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Investigation Of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extract And Its Cancer-Selective Antiproliferative Properties, Reagen H. Welch, Ashlee H. Tietje 2017 Southern Wesleyan University

Investigation Of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extract And Its Cancer-Selective Antiproliferative Properties, Reagen H. Welch, Ashlee H. Tietje

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Moringa oleifera is a tree native to a number of Asian, African, and Central American countries and has been used in traditional medicine for an assortment of medicinal uses for centuries. Due to bioactive compounds within Moringa leaves, it is believed that Moringa leaf extract may possess cancer-selective antiproliferative properties. Previous research has been conducted in regards to this topic, but poor experimental design due to lack of necessary controls limits the legitimacy of anticancer claims. While previous research has shown that Moringa leaf extract has the potential to kill cancer cells, the research fails to demonstrate the effects of ...


Giant Salvinia, Salvinia Molesta (Salviniaceae): Evaluation Of Sub-Optimum Temperatures On Survival Of The Giant Salvinia Weevil, Cyrtobagous Salviniae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) And Integration Of Management Practices With Aquatic Herbicides, Lauren W. Cozad 2017 Louisiana State University

Giant Salvinia, Salvinia Molesta (Salviniaceae): Evaluation Of Sub-Optimum Temperatures On Survival Of The Giant Salvinia Weevil, Cyrtobagous Salviniae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) And Integration Of Management Practices With Aquatic Herbicides, Lauren W. Cozad

LSU Master's Theses

Salvinia molesta is one of the world’s worst aquatic weeds and has cost Louisiana nearly $7 million worth of damage and economic impact each year. While aquatic herbicides and the biological control agent, Cyrtobagous salviniae, are the most efficacious control methods, there are limitations with each technology. Therefore, studies were conducted to evaluate insect mortality at upper and lower lethal temperatures and investigate integrated pest management (IPM) with insects and herbicides. Three Louisiana populations of C. salviniae were tested to evaluate cold tolerance and found that at 0°C, the Bayou Nicholas population was 1.3- and 1.4-times ...


Substantial Contribution Of Genetic Variation In The Expression Of Transcription Factors To Phenotypic Variation Revealed By Erd-Gwas, Hung-ying Lin, Qiang Liu, Xiao Li, Jinliang Yang, Sanzhen Liu, Yinlian Huang, Michael J. Scanlon, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable 2017 Iowa State University

Substantial Contribution Of Genetic Variation In The Expression Of Transcription Factors To Phenotypic Variation Revealed By Erd-Gwas, Hung-Ying Lin, Qiang Liu, Xiao Li, Jinliang Yang, Sanzhen Liu, Yinlian Huang, Michael J. Scanlon, Dan Nettleton, Patrick S. Schnable

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background: There are significant limitations in existing methods for the genome-wide identification of genes whose expression patterns affect traits.

Results: The transcriptomes of five tissues from 27 genetically diverse maize inbred lines were deeply sequenced to identify genes exhibiting high and low levels of expression variation across tissues or genotypes. Transcription factors are enriched among genes with the most variation in expression across tissues, as well as among genes with higher-than-median levels of variation in expression across genotypes. In contrast, transcription factors are depleted among genes whose expression is either highly stable or highly variable across genotypes. We developed a ...


Tolerance Threshold And Phyto-Assessment Of Cadmium And Lead In Vetiver Grass, Vetiveria Zizanioides (Linn.) Nash, Chuck Chuan Ng Mr 2017 Universiti Malaya

Tolerance Threshold And Phyto-Assessment Of Cadmium And Lead In Vetiver Grass, Vetiveria Zizanioides (Linn.) Nash, Chuck Chuan Ng Mr

Chuck Chuan NG

Various types of plant species have been extensively used for heavy metals phyto-remediation without taking into consideration its tolerance threshold. In this study, Vetiver grass, Vetiveria zizanioides (Linn.) Nash was evaluated under five different sets of contaminated spiked cadmium (5Cd, 10Cd, 50Cd, 100Cd and 150Cd mg/kg) and lead (50Pb, 100Pb, 200Pb, 400Pb and 800Pb mg/kg) concentration levels in soil. The growth performance, metal tolerance and phyto-assessment of Cd and Pb in the roots and tillers were assessed using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), biological transfer factor (BTF), biological accumulation coefficient (BAC) and ...


