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Bull Kelp (Nereocystic Lutkeana) Restoration And Management In Northern California, Olivia Johnson 2020 The University of San Francisco

Bull Kelp (Nereocystic Lutkeana) Restoration And Management In Northern California, Olivia Johnson

Master's Projects and Capstones

Northern California’s coastal marine ecosystems support one of the most productive and biodiverse habitats on the planet. Bull kelp forests (Nereocystic lutkeana) form habitats for an abundance of marine mammals, sea bird, fish, and invertebrates. In recent years, compounding ecological and climatic factors have disrupted the balance of the bull kelp forests and led to an unprecedented loss of bull kelp biomass and canopy cover. These areas that are typically teeming with marine life have shifted into a stable state of sea urchin barrens due to over grazing of bull kelp by purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus pupuratus). These sea ...


A Floristic Survey Of Andalusia: A Historic Preservation Site In Baldwin County, Georgia, William Pharr 2020 Georgia College

A Floristic Survey Of Andalusia: A Historic Preservation Site In Baldwin County, Georgia, William Pharr

Biology Theses

A survey of the vascular plants of Andalusia, a historic preservation site located along Highway 441 north of Milledgeville in Baldwin County, Georgia, was conducted between August 2018 and February 2020. The site was the late home of esteemed author, Flannery O’Connor, and resides along the Georgia fall line, making it a historically significant area that could yield a unique plant community convergence, as well as rare endemic species. This floristic inventory provides baseline data on the species and plant communities of Andalusia for use in future studies regarding the flora of this area. A total of 191 vascular ...


The Biofiltration Ability Of Asparagus Densiflorus To Remove Sulfur Dioxide From The Indoor Atmosphere, Rhiannon de la Rosa 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Biofiltration Ability Of Asparagus Densiflorus To Remove Sulfur Dioxide From The Indoor Atmosphere, Rhiannon De La Rosa

Horticulture Undergraduate Honors Theses

Sulfur dioxide is an inorganic compound (IC) and air pollutant that causes health risks in humans at concentrations as small as 6 ppm. The buildup of sulfur dioxide in enclosed indoor spaces is therefore a concern to human health, especially since the average person spends 90% of his/her time indoors. This study focused on decreasing a sulfur dioxide concentration in a cost-effective and simple way—by using botanical biofiltration, or the uptake of pollutants by plants. Research in biofiltration has focused mostly on the remediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and which plant species are most proficient at VOC ...


Control Of Volunteer Corn In Enlist Corn And Economics Of Herbicide Programs For Weed Control In Conventional And Multiple Herbicide-Resistant Soybean Across Nebraska, Adam M. Striegel 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Control Of Volunteer Corn In Enlist Corn And Economics Of Herbicide Programs For Weed Control In Conventional And Multiple Herbicide-Resistant Soybean Across Nebraska, Adam M. Striegel

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

With commercialization of multiple herbicide-resistant corn and soybean cultivars, producers have new management options for controlling herbicide-resistant weeds and volunteer corn. Corn-on-corn production systems are common in irrigated fields in southcentral Nebraska which can create issues with volunteer corn management in corn fields. Enlist corn contains a new multiple herbicide-resistant trait providing resistance to 2,4-D choline, glyphosate, and the aryloxyphenoxypropionate (FOPs). Field experiments were conducted in 2018 and 2019 at South Central Agricultural Laboratory near Clay Center, Nebraska with the objective to evaluate ACCase-inhibiting herbicides and herbicide application timing on volunteer corn control, Enlist corn injury, and yield. Glyphosate ...


Buffalograss Diversity Assessment, Collin Marshall 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Buffalograss Diversity Assessment, Collin Marshall

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Buffalograss [Buchloë dactylodes (Nutt.) Engelm. syn. Bouteloua dactyloides (Nutt.) Columbus] is a low input alternative turfgrass for the Great Plains region. Buffalograss is a dioecious stoloniferous warm season grass with wide variation of valuable traits and is well adapted for use in minimal maintenance landscapes. The obligate outcrossing nature of the species and wide variation of potentially valuable traits make buffalograss a prime candidate for cultivar improvement and genetic study. Limited information is available regarding buffalograss genetics. In effort to expand genetic resources around buffalograss, we developed buffalograss derived simple sequence repeat markers from previously available transcriptomes of buffalograss cultivars ...


