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Measuring Leaf Area Index (Lai) And Vegetation Growing Season Length To Better Understand The Interactions And Feedbacks Between Vegetation And The Changing Climate., Steven Schwarz 2016 Murray State University

Measuring Leaf Area Index (Lai) And Vegetation Growing Season Length To Better Understand The Interactions And Feedbacks Between Vegetation And The Changing Climate., Steven Schwarz

Scholars Week

The purpose of this research was to measure and model vegetation growing seasons of deciduous tree species located at Murray State University Hancock Biological Station. The study began in September of 2015, and consisted of collecting leaf area index (LAI) from 3 defined locations using the Decagon LP80 Ceptometer, and Sentek soil probes to measure soil moisture/temperature. LAI data were collected weekly at various times, while soil temperature and moister recordings were collected in 60 minute intervals at depths of 5 to 55 cm in 10 cm increments. This study was important because it is essential to measure LAI ...


Comparison Of The Production Of Bibb Lettuce Reared In Indoor Aquaponics System Using Large Mouth Bass (Micropterus Salmoides) Vs. Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus), George J. Pate 2016 Kentucky State University

Comparison Of The Production Of Bibb Lettuce Reared In Indoor Aquaponics System Using Large Mouth Bass (Micropterus Salmoides) Vs. Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus), George J. Pate

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Aquaponics is a sustainable food production system that combines hydroponic plant growth with fish rearing in a recirculating aquaculture system. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) are predominantly raised in aquaponics due to their fast growth rates and ability to tolerate a variety of water conditions. As aquaponics becomes more popular in temperate climate zones, farmers are looking for alternative fish species that are more compatible with cooler temperatures and have a higher market value than tilapia. Authors will determine if plant growth factors as well as, the availability of nutrients in aquaponic systems are affected by the difference in nutrient requirements ...


An Evaluation Of Edta Compounds For Iron Fortification Of Cereal-Based Foods, Richard F. Hurrell, Manju B. Reddy, Joseph Burri, James D. Cook 2016 Nestlé Research Centre

An Evaluation Of Edta Compounds For Iron Fortification Of Cereal-Based Foods, Richard F. Hurrell, Manju B. Reddy, Joseph Burri, James D. Cook

Manju B. Reddy

Fe absorption was measured in adult human subjects consuming different cereal foods fortified with radiolabelled FeSO4, ferrous fumarate or NaFeEDTA, or with radiolabelled FeSO4 or ferric pyrophosphate in combination with different concentrations of Na2EDTA. Mean Fe absorption from wheat, wheat–soyabean and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) infant cereals fortified with FeSO4 or ferrous fumarate ranged from 0·6 to 2·2 %. For each infant cereal, mean Fe absorption from ferrous fumarate was similar to that from FeSO4 (absorption ratio 0·91–1·28). Mean Fe absorption from FeSO4-fortified bread rolls was 1·0 ...


Genetic Modification Of Low Phytic Acid 1-1 Maize To Enhance Iron Content And Bioavailability, Maneesha R. Aluru, Steve R. Rodermel, Manju B. Reddy 2016 Iowa State University

Genetic Modification Of Low Phytic Acid 1-1 Maize To Enhance Iron Content And Bioavailability, Maneesha R. Aluru, Steve R. Rodermel, Manju B. Reddy

Manju B. Reddy

High phytate content in staple food crops is a major barrier to successful iron biofortification. We have exploited the low phytic acid 1-1 (lpa1-1) mutant of maize to generate transgenic plants with up-to 70 μg/g seed iron through the endosperm-specific overexpression of soybean ferritin, resulting in more than 2-fold improvement in iron bioavailability. The levels of bioavailable seed iron achieved in this study greatly exceed any achieved thus far and closely approach values estimated to have a nutritional impact on target populations. Gene expression studies reveal a large induction of the YS1 transporter in leaves and severe repression of ...


Fermentation And Lactic Acid Addition Enhance Iron Bioavailability Of Maize, Amy K. Proulx, Manju B. Reddy 2016 Iowa State University

Fermentation And Lactic Acid Addition Enhance Iron Bioavailability Of Maize, Amy K. Proulx, Manju B. Reddy

Manju B. Reddy

Maize is one of the most important cereal crops for human consumption, yet it is of concern due to its low iron bioavailability. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of processing on iron bioavailability in common maize products and elucidate better processing techniques for enhancing iron bioavailability. Maize products were processed to represent different processing techniques: heating (porridge), fermentation (ogi), nixtamalization (tortillas), and decortication (arepas). Iron and phytate contents were evaluated. Iron bioavailability was assessed using the Caco-2 cell model. Phytate content of maize products was significantly reduced by decortication (25.6%, p ) 0.003) and ...