Control Of Glyphosate-Resistant Common Ragweed (Ambrosia Artemisiifolia L.) In Glufosinate-Resistant Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr], Ethann R. Barnes, Stevan Z. Knezevic, Peter H. Sikkema, John L. Lindquist, Amit J. Jhala 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Control Of Glyphosate-Resistant Common Ragweed (Ambrosia Artemisiifolia L.) In Glufosinate-Resistant Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr], Ethann R. Barnes, Stevan Z. Knezevic, Peter H. Sikkema, John L. Lindquist, Amit J. Jhala

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Common ragweed emerges early in the season in Nebraska, USA and is competitive with soybean; therefore, preplant herbicides are important for effective control. Glyphosate has been used as a preplant control option; however, confirmation of glyphosate-resistant (GR) common ragweed in Nebraska necessitates evaluating other herbicide options. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the efficacy of preplant (PP) herbicides followed by (fb) glufosinate alone or in tank-mixture with imazethapyr, acetochlor, or S-metolachlor applied post-emergence (POST) for control of GR common ragweed in glufosinate-resistant soybean; (2) their effect on common ragweed density, biomass, and soybean yield; and (3) the ...


Synergistic Use Of Remote Sensing And Modeling To Assess An Anomalously High Chlorophyll-A Event During Summer 2015 In The South Central Red Sea, Wenzhao Li, Hesham el-Askary, K. P. ManiKandan, Mohamed A. Qurban, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova 2017 Chapman University

Synergistic Use Of Remote Sensing And Modeling To Assess An Anomalously High Chlorophyll-A Event During Summer 2015 In The South Central Red Sea, Wenzhao Li, Hesham El-Askary, K. P. Manikandan, Mohamed A. Qurban, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

An anomalously high chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) event (>2 mg/m3) during June 2015 in the South Central Red Sea (17.5° to 22°N, 37° to 42°E) was observed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the Terra and Aqua satellite platforms. This differs from the low Chl-a values (<0.5 mg/m3) usually encountered over the same region during summertime. To assess this anomaly and possible causes, we used a wide range of oceanographical and meteorological datasets, including Chl-a concentrations, sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), mixed layer depth (MLD), ocean current velocity and aerosol optical depth (AOD) obtained from different sensors and models. Findings confirmed this anomalous behavior in the spatial domain using Hovmöller data analysis techniques, while a time series analysis addressed monthly and daily variability. Our analysis suggests that a combination of factors controlling nutrient supply contributed to the anomalous phytoplankton growth. These factors include horizontal transfer of upwelling water through eddy circulation and possible mineral fertilization from atmospheric dust deposition. Coral reefs might have provided extra nutrient supply, yet this is out of the scope of our analysis. We thought that dust deposition from a coastal dust jet event in late June, coinciding with the phytoplankton blooms in the area under investigation, might have also contributed as shown by our AOD findings. However, a lag cross correlation showed a two- month lag between strong dust outbreak and the high Chl-a anomaly. The high Chl-a concentration at the edge of the eddy emphasizes the importance of horizontal advection in fertilizing oligotrophic (nutrient poor) Red Sea waters.


Cellular And Molecular Targets Of Menthol Actions, Murat Oz, Eslam El Nebrisi, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Frank Christopher Howarth, Lina T. Al Kury 2017 UAE University

Cellular And Molecular Targets Of Menthol Actions, Murat Oz, Eslam El Nebrisi, Keun-Hang Susan Yang, Frank Christopher Howarth, Lina T. Al Kury

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Menthol belongs to monoterpene class of a structurally diverse group of phytochemicals found in plant-derived essential oils. Menthol is widely used in pharmaceuticals, confectionary, oral hygiene products, pesticides, cosmetics, and as a flavoring agent. In addition, menthol is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. Recently, there has been renewed awareness in comprehending the biological and pharmacological effects of menthol. TRP channels have been demonstrated to mediate the cooling actions ofmenthol. There has been new evidence demonstrating thatmenthol can significantly influence the functional characteristics of a number of different kinds of ligand and voltage-gated ion channels, indicating that at ...


The Effects Of Isoprene Emission From Native And Invasive Trees On Local Air Quality, Aarti P. Mistry 2017 DePaul University

The Effects Of Isoprene Emission From Native And Invasive Trees On Local Air Quality, Aarti P. Mistry

DePaul Discoveries

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are the second-most abundant reactive gasses emitted into the atmosphere by the biosphere. Isoprene is a BVOC produced by the process of photosynthesis from vegetation and is emitted from plant leaves. Isoprene is a hydrocarbon that combines with oxides of nitrogen in the atmosphere to create ozone in the troposphere, an air pollutant. Invasive trees alter ecosystems and affect native tree populations. Invasive tree species in the Chicagoland area are outcompeting native tree species and expanding rapidly. The effect of isoprene emissions on air quality is a well-researched area in the atmospheric science community, however ...