Reaction Of Tepary Beans To Eight Virulent Races Of The Rust Pathogen That Overcomes All Known Common Bean Rust Resistance Genes, Santos Barrera Lemus, Prabin Tamang, Carlos A. Urrea, Marcial A. Pastor-Corrales 2020 USDA

Reaction Of Tepary Beans To Eight Virulent Races Of The Rust Pathogen That Overcomes All Known Common Bean Rust Resistance Genes, Santos Barrera Lemus, Prabin Tamang, Carlos A. Urrea, Marcial A. Pastor-Corrales

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Bean rust, caused by Uromyces appendiculatus, is a major disease of common and snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) worldwide (Stavely, 1984). Although host resistance is an important component of rust management (Mmbaga et al., 1996), populations of the rust pathogen comprise an extensive and shifting virulence diversity that could render susceptible all known rust resistance genes in common bean. Conversely, it has been suggested that certain tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) accessions are broadly resistant to bean rust (Miklas & Stavely, 1998). The objectives of this study were to verify if tepary beans are resistant to eight races of the bean rust pathogen ...


Extreme Fire As A Management Tool To Combat Regime Shifts In The Range Of The Endangered American Burying Beetle, Alison K. Ludwig, Daniel R. Uden, Dirac Twidwell 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Extreme Fire As A Management Tool To Combat Regime Shifts In The Range Of The Endangered American Burying Beetle, Alison K. Ludwig, Daniel R. Uden, Dirac Twidwell

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

This study is focused on the population of federally-endangered American burying beetles in south-central Nebraska. It is focused on changes in land cover over time and at several levels of spatial scale, and how management efforts are impacting both the beetle and a changing landscape. Our findings are applicable to a large portion of the Great Plains, which is undergoing the same shift from grassland to woodland, and to areas where the beetle is still found.


Spring Meadow Management Practices: What’S A Rancher To Do?, Tara M. Harms, Jerry D. Volesky, Mitchell B. Stephenson 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Spring Meadow Management Practices: What’S A Rancher To Do?, Tara M. Harms, Jerry D. Volesky, Mitchell B. Stephenson

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

• Subirrigated meadows are a valuable forage resource to ranching operations in the Nebraska Sandhills, being used for both hay production and livestock grazing. • The water table of these meadows is within one meter of the soil surface during the growing season. • In some years, wet conditions hinder meadow utilization, resulting in a buildup of standing dead and litter plant material which can lower forage production.

• Investigate if burning and mowing are effective strategies to remove dead plant material from meadows • Determine if burning or mowing interact with grazing to influence end of season forage production

Burning or mowing effectively removes ...


Herbicide Injury From Dicamba And 2,4-D: How Much Is Too Much In Lettuce?, Xinzheng Chen, Amit J. Jhala, Stevan Z. Knezevic, Samuel E. Wortman 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Herbicide Injury From Dicamba And 2,4-D: How Much Is Too Much In Lettuce?, Xinzheng Chen, Amit J. Jhala, Stevan Z. Knezevic, Samuel E. Wortman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Off-target herbicide injury from dicamba and 2,4-D is an increasingly common problem for specialty crop growers in the Midwest U.S. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is a common specialty crops grown in Nebraska, but proximity to corn and soybean production leaves growers vulnerable to crop injury and significant economic loss. The goal of this study was to quantify crop injury and yield loss in greenhouse grown lettuce after exposure to simulated sub-lethal drift rates of 2,4-D and dicamba. Sublethal doses were determined based on a percentage of the maximum labeled rate and ranged from 25% to 0.01 ...