Sensitivity Of Seven Diverse Speciesto Blue And Green Light: Interactions With Photon Flux, Michael Chase Snowden, Bruce Bugbee, Kevin R. Cope 2016 Utah State University

Sensitivity Of Seven Diverse Speciesto Blue And Green Light: Interactions With Photon Flux, Michael Chase Snowden, Bruce Bugbee, Kevin R. Cope

Plants, Soils, and Climate Faculty Publications

Despite decades of research, the effects of spectral quality on plant growth, and development are not well understood. Much of our current understanding comes from studies with daily integrated light levels that are less than 10% of summer sunlight thus making it difficult to characterize interactions between light quality and quantity. Several studies have reported that growth is increased under fluorescent lamps compared to mixtures of wavelengths from LEDs. Conclusions regarding the effect of green light fraction range from detrimental to beneficial. Here we report the effects of eight blue and green light fractions at two photosynthetic photon fluxes (PPF ...


Bacterial Leaf Streak Of Corn Confirmed In Nebraska, Other Corn Belt States August 26, 2016, Tamra Jackson-Ziems, Kevin A. Korus, Tony Adesemoye, Julie Van Meter 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Bacterial Leaf Streak Of Corn Confirmed In Nebraska, Other Corn Belt States August 26, 2016, Tamra Jackson-Ziems, Kevin A. Korus, Tony Adesemoye, Julie Van Meter

Papers in Plant Pathology

Bacterial leaf streak disease of corn, caused by Xanthomonas vasicola pv. vasculorum, has now been confirmed in Nebraska, as well as in Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, and Kansas. The disease had not been previously identified in the U.S., but had been reported on corn in South Africa. Surveys are currently underway across the Corn Belt to identify the disease distribution. Initial observations and survey results suggest that it may be widely distributed throughout the Corn Belt. Unusual symptoms were first reported on corn samples received by the University of Nebraska Plant and Pest Diagnostic Clinic. Over the last two years ...


Validation Of Reference Genes For Robust Qrt-Pcr Gene Expression Analysis In The Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe Oryzae, Sarena Che Omar, Michael A. Bentley, Giulia Morieri, Gail M. Preston, Sarah J. Gurr, Richard Wilson (editor) 2016 University of Oxford

Validation Of Reference Genes For Robust Qrt-Pcr Gene Expression Analysis In The Rice Blast Fungus Magnaporthe Oryzae, Sarena Che Omar, Michael A. Bentley, Giulia Morieri, Gail M. Preston, Sarah J. Gurr, Richard Wilson (Editor)

Papers in Plant Pathology

The rice blast fungus causes significant annual harvest losses. It also serves as a genetically- tractable model to study fungal ingress. Whilst pathogenicity determinants have been unmasked and changes in global gene expression described, we know little about Magnaporthe oryzae cell wall remodelling. Our interests, in wall remodelling genes expressed during infection, vegetative growth and under exogenous wall stress, demand robust choice of reference genes for quantitative Real Time-PCR (qRT-PCR) data normalisation. We describe the expression stability of nine candidate reference genes profiled by qRT-PCR with cDNAs derived during asexual germling development, from sexual stage perithecia and from vegetative mycelium ...


Leveraging The Plant Biotechnology Toolbox For Aquaculture: Production Of Protein Therapeutants For Promoting Fish Immune Health, Lana L. Elkins 2016 Arkansas State University - Main Campus

Leveraging The Plant Biotechnology Toolbox For Aquaculture: Production Of Protein Therapeutants For Promoting Fish Immune Health, Lana L. Elkins

2nd International Conference of Fish & Shellfish Immunology

No abstract provided.


Interspecific Divergence In Foliar Nutrient Dynamics And Stem Growth In A Temperate Forest In Response To Chronic Nitrogen Inputs, Jeffrey D. May, Sarah Beth Burdette, Frank S. Gilliam, Mary Beth Adams 2016 Marshall University

Interspecific Divergence In Foliar Nutrient Dynamics And Stem Growth In A Temperate Forest In Response To Chronic Nitrogen Inputs, Jeffrey D. May, Sarah Beth Burdette, Frank S. Gilliam, Mary Beth Adams

Jeffrey May

We studied the effects of excessive nitrogen (N) fertilization on foliar nutrient dynamics and stem growth in three important tree species in a mixed-deciduous forest. Stem diameter growth, foliar N concentrations, nitrogen–phosphorus (N/P) ratios, and nutrient resorption were determined for Acer rubrum L. (ACRU), Liriodendron tulipifera L. (LITU), and Prunus serotina Ehrh. (PRSE) on two 30-year-old watersheds at the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia, USA: WS3, fertilized annually with 35 kg ammonium sulfate·ha-1 since 1989, and WS7, an untreated control watershed. In an earlier (1992) study, foliar N concentrations of all three species averaged 11% higher ...