Drought Effects On Composition And Yield For Corn Stover, Mixed Grasses, And Miscanthus As Bioenergy Feedstocks, Rachel Emerson, Amber Hoover, Allison Ray, Jeffrey Lacey, Marnie Cortez, Courtney Payne, Douglas L. Karlen, Stuart Birrell, David Laird, Robert Kallenbach, Josh Egenolf, Matthew Sousek, Thomas Voigt 2017 Idaho National Laboratory

Drought Effects On Composition And Yield For Corn Stover, Mixed Grasses, And Miscanthus As Bioenergy Feedstocks, Rachel Emerson, Amber Hoover, Allison Ray, Jeffrey Lacey, Marnie Cortez, Courtney Payne, Douglas L. Karlen, Stuart Birrell, David Laird, Robert Kallenbach, Josh Egenolf, Matthew Sousek, Thomas Voigt

Douglas L Karlen

Drought conditions in 2012 were some of the most severe in recent history. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of drought on quality, quantity, and theoretical ethanol yield (TEY) of three bioenergy feedstocks, corn stover, mixed grasses from Conservation Reserve Program lands, and Miscanthus × giganteus. To assess drought effects on these feedstocks, samples from 2010 (minimal to no drought) and 2012 (severe drought) were compared from multiple locations in the US. In all feedstocks, drought significantly increased extractives and reduced structural sugars and lignin; subsequently, TEYs were reduced 10–15%. Biomass yields were significantly reduced for ...


First Report Of Xanthomonas Vasicola Causing Bacterial Leaf Streak On Corn In The United States, K. Korus, J. M. Lang, A. O. Adesemoye, C. C. Block, N. Pal, J. E. Leach, T. A. Jackson-Ziems 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln and Alachua County Extension, University of Florida

First Report Of Xanthomonas Vasicola Causing Bacterial Leaf Streak On Corn In The United States, K. Korus, J. M. Lang, A. O. Adesemoye, C. C. Block, N. Pal, J. E. Leach, T. A. Jackson-Ziems

Papers in Plant Pathology

In 2014 and 2015, Zea mays samples (field, seed, and popcorn) were submitted to the Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln displaying long, dark, yellow to brown, water-soaked, linear lesions confined to the interveinal spaces of the leaves. Initial symptoms appeared as small water-soaked flecks that expanded between veins to form irregular lesions. In some cases, the disease progressed to cover 40 to 50% of the leaf area. The disease was confirmed by symptom expression and bacterial streaming in 41 counties in Nebraska as well as Yuma Co., Colorado, and Phillips Co., Kansas, both contiguous ...


Transcriptomic Resources For The Medicinal Legume Mucuna Pruriens: De Novo Transcriptome Assembly, Annotation, Identification And Validation Of Est-Ssr Markers, N. Sathyanarayana, Ranjith Kumar Pittala, Pankaj Kumar Tripathi, Ratan Chopra, Heikham Russiachand Singh, Vikas Belamkar, Pardeep Kumar Bhardwaj, Jeff J. Doyle, Ashley N. Egan 2017 Sikkim University

Transcriptomic Resources For The Medicinal Legume Mucuna Pruriens: De Novo Transcriptome Assembly, Annotation, Identification And Validation Of Est-Ssr Markers, N. Sathyanarayana, Ranjith Kumar Pittala, Pankaj Kumar Tripathi, Ratan Chopra, Heikham Russiachand Singh, Vikas Belamkar, Pardeep Kumar Bhardwaj, Jeff J. Doyle, Ashley N. Egan

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background:

The medicinal legume Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. has attracted attention worldwide as a source of the anti-Parkinson’s drug L-Dopa. It is also a popular green manure cover crop that offers many agronomic benefits including high protein content, nitrogen fixation and soil nutrients. The plant currently lacks genomic resources and there is limited knowledge on gene expression, metabolic pathways, and genetics of secondary metabolite production. Here, we present transcriptomic resources for M. pruriens, including a de novo transcriptome assembly and annotation, as well as differential transcript expression analyses between root, leaf, and pod tissues. We also develop microsatellite markers ...