De Novo Sequencing And Analysis Of Salvia Hispanica Tissue-Specific Transcriptome And Identification Of Genes Involved In Terpenoid Biosynthesis, James Wimberley, Joseph Cahill, Hagop S. Atamian 2020 Chapman University

De Novo Sequencing And Analysis Of Salvia Hispanica Tissue-Specific Transcriptome And Identification Of Genes Involved In Terpenoid Biosynthesis, James Wimberley, Joseph Cahill, Hagop S. Atamian

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Salvia hispanica (commonly known as chia) is gaining popularity worldwide as a healthy food supplement due to its low saturated fatty acid and high polyunsaturated fatty acid content, in addition to being rich in protein, fiber, and antioxidants. Chia leaves contain plethora of secondary metabolites with medicinal properties. In this study, we sequenced chia leaf and root transcriptomes using the Illumina platform. The short reads were assembled into contigs using the Trinity software and annotated against the Uniprot database. The reads were de novo assembled into 103,367 contigs, which represented 92.8% transcriptome completeness and a diverse set of ...


Soybean Response To Water: Trait Identification And Prediction, Shawn Jenkins 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Soybean Response To Water: Trait Identification And Prediction, Shawn Jenkins

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The rising demand for soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merrill] taken in consideration with current climatic trends accentuates the importance of improving soybean seed yield response per unit water (WP). To further our understanding of the quantitative WP trait, a multi-omic approach was implemented for improved trait identification and predictive modeling opportunities. Through the evaluation of two recombinant inbred line populations jointly totaling 439 lines subjected to contrasting irrigation treatments, informative agronomic, phenomic, and genomic associations were identified. Across both populations, relationships were identified between lodging at maturity (r = -0.58, H = 0.86), canopy to air temperature differential at the ...


Enhancing Hybrid Prediction In Pearl Millet Using Genomic And/Or Multi- Environment Phenotypic Information Of Inbreds, Diego Jarquin, Reka Howard, Zhikai Liang, Shashi K. Gupta, James C. Schnable, Jose Crossa 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Enhancing Hybrid Prediction In Pearl Millet Using Genomic And/Or Multi- Environment Phenotypic Information Of Inbreds, Diego Jarquin, Reka Howard, Zhikai Liang, Shashi K. Gupta, James C. Schnable, Jose Crossa

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Genomic selection (GS) is an emerging methodology that helps select superior lines among experimental cultivars in plant breeding programs. It offers the opportunity to increase the productivity of cultivars by delivering increased genetic gains and reducing the breeding cycles. This methodology requires inexpensive and sufficiently dense marker information to be successful, and with whole genome sequencing, it has become an important tool in many crops. The recent assembly of the pearl millet genome has made it possible to employ GS models to improve the selection procedure in pearl millet breeding programs. Here, three GS models were implemented and compared using ...


Antiproliferative And Apoptotic Effects Of Proteins From Black Seeds (Nigella Sativa) On Human Breast Mcf-7 Cancer Cell Line, Yamna Khursid, Basir Syed, Shabana U. Simjee, Obaid Beg, Aftab Ahmed 2020 Chapman University

Antiproliferative And Apoptotic Effects Of Proteins From Black Seeds (Nigella Sativa) On Human Breast Mcf-7 Cancer Cell Line, Yamna Khursid, Basir Syed, Shabana U. Simjee, Obaid Beg, Aftab Ahmed

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Background

Nigella sativa (NS), a member of family Ranunculaceae is commonly known as black seed or kalonji. It has been well studied for its therapeutic role in various diseases, particularly cancer. Literature is full of bioactive compounds from NS seed. However, fewer studies have been reported on the pharmacological activity of proteins. The current study was designed to evaluate the anticancer property of NS seed proteins on the MCF-7 cell line.

Methods

NS seed extract was prepared in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and proteins were precipitated using 80% ammonium sulfate. The crude seed proteins were partially purified using gel filtration chromatography ...