Interspecific Divergence In Foliar Nutrient Dynamics And Stem Growth In A Temperate Forest In Response To Chronic Nitrogen Inputs, Jeffrey D. May, Sarah Beth Burdette, Frank S. Gilliam, Mary Beth Adams 2016 Marshall University

Interspecific Divergence In Foliar Nutrient Dynamics And Stem Growth In A Temperate Forest In Response To Chronic Nitrogen Inputs, Jeffrey D. May, Sarah Beth Burdette, Frank S. Gilliam, Mary Beth Adams

Frank S. Gilliam

We studied the effects of excessive nitrogen (N) fertilization on foliar nutrient dynamics and stem growth in three important tree species in a mixed-deciduous forest. Stem diameter growth, foliar N concentrations, nitrogen–phosphorus (N/P) ratios, and nutrient resorption were determined for Acer rubrum L. (ACRU), Liriodendron tulipifera L. (LITU), and Prunus serotina Ehrh. (PRSE) on two 30-year-old watersheds at the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia, USA: WS3, fertilized annually with 35 kg ammonium sulfate·ha-1 since 1989, and WS7, an untreated control watershed. In an earlier (1992) study, foliar N concentrations of all three species averaged 11% higher ...


Impacts Of Biofumigation And Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation On Strawberry Production, Jennifer Renee’ Wheeler 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Impacts Of Biofumigation And Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation On Strawberry Production, Jennifer Renee’ Wheeler

Masters Theses

Due to the phase-out of methyl bromide, there is a need for alternative, nonchemical fumigation treatments in strawberry production. Anaerobic soil disinfestation and biofumigation are two non-chemical methods for controlling soilborne plant pathogens of strawberry. This study was designed to observe strawberry fruit nutrition and soil volatiles of a strawberry field being treated with biofumigation treatments, anaerobic soil disinfestation treatments, and a combination of the two alternative methods. A trial was conducted with 11 pre-plant soil-incorporated treatments arranged in a randomized complete block design with 6 rows (blocks). Biofumigation treatments consisted of deactivated mustard meal, deoiled mustard meal, mustard pellets ...


Microbe-Id: An Open Source Toolbox For Microbial Genotyping And Species Identification, Javier F. Tabima, Sydney E. Everhart, Meredith M. Larsen, Alexaandra J. Weisberg, Zhian N. Kamvar, Mathew A. Tancos, Christine D. Smart, Jeff H. Chang, Niklaus J. Grünwald 2016 Oregon State University

Microbe-Id: An Open Source Toolbox For Microbial Genotyping And Species Identification, Javier F. Tabima, Sydney E. Everhart, Meredith M. Larsen, Alexaandra J. Weisberg, Zhian N. Kamvar, Mathew A. Tancos, Christine D. Smart, Jeff H. Chang, Niklaus J. Grünwald

Papers in Plant Pathology

Development of tools to identify species, genotypes, or novel strains of invasive organisms is critical for monitoring emergence and implementing rapid response measures. Molecular markers, although critical to identifying species or genotypes, require bioinformatic tools for analysis. However, user-friendly analytical tools for fast identification are not readily available. To address this need, we created a web-based set of applications called Microbe-ID that allow for customizing a toolbox for rapid species identification and strain genotyping using any genetic markers of choice. Two components of Microbe-ID, named Sequence-ID and Genotype-ID, implement species and genotype identification, respectively. Sequence-ID allows identification of species by ...


Managing Drought Stress In California Agricultural Systems, Gregory D. Brittain Jr. 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Managing Drought Stress In California Agricultural Systems, Gregory D. Brittain Jr.

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

California is currently facing a historic drought, and this has led many farmers in the state to severely cut back on irrigation. Optimal use of water for irrigation requires a comprehensive understanding of how plants respond physiologically to water stress (Chapter 1). By monitoring water requirements in crops and managing irrigation to meet those requirements, growers can significantly reduce water use (Chapter 2). This can be done through improving application efficiency of irrigation technology as well as increasing the water use efficiency of the crops themselves. Deficit irrigation practices can be used to manipulate the physiology of water use in ...


Evaluating Pedestrial Compaction Variation & Soil Organic C Content, Gunner B. Decker 2016 Murray State University

Evaluating Pedestrial Compaction Variation & Soil Organic C Content, Gunner B. Decker

Scholars Week

Over time, playing fields are monitored by overall appearance. However, pedestrian compaction is not evenly distributed throughout the entire surface.