Advancing Development Of Porphyra Umbilicalis As A Red Algal Model System And Aquaculture Crop, Charlotte Royer 2017 University of Maine

Advancing Development Of Porphyra Umbilicalis As A Red Algal Model System And Aquaculture Crop, Charlotte Royer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The marine red alga Porphyra umbilicalis (Rhodophyta, Bangiaceae) has ideal traits to allow it to become a model organism, including its economic value, reproduction in the northwestern Atlantic through asexual neutral spores (NS), and availability of fully-sequenced nuclear and organelle genomes. Research on the bacterial component of the Porphyra microbiome is ongoing. To advance model organism development and support microbial studies, data on natural reproductive trends and early embryonic development are needed, along with a system for genetic transformation, and ways of visualizing the attached microbial community. To meet these needs, two years of phenological data were analyzed, revealing seasonal ...


A Comprehensive Analysis Of Alternative Splicing In Paleopolyploid Maize, Wenbin Mei, Sanzhen Liu, James C. Schnable, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Nathan M. Springer, Patrick S. Schnable, William Brad Barbazuk 2017 University of Florida

A Comprehensive Analysis Of Alternative Splicing In Paleopolyploid Maize, Wenbin Mei, Sanzhen Liu, James C. Schnable, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Nathan M. Springer, Patrick S. Schnable, William Brad Barbazuk

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Identifying and characterizing alternative splicing (AS) enables our understanding of the biological role of transcript isoform diversity. This study describes the use of publicly available RNA-Seq data to identify and characterize the global diversity of AS isoforms in maize using the inbred lines B73 and Mo17, and a related species, sorghum. Identification and characterization of AS within maize tissues revealed that genes expressed in seed exhibit the largest differential AS relative to other tissues examined. Additionally, differences in AS between the two genotypes B73 and Mo17 are greatest within genes expressed in seed. We demonstrate that changes in the level ...


Phenotypic Variation And Genetic Purity Of The Original 'Prime-Jim®' X 'Arapaho' Population, Loren M. Luther 2017 University of Arkansas

Phenotypic Variation And Genetic Purity Of The Original 'Prime-Jim®' X 'Arapaho' Population, Loren M. Luther

Horticulture Undergraduate Honors Theses

In 2013, Castro et al., produced the first linkage map for primocane-fruiting blackberries using the cross ‘Prime-Jim®’ x ‘Arapaho.’ This mapping population has been maintained since the original experiment with the hopes of conducting future studies. Further research was determined to be needed on the population to better characterize additional phenotypic traits, and since nine years had passed since the seedlings were established, there was a need to assess the continued genetic purity of the population using molecular methods. Phenotypic data was collected to analyze the variation of the population including soluble solids content, titratable acidity, average weight, shape, and ...


Predicting Trait-Environment Relationships For Venation Networks Elong An Andes-Amazon Elevation Gradient, Benjamin Blonder, Norma Salinas, Lisa Patrick Bentley, Alexander Shenkin, Percy O. Chambi Porroa, Yolvi Valdez Tejeira, Cyrille Violle, Nikolaos M. Fyllas, Gregory R. Goldsmith, Roberta E. Martin, Gregory P. Asner, Sandra Diaz, Brian J. Enquist, Yadvinder Malhi 2017 University of Oxford

Predicting Trait-Environment Relationships For Venation Networks Elong An Andes-Amazon Elevation Gradient, Benjamin Blonder, Norma Salinas, Lisa Patrick Bentley, Alexander Shenkin, Percy O. Chambi Porroa, Yolvi Valdez Tejeira, Cyrille Violle, Nikolaos M. Fyllas, Gregory R. Goldsmith, Roberta E. Martin, Gregory P. Asner, Sandra Diaz, Brian J. Enquist, Yadvinder Malhi

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Understanding functional trait-environment relationships (TERs) may improve predictions of community assembly. However, many empirical TERs have been weak or lacking conceptual foundation. TERs based on leaf venation networks may better link individuals and communities via hydraulic constraints. We report measurements of vein density, vein radius, and leaf thickness for more than 100 dominant species occurring in ten forest communities spanning a 3,300 m Andes-Amazon elevation gradient in Peru. We use these data to measure the strength of TERs at community scale and to determine whether observed TERs are similar to those predicted by physiological theory. We found strong support ...


