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Structural Adaptations In Overwintering Leaves Of Thermonastic And Nonthermonastic Rhododendron Species, Xiang Wang, Rajeev Arora, Harry T. Horner, Stephen L. Krebs 2016 Iowa State University

Structural Adaptations In Overwintering Leaves Of Thermonastic And Nonthermonastic Rhododendron Species, Xiang Wang, Rajeev Arora, Harry T. Horner, Stephen L. Krebs

Harry Horner

Evergreen rhododendrons (Rhododendron L.) are important woody landscape plants in many temperate zones. During winters, leaves of these plants frequently are exposed to a combination of cold temperatures, high radiation, and reduced photosynthetic activity, conditions that render them vulnerable to photooxidative damage. In addition, these plants are shallow-rooted and thus susceptible to leaf desiccation when soils are frozen. In this study, the potential adaptive significance of leaf morphology and anatomy in two contrasting Rhododendron species was investigated. R. catawbiense Michx. (native to eastern United States) exhibits thermonasty (leaf drooping and curling at subfreezing temperatures) and is more winter-hardy [leaf freezing ...


Formation Of Calcium Oxalate Crystals Associated With Apothecia Of The Discomycete Dasyscypha Capitata, Harry T. Horner, Lois H. Tiffany, Anita M. Cody 2016 Iowa State University

Formation Of Calcium Oxalate Crystals Associated With Apothecia Of The Discomycete Dasyscypha Capitata, Harry T. Horner, Lois H. Tiffany, Anita M. Cody

Harry Horner

Calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals form at or near the tips of sterile hairs on the apothecia of the oak leaf litter discomycete Dasyscypha capitata. Early in their development, the crystals appear to be covered by a wall or membrane, whereas later they appear external. The crystals on each hair form a mass of crystals called a druse. Quite often the smaller crystals near the apex of the tip form a rosette, whereas the more peripheral crystals are much larger and display shapes possibly related to environmental factors. The formation and development of Dasyscypha crystals are compared with recent studies of ...


The Preparation Of Carbon-Metal Replicas For The Study Of Carboniferous Coal Ball Fossils: Replication And Cleaning Procedures, Sam W. Rosso, M. Glenn Williams, Harry T. Horner, James Moreland 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

The Preparation Of Carbon-Metal Replicas For The Study Of Carboniferous Coal Ball Fossils: Replication And Cleaning Procedures, Sam W. Rosso, M. Glenn Williams, Harry T. Horner, James Moreland

Harry Horner

In the early stages of a previous study of fossil spores of Botryopteris globosa and B. americana from the Carboniferous (Phillips & Rosso, 1970), considerable difficulty was encountered in replicating and cleaning spore materials and associ- ated debris from the carbon-platinum spore replicas. After numerous attempts to clean these carbon films, the techniques presented in this paper proved ef- ficient and reliable for transmission electron microscope examination of Botry- opteris spores found in calcified coal ball fossils.


Ascorbic Acid: A Precursor Of Oxalate In Crystal Idioblasts Of Yucca Torreyi In Liquid Root Culture, Harry T. Horner, Albert P. Kausch, Bruce L. Wagner 2016 Iowa State University

Ascorbic Acid: A Precursor Of Oxalate In Crystal Idioblasts Of Yucca Torreyi In Liquid Root Culture, Harry T. Horner, Albert P. Kausch, Bruce L. Wagner

Harry Horner

Liquid-cultured primary roots of Yucca torreyi L. (Agavaceae), which are similar to its intact roots, develop uninterrupted files of calcium oxalate crystal idioblasts with raphide bundles in their cortex, beginning just proximal to the terminal meristem. Each single file of idioblasts displays a basipetal ontogenetic sequence. [1-14C]glycolic acid, [1-14C]glyoxylic acid, and L-[1-14C]ascorbic acid, all of which are potential precursors of oxalate, were each added to different flasks that contained a sterile liquid medium and isolated roots and were allowed to interact with the roots for 45 min. After thorough washing, the roots grew for periods that ...