How Nebraska’S Eastern Saline Wetland Native Plant Species Grow In Response To Restoration Methods: Application Of Different Salinity Level Groundwater, Ellen Dolph, Keunyea Song, Amy Burgin, Trenton E. Franz 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

How Nebraska’S Eastern Saline Wetland Native Plant Species Grow In Response To Restoration Methods: Application Of Different Salinity Level Groundwater, Ellen Dolph, Keunyea Song, Amy Burgin, Trenton E. Franz

UCARE Research Products

Nebraska’s Eastern Saline Wetlands are unique ecosystems endemic to the Salt and Rock Creek waters in Lancaster and Saunders County.

They provide an ecosystem services as well as habitat for endangered species such as the state endangered saltwort (Salicornia rubra) and federally endangered Salt Creek tiger beetle (Cicindela nevadica lincolniana).

Over 80 % of the saline wetlands are highly degraded and in recent years, the Saline Wetland Conservation Partnership has formed to conserve and restore the remaining saline wetland fragments, but there is limited information about inland saline wetland restoration. Purpose: Investigate techniques to better conserve these saline wetlands and ...


Photosynthetic Acclimation To Warming And Elevated Co2 In Two Antarctic Vascular Plant Species, Vi NT Bui 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Photosynthetic Acclimation To Warming And Elevated Co2 In Two Antarctic Vascular Plant Species, Vi Nt Bui

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Climate change can affect the performance of the only two vascular plant species found in Antarctica, Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis. I investigated the response of these two species to warming and elevated CO2 in terms of photosynthesis and leaf anatomy. While photosynthesis increased directly with rising temperature and CO2, it showed no acclimation to changes in growth temperature, and a small degree of acclimation to growth under elevated CO2. Likewise, leaf anatomy displayed little plasticity in response to changes in the growth environment, although D. antarctica’s stomatal groove structure was modified under warming, likely to ...


Information Thermodynamics Of Cytosine Dna Methylation, Robersy Sanchez Rodriguez, Sally Ann Mackenzie 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Information Thermodynamics Of Cytosine Dna Methylation, Robersy Sanchez Rodriguez, Sally Ann Mackenzie

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Cytosine DNA methylation (CDM) is a stable epigenetic modification to the genome and a widespread regulatory process in living organisms that involves multicomponent molecular machines. Genome-wide cytosine methylation patterning participates in the epigenetic reprogramming of a cell, suggesting that the biological information contained within methylation positions may be amenable to decoding. Adaptation to a new cellular or organismal environment also implies the potential for genome-wide redistribution of CDM changes that will ensure the stability of DNA molecules. This raises the question of whether or not we would be able to sort out the regulatory methylation signals from the CDM background ...


Ws-2 Introgression In A Proportion Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Col-0 Stock Seed Produces Specific Phenotypes And Highlights The Importance Of Routine Genetic Verification, Mon-Ray Shao, Vikas Shedge, Hardik Kundariya, Fredric R. Lehle, Sally Ann MacKenzie 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Ws-2 Introgression In A Proportion Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Col-0 Stock Seed Produces Specific Phenotypes And Highlights The Importance Of Routine Genetic Verification, Mon-Ray Shao, Vikas Shedge, Hardik Kundariya, Fredric R. Lehle, Sally Ann Mackenzie

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Arabidopsis thaliana is an important model organism with a robust network of resources that has been of enormous value to the plant science research community. The use of isogenic material as a reference point or control is critical for many types of experiments in plant molecular biology and genetics. Recently, we noticed that some seed from a common source of the widely used Columbia-0 (Col-0) strain gave rise to plants showing features atypical for this strain. Whole-genome DNA-sequencing and allelespecific PCR assays confirmed that the abnormal individuals contain multiple introgressions from the ecotype Wassilewskija-2 (Ws-2), as described below. This emphasizes ...


First Report Of Pythium Ultimum, P. Irregulare, Rhizoctonia Solani Ag4, And Fusarium Proliferatum From Arrowleaf Clover (Trifolium Vesiculosum): A Disease Complex, I. J. Pemberton, G. R. Smith, G. L. Philley, F. M. Rouquette, G. Y. Yuen 2016 Texas A&M University Agricultural Research and Extension Center

First Report Of Pythium Ultimum, P. Irregulare, Rhizoctonia Solani Ag4, And Fusarium Proliferatum From Arrowleaf Clover (Trifolium Vesiculosum): A Disease Complex, I. J. Pemberton, G. R. Smith, G. L. Philley, F. M. Rouquette, G. Y. Yuen

Papers in Plant Pathology

Poor stand establishment, failure to recover after grazing, and premature plant death have reduced the utilization of arrowleaf clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi) as a forage crop in the southeastern United States in recent years. Clover plants collected from poor stands in east Texas pastures during the 1995 to 1996 and 1996 to 1997 seasons first exhibited root disease symptoms as young seedlings in the fall. Symptoms consisted of one or more of the following: tan discoloration of lateral roots and taproot; root pruning; and small, tan, sunken lesions on the taproot and crown. Many Rhizobium nodules were brown and dead ...


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