Long-Term Ecological Research In Southern Brazil Grasslands: Effects Of Grazing Exclusion And Deferred Grazing On Plant And Arthropod Communities, Pedro M.A. Ferreira, Bianca O. Andrade, Luciana R. Podgaiski, Amanda C. Dias, Valerio D. Pillar, Gerhard E. Overbeck, Milton de S. Mendonca Jr., Ilsi I. Boldrini 2020 Pontifı´cia Universidade Cato´ lica do Rio Grande do Sul

Long-Term Ecological Research In Southern Brazil Grasslands: Effects Of Grazing Exclusion And Deferred Grazing On Plant And Arthropod Communities, Pedro M.A. Ferreira, Bianca O. Andrade, Luciana R. Podgaiski, Amanda C. Dias, Valerio D. Pillar, Gerhard E. Overbeck, Milton De S. Mendonca Jr., Ilsi I. Boldrini

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Grazing exclusion may lead to biodiversity loss and homogenization of naturally heterogeneous and species-rich grassland ecosystems, and these effects may cascade to higher trophic levels and ecosystem properties. Although grazing exclusion has been studied elsewhere, the consequences of alleviating the disturbance regime in grassland ecosystems remain unclear. In this paper, we present results of the first five years of an experiment in native grasslands of southern Brazil. Using a randomized block experimental design, we examined the effects of three grazing treatments on plant and arthropod communities: (i) deferred grazing (i.e., intermittent grazing), (ii) grazing exclusion and (iii) a control ...


Editorial: New Insights Into Mechanisms Of Epigenetic Modifiers In Plant Growth And Development, Ming Luo, Gabino Ríos, Tomasz Jacek Sarnowski, Shoudong Zhang, Nitin Mantri, Jean-Benoit Charron, Marc Libault 2020 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Editorial: New Insights Into Mechanisms Of Epigenetic Modifiers In Plant Growth And Development, Ming Luo, Gabino Ríos, Tomasz Jacek Sarnowski, Shoudong Zhang, Nitin Mantri, Jean-Benoit Charron, Marc Libault

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

In eukaryotic cells, chromatin, a highly dynamic nucleoprotein complex, plays a critical role in controlling gene expression notably by regulating the interaction between transcription factors and regulatory elements. The structure of the chromatin is determined by epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin remodeling. A growing body of evidence indicates that epigenetic regulations are involved in plant adaptation to environmental stresses, and in plant development, including flowering control, fruit and root development, as well as seed maturation and germination. Furthermore, epigenetic mechanisms have the potential to stabilize cell identity and maintain tissue organization. Hence, epigenetic diversity is now ...


Yield And Quality In Purple-Grained Wheat Isogenic Lines, Alexey Morgounov, Yasar Karaduman, Beyhan Akin, Sinan Aydogan, Peter Stephen Baenziger, Madhav Bhatta, Vladimir Chudinov, Susanne Dreisigacker, Velu Govindan, Safure Güler, Carlos Guzman, Ajit Nehe, Rachana Poudel, Devin J. Rose, Elena Gordeeva, Vladimir Shamanin, Kemal Subasi, Yuriy Zelenskiy, Elena Khlestkina 2020 International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center & Omsk State Agrarian University

Yield And Quality In Purple-Grained Wheat Isogenic Lines, Alexey Morgounov, Yasar Karaduman, Beyhan Akin, Sinan Aydogan, Peter Stephen Baenziger, Madhav Bhatta, Vladimir Chudinov, Susanne Dreisigacker, Velu Govindan, Safure Güler, Carlos Guzman, Ajit Nehe, Rachana Poudel, Devin J. Rose, Elena Gordeeva, Vladimir Shamanin, Kemal Subasi, Yuriy Zelenskiy, Elena Khlestkina

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Breeding programs for purple wheat are underway in many countries but there is a lack of information on the effects of Pp (purple pericarp) genes on agronomic and quality traits in variable environments and along the product chain (grain-flour-bread). This study was based on unique material: two pairs of isogenic lines in a spring wheat cv. Saratovskaya-29 (S29) background differing only in Pp genes and grain color. In 2017, seven experiments were conducted in Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkey with a focus on genotype and environment interaction and, in 2018, one experiment in Turkey with a focus on grain, flour, and ...