Evolution And Systematic Value Of Leaf Crystal Macropatterns In The Genus Peperomia (Piperaceae), Harry T. Horner, Stefan Wanke, Marie-Stephanie Samain 2016 Iowa State University

Evolution And Systematic Value Of Leaf Crystal Macropatterns In The Genus Peperomia (Piperaceae), Harry T. Horner, Stefan Wanke, Marie-Stephanie Samain

Harry Horner

Leaves of Peperomia species vary in texture, shape, succulence, lamina size, thickness, coloration, and venation. Each leaf contains only calcium oxalate druses in palisade cells, druses in palisade and raphides in spongy parenchyma, or druses in palisade and prisms in spongy parenchyma. Collectively, these variations create distinct crystal macropatterns. Leaves from 45 species were studied to identify their macropatterns and to compare the macropatterns with molecular data. Microscopic data showed two major crystal macropatterns and five variations of them. All but one species displayed either a single druse in most palisade cells forming one or more uniform crystal layers (81 ...


Oak-Leaf-Litter Rhizomorphs From Iowa And Texas: Calcium Oxalate Producers, Harry T. Horner, Lois H. Tiffany, George Knaphus 2016 Iowa State University

Oak-Leaf-Litter Rhizomorphs From Iowa And Texas: Calcium Oxalate Producers, Harry T. Horner, Lois H. Tiffany, George Knaphus

Harry Horner

Unidentified basidiomycete rhizomorphs growing on oak-leaf litter {Quercus alba) in Iowa and in Texas {Quercus gravesii) displayed arrays of crystals associated with their hyphae. X-ray diffraction and birefringence analyses identified the crystals as a mix- ture of calcium oxalate-monohydrate and -dihydrate. The Iowa oak-leaf-litter rhizomorph crystals occurred in two forms: young hyphae displayed either small styloid-like crystals oriented in all directions along the hyphae; or large clusters of elongated styloid-like crys? tals surrounding the hyphae, with individual crystals in each cluster displaying pyramidal ends. Crystals as? sociated with the Texas oak-leaf-litter rhizomorphs consistently covered all of the young hyphae and ...


Developmental Aspects Of Bacterial Leaf Nodules In Psychotria Bacteriophila Val. (Rubiaceae), Robert E. Whitmoyer, Harry T. Horner 2016 Iowa State University

Developmental Aspects Of Bacterial Leaf Nodules In Psychotria Bacteriophila Val. (Rubiaceae), Robert E. Whitmoyer, Harry T. Horner

Harry Horner

The ontogeny and biological activity of bacterial leaf nodules in Psychotria bacteriophila were studied. The acridine-orange fluorescence method coupled with ribonuclease extractions showed that young and developing nodules were rich in ribonucleic acid (RNA), whereas nodules in older leaves displayed less RNA fluorescence, and nodules in leaves near absciscion did not fluoresce. Fluorescence was attributed to normal and dividing ribosome-rich bacteria. As nodules age, the bacterial population becomes crowded, and de- generating bacteria appear. The latter become a membrane mass which fills the nodule network, replacing the bacteria. The loss of fluorescence is therefore correlated with bacterial cell degeneration. These ...


Development And Structure Of Bacterial Leaf Nodules In Psychotria Bacteriophila Val. (Rubiaceae), Nels R. Lersten, Harry T. Horner 2016 Iowa State University

Development And Structure Of Bacterial Leaf Nodules In Psychotria Bacteriophila Val. (Rubiaceae), Nels R. Lersten, Harry T. Horner

Harry Horner

The development and mature structure of bacterial leaf nodules in Psychotria bacteriophila were studied by using light and electron microscopy. Bacteria in mucilage surrounding the shoot apex pass through certain stomates in leaf primordia into the substomatal chamber. These chambers enlarge and become nodules as the young leaves grow out of the apical region. Surrounding mesophyll cells grow into each nodule and form a cellular reticulum whose interstices are occupied by bacteria. Each intrusive mesophyll cell wall is unusually thick and continually supplemented by vesicles originating from dictyosomes. The gram-negative bacteria are often surrounded by capsules. Nodule bacteria contain several ...


