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The Effects Of Isoprene Emission From Native And Invasive Trees On Local Air Quality, Aarti P. Mistry 2017 DePaul University

The Effects Of Isoprene Emission From Native And Invasive Trees On Local Air Quality, Aarti P. Mistry

DePaul Discoveries

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are the second-most abundant reactive gasses emitted into the atmosphere by the biosphere. Isoprene is a BVOC produced by the process of photosynthesis from vegetation and is emitted from plant leaves. Isoprene is a hydrocarbon that combines with oxides of nitrogen in the atmosphere to create ozone in the troposphere, an air pollutant. Invasive trees alter ecosystems and affect native tree populations. Invasive tree species in the Chicagoland area are outcompeting native tree species and expanding rapidly. The effect of isoprene emissions on air quality is a well-researched area in the atmospheric science community, however ...


Drought Effects On Composition And Yield For Corn Stover, Mixed Grasses, And Miscanthus As Bioenergy Feedstocks, Rachel Emerson, Amber Hoover, Allison Ray, Jeffrey Lacey, Marnie Cortez, Courtney Payne, Douglas L. Karlen, Stuart Birrell, David Laird, Robert Kallenbach, Josh Egenolf, Matthew Sousek, Thomas Voigt 2017 Idaho National Laboratory

Drought Effects On Composition And Yield For Corn Stover, Mixed Grasses, And Miscanthus As Bioenergy Feedstocks, Rachel Emerson, Amber Hoover, Allison Ray, Jeffrey Lacey, Marnie Cortez, Courtney Payne, Douglas L. Karlen, Stuart Birrell, David Laird, Robert Kallenbach, Josh Egenolf, Matthew Sousek, Thomas Voigt

Douglas L Karlen

Drought conditions in 2012 were some of the most severe in recent history. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of drought on quality, quantity, and theoretical ethanol yield (TEY) of three bioenergy feedstocks, corn stover, mixed grasses from Conservation Reserve Program lands, and Miscanthus × giganteus. To assess drought effects on these feedstocks, samples from 2010 (minimal to no drought) and 2012 (severe drought) were compared from multiple locations in the US. In all feedstocks, drought significantly increased extractives and reduced structural sugars and lignin; subsequently, TEYs were reduced 10–15%. Biomass yields were significantly reduced for ...


Transcriptomic Resources For The Medicinal Legume Mucuna Pruriens: De Novo Transcriptome Assembly, Annotation, Identification And Validation Of Est-Ssr Markers, N. Sathyanarayana, Ranjith Kumar Pittala, Pankaj Kumar Tripathi, Ratan Chopra, Heikham Russiachand Singh, Vikas Belamkar, Pardeep Kumar Bhardwaj, Jeff J. Doyle, Ashley N. Egan 2017 Sikkim University

Transcriptomic Resources For The Medicinal Legume Mucuna Pruriens: De Novo Transcriptome Assembly, Annotation, Identification And Validation Of Est-Ssr Markers, N. Sathyanarayana, Ranjith Kumar Pittala, Pankaj Kumar Tripathi, Ratan Chopra, Heikham Russiachand Singh, Vikas Belamkar, Pardeep Kumar Bhardwaj, Jeff J. Doyle, Ashley N. Egan

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background:

The medicinal legume Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. has attracted attention worldwide as a source of the anti-Parkinson’s drug L-Dopa. It is also a popular green manure cover crop that offers many agronomic benefits including high protein content, nitrogen fixation and soil nutrients. The plant currently lacks genomic resources and there is limited knowledge on gene expression, metabolic pathways, and genetics of secondary metabolite production. Here, we present transcriptomic resources for M. pruriens, including a de novo transcriptome assembly and annotation, as well as differential transcript expression analyses between root, leaf, and pod tissues. We also develop microsatellite markers ...


Advancing Development Of Porphyra Umbilicalis As A Red Algal Model System And Aquaculture Crop, Charlotte Royer 2017 University of Maine

Advancing Development Of Porphyra Umbilicalis As A Red Algal Model System And Aquaculture Crop, Charlotte Royer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The marine red alga Porphyra umbilicalis (Rhodophyta, Bangiaceae) has ideal traits to allow it to become a model organism, including its economic value, reproduction in the northwestern Atlantic through asexual neutral spores (NS), and availability of fully-sequenced nuclear and organelle genomes. Research on the bacterial component of the Porphyra microbiome is ongoing. To advance model organism development and support microbial studies, data on natural reproductive trends and early embryonic development are needed, along with a system for genetic transformation, and ways of visualizing the attached microbial community. To meet these needs, two years of phenological data were analyzed, revealing seasonal ...