Surveying The Distributions Of Melaleuca Quinquenervia, Psidium Cattleianum, And Litsea Glutinosa At Analalava Special Reserve, Hanusia Higgins 2017 SIT Study Abroad

Surveying The Distributions Of Melaleuca Quinquenervia, Psidium Cattleianum, And Litsea Glutinosa At Analalava Special Reserve, Hanusia Higgins

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

This study surveyed the distributions of three invasive plant species, Melaleuca quinquenervia, Psidium cattleianum, and Litsea glutinosa at the Analalava Special Reserve in Mahavelona, Madagascar. Analalava is a 229-hectare degraded patch of low-elevation humid forest on the northeast coast of Madagascar, and one of the last forest fragments remaining in the region. It is a haven for biodiversity, containing 343 recorded species of plants, 12 of which are locally endemic. Invasive species are considered the second-most significant threat to biodiversity, both worldwide and specifically at Analalava. Based on a systematic transect survey of these three targeted invasive species, their distributions ...


Investigation De Regeneración Natural De Plantas Vasculares En La Reserva Madrigal Del Podocarpus / Investigation Of Natural Regeneration Of Vascular Plants In The Madrigal Reserve Of The Podocarpus, Sy Baker 2017 SIT Study Abroad

Investigation De Regeneración Natural De Plantas Vasculares En La Reserva Madrigal Del Podocarpus / Investigation Of Natural Regeneration Of Vascular Plants In The Madrigal Reserve Of The Podocarpus, Sy Baker

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

En el Sur de Ecuador, hay una historia larga de incendio que está asociada con la historia de la agricultura y ganadería a causa de las técnicas de tala y quema para despejar áreas para campos y también quemaduras intencionales para fertilizar los suelos y mejorar productividad agrícola (Fernandez et al 2015). En los últimos días de Noviembre de 2016, un incendio quemó campos, la Reserva Madrigal de Podocarpus, y parte del Parque Nacional Podocarpus en Loja, Ecuador—el enfoque de este estudio. En este estudio: (1) se registraron las especies y distribución de plantas pioneras y sobrevivientes, (2) la ...


The Taxonomy, Reproduction, And Distribution Of Rare Plants: A Study Of Magnolia Sp. In The Río Zuñac Reserve, Ecuador, Alyssa Kullberg 2017 SIT Study Abroad

The Taxonomy, Reproduction, And Distribution Of Rare Plants: A Study Of Magnolia Sp. In The Río Zuñac Reserve, Ecuador, Alyssa Kullberg

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Ecuadorian cloud forests are biodiversity hotspots and centers of unprecedented levels of endemism, but they are also under-researched and under-protected. This study took place in the Río Zuñac Reserve, which is a reserve of about 850 ha located in the Tungurahua province of Ecuador, and is home to at least 20 endemic plant species. Three new species of Magnolia have been discovered in this reserve in the past five years: Magnolia llanganates, Magnolia vargasiana, and one species that has yet to be formally described. This study dealt with accurately locating and describing new individuals of these species over the course ...


Novel Gene-Sequence Markers For Isolate Tracking Within Monilinia Fructicola Lesions, Madeline E. Dowling, Guido Schnabel, Harriet G. Boatwright, Sydney E. Everhart 2017 Clemson University

Novel Gene-Sequence Markers For Isolate Tracking Within Monilinia Fructicola Lesions, Madeline E. Dowling, Guido Schnabel, Harriet G. Boatwright, Sydney E. Everhart

Papers in Plant Pathology

Background: Monilinia fructicola is a diverse pathogen of pome and stone fruits that causes severe economic losses each year. However, little is known about inoculum flow within or between orchards and pathogen establishment in an orchard, because few methods exist for detecting diversity or tracking isolates over time. SSR loci are an effective option, but may be confounded by a high degree of mutability and potential sensitivity to abiotic stress.

Results: Through transcriptome analysis, we identified novel markers mrr1, DHFR and MfCYP01 and validated stability of these markers under fungicide stress in natural infection sites. Nucleotide variation within mrr1, DHFR ...


Corn Residue Use By Livestock In The United States, Marty R. Schmer, Rachael M. Brown, Virginia L. Jin, Robert B. Mitchell, Daren D. Redfearn 2017 USDA-ARS

Corn Residue Use By Livestock In The United States, Marty R. Schmer, Rachael M. Brown, Virginia L. Jin, Robert B. Mitchell, Daren D. Redfearn

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Corn (Zea mays L.) residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock, but limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA Economic Research Service surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain and residue management practices. Total corn residue grazed or harvested was 4.87 million ha. Approximately 4.06 million ha was grazed by 11.7 million livestock (primarily cattle) in 2010. The majority of grazed corn residue occurred in Nebraska (1.91 million ha), Iowa (385,000 ha), South Dakota ...


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