literature review focused on tart cherry as a crop, current market, functional food, and several health benefits. Furthermore, the research done describes and in vitro and in vivo assays of a short-term dietary intervention of tart ...


Economies Of Scale In Integrated Pest Management In Vegetable And Fruit Production, Franklin Quarcoo, Conrad Bonsi, David Nii O. Tackie, Walter A. Hill, Gertrude Wall, George Hunter 2017 Tuskegee University

Economies Of Scale In Integrated Pest Management In Vegetable And Fruit Production, Franklin Quarcoo, Conrad Bonsi, David Nii O. Tackie, Walter A. Hill, Gertrude Wall, George Hunter

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

Abstract

Pest management is achieved directly using a variety of tools, including pesticides, and indirectly through a number of agronomic/cultural practices such as irrigation and fertilizer application; collectively these practices function to positively effect general plant health. Healthier plants are more resistant to or tolerant of pests. This study explores the scale differences that impact the pest management significance and suitability of certain agronomic practices. Scale differences were discussed using literature-based information, direct field observations, and anecdotal information on the relative advantages of drip and sprinkler irrigation systems; organic and conventional cultivation of crops; crop rotation versus mono-cropping systems ...


Tree Fruits For Iowa, H. L. Lantz 2017 Iowa State College

Tree Fruits For Iowa, H. L. Lantz

Bulletin

This bulletin is intended to assist Iowa orchardists in the selection of satisfactory tree fruit varieties either for home or commercial production. By consulting the descriptions and discussions herein given and by informing himself as to the present status of varieties already grown in his locality, the prospective planter should be in a position to make a selection which will succeed and bring him satisfactory returns. Doubtless future years will place different valuations upon many of the varieties discussed for Iowa planting.


Functional Diseases Of The Apple In Storage, H. H. Plagge, T. J. Maney, B. S. Pickett 2017 Iowa State College

Functional Diseases Of The Apple In Storage, H. H. Plagge, T. J. Maney, B. S. Pickett

Bulletin

A systematic study of the storage diseases of apples includes the consideration of two general groups: (a) the functional, and (b) the parasitic diseases. Although most kinds of parasitic diseases are seldom found on good grades of apples, occasionally some of these escape inspection and develop considerably on ripe, fruit in storage. The fruit grower who is concerned with producing sound fruit is familiar with such parasitic diseases as apple scab, apple blotch and cedar-apple rust. The fruit dealer, storage operator and consumer, on the other hand, more frequently come in contact with the functional diseases such as Jonathan spot ...


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