A Comprehensive Analysis Of Alternative Splicing In Paleopolyploid Maize, Wenbin Mei, Sanzhen Liu, James C. Schnable, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Nathan M. Springer, Patrick S. Schnable, William Brad Barbazuk 2017 University of Florida

A Comprehensive Analysis Of Alternative Splicing In Paleopolyploid Maize, Wenbin Mei, Sanzhen Liu, James C. Schnable, Cheng-Ting Yeh, Nathan M. Springer, Patrick S. Schnable, William Brad Barbazuk

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Identifying and characterizing alternative splicing (AS) enables our understanding of the biological role of transcript isoform diversity. This study describes the use of publicly available RNA-Seq data to identify and characterize the global diversity of AS isoforms in maize using the inbred lines B73 and Mo17, and a related species, sorghum. Identification and characterization of AS within maize tissues revealed that genes expressed in seed exhibit the largest differential AS relative to other tissues examined. Additionally, differences in AS between the two genotypes B73 and Mo17 are greatest within genes expressed in seed. We demonstrate that changes in the level ...


Phenotypic Variation And Genetic Purity Of The Original 'Prime-Jim®' X 'Arapaho' Population, Loren M. Luther 2017 University of Arkansas

Phenotypic Variation And Genetic Purity Of The Original 'Prime-Jim®' X 'Arapaho' Population, Loren M. Luther

Horticulture Undergraduate Honors Theses

In 2013, Castro et al., produced the first linkage map for primocane-fruiting blackberries using the cross ‘Prime-Jim®’ x ‘Arapaho.’ This mapping population has been maintained since the original experiment with the hopes of conducting future studies. Further research was determined to be needed on the population to better characterize additional phenotypic traits, and since nine years had passed since the seedlings were established, there was a need to assess the continued genetic purity of the population using molecular methods. Phenotypic data was collected to analyze the variation of the population including soluble solids content, titratable acidity, average weight, shape, and ...


Corn Residue Use By Livestock In The United States, Marty R. Schmer, Rachael M. Brown, Virginia L. Jin, Robert B. Mitchell, Daren D. Redfearn 2017 USDA-ARS

Corn Residue Use By Livestock In The United States, Marty R. Schmer, Rachael M. Brown, Virginia L. Jin, Robert B. Mitchell, Daren D. Redfearn

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Corn (Zea mays L.) residue grazing or harvest provides a simple and economical practice to integrate crops and livestock, but limited information is available on how widespread corn residue utilization is practiced by US producers. In 2010, the USDA Economic Research Service surveyed producers from 19 states on corn grain and residue management practices. Total corn residue grazed or harvested was 4.87 million ha. Approximately 4.06 million ha was grazed by 11.7 million livestock (primarily cattle) in 2010. The majority of grazed corn residue occurred in Nebraska (1.91 million ha), Iowa (385,000 ha), South Dakota ...


Assessing The Potential To Decrease The Gulf Of Mexico Hypoxic Zone With Midwest Us Perennial Cellulosic Feedstock Production, Andy VanLoocke, Tracy E. Twine, Christopher J. Kucharik, Carl J. Bernacchi 2017 Iowa State University

Assessing The Potential To Decrease The Gulf Of Mexico Hypoxic Zone With Midwest Us Perennial Cellulosic Feedstock Production, Andy Vanloocke, Tracy E. Twine, Christopher J. Kucharik, Carl J. Bernacchi

Andy VanLoocke

The goal of this research was to determine the changes in streamflow, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) leaching and export to the Gulf of Mexico associated with a range of large-scale dedicated perennial cellulosic bioenergy production scenarios within in the Mississippi–Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB). To achieve this goal, we used Agro-IBIS, a vegetation model capable of simulating the biogeochemistry of row crops, miscanthus and switchgrass, coupled with THMB, a hydrology model capable of simulating streamflow and DIN export. Simulations were conducted at varying fertilizer application rates (0–200 kg N ha -1) and fractional replacement (5–25%) of current row ...


Location Choices Of Ethanol Firms In The Midwest Corn Belt, Monica A. Haddad, Gary Taylor, Francis Y. Owusu 2017 Iowa State University

Location Choices Of Ethanol Firms In The Midwest Corn Belt, Monica A. Haddad, Gary Taylor, Francis Y. Owusu

Monica Haddad

The Corn Belt has experienced a rapid expansion of corn-based ethanol plants. This has provided researchers the opportunity to examine the relative importance to the renewable fuels industry of several location factors previously identified as important to agro-industries. Using probit regression this study identifies the factors significant to ethanol firms’ location decisions in the four-state study area of Iowa, Illinois, Minnesota and Nebraska. In Iowa and Illinois, where corn is largely ubiquitous, firms move beyond corn supply to consider other localized factors in their decisionmaking process. Factors such as rail access, population density and proximity to blending terminals emerge as ...