The Land Variational Ensemble Data Assimilation Framework: Lavendar V1.0.0, Ewan Pinnington, Tristan Quaife, Amos Lawless, Karina Williams, Tim Arkebauer, David Scoby 2020 University of Reading

The Land Variational Ensemble Data Assimilation Framework: Lavendar V1.0.0, Ewan Pinnington, Tristan Quaife, Amos Lawless, Karina Williams, Tim Arkebauer, David Scoby

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

The Land Variational Ensemble Data Assimilation Framework (LAVENDAR) implements the method of fourdimensional ensemble variational (4D-En-Var) data assimilation (DA) for land surface models. Four-dimensional ensemble variational data assimilation negates the often costly calculation of a model adjoint required by traditional variational techniques (such as 4D-Var) for optimizing parameters or state variables over a time window of observations. In this paper we present the first application of LAVENDAR, implementing the framework with the Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) land surface model. We show that the system can recover seven parameters controlling crop behaviour in a set of twin experiments. We ...


Adaptive Capacity In Ecosystems, David G. Angeler, Hannah Fried-Petersen, Craig R. Allen, Ahjond Garmestani, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr, H.E. Birgé, W. Chuang, V.M. Donovan, T. Eason, C.P. Roberts, S.M. Sundstrom, C.L. Wonkka 2020 Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Adaptive Capacity In Ecosystems, David G. Angeler, Hannah Fried-Petersen, Craig R. Allen, Ahjond Garmestani, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr, H.E. Birgé, W. Chuang, V.M. Donovan, T. Eason, C.P. Roberts, S.M. Sundstrom, C.L. Wonkka

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Understanding the adaptive capacity of ecosystems to cope with change is crucial to management. However, unclear and often confusing definitions of adaptive capacity make application of this concept difficult. In this paper, we revisit definitions of adaptive capacity and operationalize the concept. We define adaptive capacity as the latent potential of an ecosystem to alter resilience in response to change. We present testable hypotheses to evaluate complementary attributes of adaptive capacity that may help further clarify the components and relevance of the concept. Adaptive sampling, inference and modeling can reduce key uncertainties incrementally over time and increase learning about adaptive ...


Principles, Applications, And Biosafety Of Plant Genome Editing Using Crispr-Cas9, Kaoutar El-Mounadi, María Luisa Morales-Floriano, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz 2020 Kuztown University of Pennsylvania

Principles, Applications, And Biosafety Of Plant Genome Editing Using Crispr-Cas9, Kaoutar El-Mounadi, María Luisa Morales-Floriano, Hernan Garcia-Ruiz

Papers in Plant Pathology

The terms genome engineering, genome editing, and gene editing, refer to modifications (insertions, deletions, substitutions) in the genome of a living organism. The most widely used approach to genome editing nowadays is based on Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9). In prokaryotes, CRISPR-Cas9 is an adaptive immune system that naturally protects cells from DNA virus infections. CRISPR-Cas9 has been modified to create a versatile genome editing technology that has a wide diversity of applications in medicine, agriculture, and basic studies of gene functions. CRISPR-Cas9 has been used in a growing number of monocot and dicot ...


Evaluating The Impact Of Grafting On Local Tomato Production In Nebraska, Raihanah Hassim, Samuel E. Wortman, Ashley A. Thompson, Stacy A. Adams 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evaluating The Impact Of Grafting On Local Tomato Production In Nebraska, Raihanah Hassim, Samuel E. Wortman, Ashley A. Thompson, Stacy A. Adams

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Grafting has been successfully used in vegetable production for tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, cucumbers, and watermelon. Besides its usefulness for managing soil-borne diseases, grafting can improve nutrient uptake and yield. However, few studies have assessed the effects of grafting and soil fertility management on yield of open field-grown tomatoes in the Midwest. Therefore, the objective of this two-year research was to better document the effects of grafting heirloom and hybrid tomato cultivar onto hybrid tomato rootstocks on tomato yield and quality. The field experiments were located at the University of Nebraska Lincoln - East Campus in Lincoln, West Central Research and Extension ...


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