Constraints On The Establishment Of Plants Along A Fluctuating Water-Depth Gradient, Eric W. Seabloom, Kirk A. Moloney, Arnold G. van der Valk 2016 Iowa State University

Constraints On The Establishment Of Plants Along A Fluctuating Water-Depth Gradient, Eric W. Seabloom, Kirk A. Moloney, Arnold G. Van Der Valk

Kirk Moloney

We used simulation modeling to investigate the relative importance of current environmental conditions and factors affecting establishment of different plant species on the formation of vegetative zonation patterns. We compared the results from a series of six models that incorporated increasing amounts of information about key factors affecting species' ability to adjust to water-level fluctuations. We assessed model accuracy using aerial photographs taken of a 10-yr field experiment, in which 10 wetlands were flooded to 1 m above normal water level for 2 yr, drawn down for 1 or 2 yr, and reflooded for 5 yr to three different water ...


Population Dynamics, Disturbance, And Pattern Evolution: Identifying The Fundamental Scales Of Organization In A Model Ecosystem, Thorsten Wiegand, Kirk A. Moloney, Suzanne J. Milton 2016 UFZ-Centre for Environmental Research

Population Dynamics, Disturbance, And Pattern Evolution: Identifying The Fundamental Scales Of Organization In A Model Ecosystem, Thorsten Wiegand, Kirk A. Moloney, Suzanne J. Milton

Kirk Moloney

We used auto- and cross-correlation analysis and Ripley’s K-function analysis to analyze spatiotemporal pattern evolution in a spatially explicit simulation model of a semiarid shrubland (Karoo, South Africa) and to determine the impact of small-scale disturbances on system dynamics. Without disturbance, local dynamics were driven by a pattern of cyclic succession, where ‘‘colonizer’’ and ‘‘successor’’ species alternately replaced each other. This results in a strong pattern of negative correlation in the temporal distribution of colonizer and successor species. As disturbance rates were increased, the relationship shifted from being negatively correlated in time to being positively correlated—the dynamics became ...


The Phenolic Monoterpenoid Carvacrol Inhibits The Binding Of Nicotine To The Housefly Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor, Fan Tong, Aaron D. Gross, Marc C. Dolan, Joel R. Coats 2016 University of Florida

The Phenolic Monoterpenoid Carvacrol Inhibits The Binding Of Nicotine To The Housefly Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor, Fan Tong, Aaron D. Gross, Marc C. Dolan, Joel R. Coats

Joel R. Coats

Background

The phenolic monoterpenoid carvacrol, which is found in many plant essential oils (thyme, oregano and Alaska yellow cedar), is highly active against pest arthropods, but its mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Here, carvacrol is shown to bind in a membrane preparation containing insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). [14C]-Nicotine binding assays with Musca domestica (housefly) nAChRs were used in this study to demonstrate carvacrol's binding to nAChRs, thereby acting as a modulator of the receptors.

Results

Carvacrol showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of [14C]-nicotine binding in a membrane preparation of housefly heads containing nAChRs ...