Glucose-Abl1-Tor Signaling Modulates Cell Cycle Tuning To Control Terminal Appressorial Cell Differentiation, Margarita Marroquin-Guzman, Guangchao Sun, Richard Wilson 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Glucose-Abl1-Tor Signaling Modulates Cell Cycle Tuning To Control Terminal Appressorial Cell Differentiation, Margarita Marroquin-Guzman, Guangchao Sun, Richard Wilson

Papers in Plant Pathology

The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway integrates growth and development with available nutrients, but how cellular glucose controls TOR function and signaling is poorly understood. Here, we provide functional evidence from the devastating rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae that glucose can mediate TOR activity via the product of a novel carbon- responsive gene, ABL1, in order to tune cell cycle progression during infection-related development. Under nutrient-free conditions, wild type (WT) M. oryzae strains form terminal plant-infecting cells (appressoria) at the tips of germ tubes emerging from three-celled spores (conidia). WT appressorial development is accompanied by one round of mitosis ...


Genes Linked To Production Of Secondary Metabolites In Talaromyces Atroroseus Revealed Using Crispr-Cas9, Maria Lund Nielsen, Thomas Isbrandt, Kasper Bøwig Rasmussen, Ulf Thrane, Jakob Blæsbjerg Hoof, Thomas Ostenfeld Larsen, Uffe Hasbro Mortensen 2017 Technical University of Denmark

Genes Linked To Production Of Secondary Metabolites In Talaromyces Atroroseus Revealed Using Crispr-Cas9, Maria Lund Nielsen, Thomas Isbrandt, Kasper Bøwig Rasmussen, Ulf Thrane, Jakob Blæsbjerg Hoof, Thomas Ostenfeld Larsen, Uffe Hasbro Mortensen

Papers in Plant Pathology

The full potential of fungal secondary metabolism has until recently been impeded by the lack of universal genetic tools for most species. However, the emergence of several CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing systems adapted for several genera of filamentous fungi have now opened the doors for future efforts in discovery of novel natural products and elucidation and engineering of their biosynthetic pathways in fungi where no genetic tools are in place. So far, most studies have focused on demonstrating the performance of CRISPR-Cas9 in various fungal model species, and recently we presented a versatile CRISPR-Cas9 system that can be successfully applied in ...


The Morphogenesis-Related Ndr Kinase Pathway Of Colletotrichum Orbiculare Is Required For Translating Plant Surface Signals Into Infection-Related Morphogenesis And Pathogenesis, Sayo Kodama, Junya Ishizuka, Ito Miyashita, Takaaki Ishii, Takumi Nishiuchi, Hideto Miyoshi, Yasuyuki Kubo 2017 Kyoto Prefectural University

The Morphogenesis-Related Ndr Kinase Pathway Of Colletotrichum Orbiculare Is Required For Translating Plant Surface Signals Into Infection-Related Morphogenesis And Pathogenesis, Sayo Kodama, Junya Ishizuka, Ito Miyashita, Takaaki Ishii, Takumi Nishiuchi, Hideto Miyoshi, Yasuyuki Kubo

Papers in Plant Pathology

Plant infection by pathogenic fungi involves the differentiation of appressoria, specialized infection structures, initiated by fungal sensing and responding to plant surface signals. How plant fungal pathogens control infection-related morphogenesis in response to plant-derived signals has been unclear. Here we showed that the morphogenesis-related NDR kinase pathway (MOR) of the cucumber anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum orbiculare is crucial for appressorium development following perception of plant-derived signals. By screening of random insertional mutants, we identified that the MOR element CoPag1 (Perish-in-theabsence-of-GYP1) is a key component of the plant-derived signaling pathway involved in appressorium morphogenesis. Constitutive activation of the NDR kinase CoCbk1 ...


Genes Linked To Production Of Secondary Metabolites In Talaromyces Atroroseus Revealed Using Crispr-Cas9, Maria Lund Nielsen, Thomas Isbrandt, Kasper Bøwig Rasmussen, Ulf Thrane, Jakob Blæsbjerg Hoof, Thomas Ostenfeld Larsen, Uffe Hasbro Mortensen 2017 Technical University of Denmark

Genes Linked To Production Of Secondary Metabolites In Talaromyces Atroroseus Revealed Using Crispr-Cas9, Maria Lund Nielsen, Thomas Isbrandt, Kasper Bøwig Rasmussen, Ulf Thrane, Jakob Blæsbjerg Hoof, Thomas Ostenfeld Larsen, Uffe Hasbro Mortensen

Papers in Plant Pathology

The full potential of fungal secondary metabolism has until recently been impeded by the lack of universal genetic tools for most species. However, the emergence of several CRISPR-Cas9-based genome editing systems adapted for several genera of filamentous fungi have now opened the doors for future efforts in discovery of novel natural products and elucidation and engineering of their biosynthetic pathways in fungi where no genetic tools are in place. So far, most studies have focused on demonstrating the performance of CRISPR-Cas9 in various fungal model species, and recently we presented a versatile CRISPR-Cas9 system that can be successfully applied in ...