Leveraging The Plant Biotechnology Toolbox For Aquaculture: Production Of Protein Therapeutants For Promoting Fish Immune Health, Lana L. Elkins 2016 Arkansas State University - Main Campus

Leveraging The Plant Biotechnology Toolbox For Aquaculture: Production Of Protein Therapeutants For Promoting Fish Immune Health, Lana L. Elkins

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Oxalate And Phytate Concentrations In Seeds Of Soybean Cultivars, Harry T. Horner, Teresa Cervantes-Martinez, Rosanne Healy, Manju B. Reddy, Betsy L. Deardorff, Theodore B. Bailey, Ismail Al-Wahsh, Linda K. Massey, Reid G. Palmer 2016 Iowa State University

Oxalate And Phytate Concentrations In Seeds Of Soybean Cultivars, Harry T. Horner, Teresa Cervantes-Martinez, Rosanne Healy, Manju B. Reddy, Betsy L. Deardorff, Theodore B. Bailey, Ismail Al-Wahsh, Linda K. Massey, Reid G. Palmer

Harry Horner

This study analyzed soybean seeds from 116 cultivars for total, insoluble, and soluble oxalate (Ox), phytate (InsP6), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) because of their potential beneficial or harmful effects on human nutrition. These cultivars were divided into four groups (A-D) on the basis of the year and geographic location where they were grown. Oxalate concentration ranged from about 82 to 285 mg/100 g of dry seed. The InsP6 concentration ranged from 0.22 to 2.22 g/100 g of dry seed. There was no correlation between Ox and InsP6 within or among the four groups of cultivars ...


Interspecific Divergence In Foliar Nutrient Dynamics And Stem Growth In A Temperate Forest In Response To Chronic Nitrogen Inputs, Jeffrey D. May, Sarah Beth Burdette, Frank S. Gilliam, Mary Beth Adams 2016 Marshall University

Interspecific Divergence In Foliar Nutrient Dynamics And Stem Growth In A Temperate Forest In Response To Chronic Nitrogen Inputs, Jeffrey D. May, Sarah Beth Burdette, Frank S. Gilliam, Mary Beth Adams

Jeffrey May

We studied the effects of excessive nitrogen (N) fertilization on foliar nutrient dynamics and stem growth in three important tree species in a mixed-deciduous forest. Stem diameter growth, foliar N concentrations, nitrogen–phosphorus (N/P) ratios, and nutrient resorption were determined for Acer rubrum L. (ACRU), Liriodendron tulipifera L. (LITU), and Prunus serotina Ehrh. (PRSE) on two 30-year-old watersheds at the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia, USA: WS3, fertilized annually with 35 kg ammonium sulfate·ha-1 since 1989, and WS7, an untreated control watershed. In an earlier (1992) study, foliar N concentrations of all three species averaged 11% higher ...


Interspecific Divergence In Foliar Nutrient Dynamics And Stem Growth In A Temperate Forest In Response To Chronic Nitrogen Inputs, Jeffrey D. May, Sarah Beth Burdette, Frank S. Gilliam, Mary Beth Adams 2016 Marshall University

Interspecific Divergence In Foliar Nutrient Dynamics And Stem Growth In A Temperate Forest In Response To Chronic Nitrogen Inputs, Jeffrey D. May, Sarah Beth Burdette, Frank S. Gilliam, Mary Beth Adams

Frank S. Gilliam

We studied the effects of excessive nitrogen (N) fertilization on foliar nutrient dynamics and stem growth in three important tree species in a mixed-deciduous forest. Stem diameter growth, foliar N concentrations, nitrogen–phosphorus (N/P) ratios, and nutrient resorption were determined for Acer rubrum L. (ACRU), Liriodendron tulipifera L. (LITU), and Prunus serotina Ehrh. (PRSE) on two 30-year-old watersheds at the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia, USA: WS3, fertilized annually with 35 kg ammonium sulfate·ha-1 since 1989, and WS7, an untreated control watershed. In an earlier (1992) study, foliar N concentrations of all three species averaged 11% higher ...


Microbe-Id: An Open Source Toolbox For Microbial Genotyping And Species Identification, Javier F. Tabima, Sydney E. Everhart, Meredith M. Larsen, Alexaandra J. Weisberg, Zhian N. Kamvar, Mathew A. Tancos, Christine D. Smart, Jeff H. Chang, Niklaus J. Grünwald 2016 Oregon State University

Microbe-Id: An Open Source Toolbox For Microbial Genotyping And Species Identification, Javier F. Tabima, Sydney E. Everhart, Meredith M. Larsen, Alexaandra J. Weisberg, Zhian N. Kamvar, Mathew A. Tancos, Christine D. Smart, Jeff H. Chang, Niklaus J. Grünwald

Papers in Plant Pathology

Development of tools to identify species, genotypes, or novel strains of invasive organisms is critical for monitoring emergence and implementing rapid response measures. Molecular markers, although critical to identifying species or genotypes, require bioinformatic tools for analysis. However, user-friendly analytical tools for fast identification are not readily available. To address this need, we created a web-based set of applications called Microbe-ID that allow for customizing a toolbox for rapid species identification and strain genotyping using any genetic markers of choice. Two components of Microbe-ID, named Sequence-ID and Genotype-ID, implement species and genotype identification, respectively. Sequence-ID allows identification of species by ...


Managing Drought Stress In California Agricultural Systems, Gregory D. Brittain Jr. 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Managing Drought Stress In California Agricultural Systems, Gregory D. Brittain Jr.

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

California is currently facing a historic drought, and this has led many farmers in the state to severely cut back on irrigation. Optimal use of water for irrigation requires a comprehensive understanding of how plants respond physiologically to water stress (Chapter 1). By monitoring water requirements in crops and managing irrigation to meet those requirements, growers can significantly reduce water use (Chapter 2). This can be done through improving application efficiency of irrigation technology as well as increasing the water use efficiency of the crops themselves. Deficit irrigation practices can be used to manipulate the physiology of water use in ...


Evaluating Pedestrial Compaction Variation & Soil Organic C Content, Gunner B. Decker 2016 Murray State University

Evaluating Pedestrial Compaction Variation & Soil Organic C Content, Gunner B. Decker

Scholars Week

Over time, playing fields are monitored by overall appearance. However, pedestrian compaction is not evenly distributed throughout the entire surface.


How Nebraska’S Eastern Saline Wetland Native Plant Species Grow In Response To Restoration Methods: Application Of Different Salinity Level Groundwater, Ellen Dolph, Keunyea Song, Amy Burgin, Trenton E. Franz 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

How Nebraska’S Eastern Saline Wetland Native Plant Species Grow In Response To Restoration Methods: Application Of Different Salinity Level Groundwater, Ellen Dolph, Keunyea Song, Amy Burgin, Trenton E. Franz

UCARE Research Products

Nebraska’s Eastern Saline Wetlands are unique ecosystems endemic to the Salt and Rock Creek waters in Lancaster and Saunders County.

They provide an ecosystem services as well as habitat for endangered species such as the state endangered saltwort (Salicornia rubra) and federally endangered Salt Creek tiger beetle (Cicindela nevadica lincolniana).

Over 80 % of the saline wetlands are highly degraded and in recent years, the Saline Wetland Conservation Partnership has formed to conserve and restore the remaining saline wetland fragments, but there is limited information about inland saline wetland restoration. Purpose: Investigate techniques to better conserve these saline wetlands and ...


Photosynthetic Acclimation To Warming And Elevated Co2 In Two Antarctic Vascular Plant Species, Vi NT Bui 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Photosynthetic Acclimation To Warming And Elevated Co2 In Two Antarctic Vascular Plant Species, Vi Nt Bui

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Climate change can affect the performance of the only two vascular plant species found in Antarctica, Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis. I investigated the response of these two species to warming and elevated CO2 in terms of photosynthesis and leaf anatomy. While photosynthesis increased directly with rising temperature and CO2, it showed no acclimation to changes in growth temperature, and a small degree of acclimation to growth under elevated CO2. Likewise, leaf anatomy displayed little plasticity in response to changes in the growth environment, although D. antarctica’s stomatal groove structure was modified under warming, likely to ...


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