Muti Site Screening Identifies And Verifies Levels Of Resistance To White Mold In Common Bean In 2016, Robert Higgins, James R. Steadman 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Muti Site Screening Identifies And Verifies Levels Of Resistance To White Mold In Common Bean In 2016, Robert Higgins, James R. Steadman

Papers in Plant Pathology

The development of common bean cultivars with partial resistance and/ or avoidance to white mold (WM) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum would benefit producers by reducing yield loss and reducing input costs for fungicides. Our main objective in this study is to identify bean germplasm supplied by bean breeders from across the USA and Belgium with levels of partial resistance to WM. Breeders sent seed of 9 bean lines for field testing and 25 bean lines for greenhouse testing with putative sources of resistance to our laboratory. The seeds were divided in equal amounts for field (400g/line) and/or greenhouse ...


Phenotypic And Genotypic Characterization Of Relevant Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Isolates, Thomas J. Justo Miorini, Anthony G. Pannullo, T. Hornby, Robert Higgins, Sydney E. Everhart, James R. Steadman 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Phenotypic And Genotypic Characterization Of Relevant Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Isolates, Thomas J. Justo Miorini, Anthony G. Pannullo, T. Hornby, Robert Higgins, Sydney E. Everhart, James R. Steadman

Papers in Plant Pathology

Knowledge of pathogen population structure is useful to identify isolates for screening cultivars and lines for resistance. For S. sclerotiorum, causal agent of white mold in more than 400 plant species, including common bean and soybean, breeding for resistance is particularly challenging. The objective of this study was to characterize phenotypic and genotypic variation of S. sclerotiorum isolates from soybean production areas of the U.S.A. (15), Brazil (75), and Argentina (5) to compare them with 366 isolates from dry bean characterized previously (Everhart et al., 2016).


Pollen-Mediated Gene Flow From Glyphosate-Resistant Common Waterhemp (Amaranthus Rudis Sauer): Consequences For The Dispersal Of Resistance Genes, Debalin Sarangi, Andrew J. Tyre, Eric L. Patterson, Todd A. Gaines, Suat Irmak, Stevan Z. Knezevic, John L. Lindquist, Amit J. Jhala 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Pollen-Mediated Gene Flow From Glyphosate-Resistant Common Waterhemp (Amaranthus Rudis Sauer): Consequences For The Dispersal Of Resistance Genes, Debalin Sarangi, Andrew J. Tyre, Eric L. Patterson, Todd A. Gaines, Suat Irmak, Stevan Z. Knezevic, John L. Lindquist, Amit J. Jhala

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Gene flow is an important component in evolutionary biology; however, the role of gene flow in dispersal of herbicide-resistant alleles among weed populations is poorly understood. Field experiments were conducted at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to quantify pollen-mediated gene flow (PMGF) from glyphosate-resistant (GR) to -susceptible (GS) common waterhemp using a concentric donorreceptor design. More than 130,000 common waterhemp plants were screened and 26,199 plants were confirmed resistant to glyphosate. Frequency of gene flow from all distances, directions, and years was estimated with a double exponential decay model using Generalized Nonlinear Model (package gnm) in R. PMGF declined ...


The Role Of Tre6p And Snrk1 In Maize Early Kernel Development And Events Leading To Stress-Induced Kernel Abortion, Samuel W. Bledsoe, Clémence Henry, Cara A. Griffiths, Matthew J. Paul, Regina Feil, John E. Lunn, Mark Stitt, L. Mark Lagrimini 2017 EAG Laboratories

The Role Of Tre6p And Snrk1 In Maize Early Kernel Development And Events Leading To Stress-Induced Kernel Abortion, Samuel W. Bledsoe, Clémence Henry, Cara A. Griffiths, Matthew J. Paul, Regina Feil, John E. Lunn, Mark Stitt, L. Mark Lagrimini

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background: Drought stress during flowering is a major contributor to yield loss in maize. Genetic and biotechnological improvement in yield sustainability requires an understanding of the mechanisms underpinning yield loss. Sucrose starvation has been proposed as the cause for kernel abortion; however, potential targets for genetic improvement have not been identified. Field and greenhouse drought studies with maize are expensive and it can be difficult to reproduce results; therefore, an in vitro kernel culture method is presented as a proxy for drought stress occurring at the time of flowering in maize (3 days after pollination). This method is used to ...


Stress-Responsive Pathways And Small Rna Changes Distinguish Variable Developmental Phenotypes Caused By Msh1 Loss, Mon-Ray Shao, Sunil Kumar Kenchanmane Raju, John D. Laurie, Robersy Sanchez, Sally A. Mackenzie 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Stress-Responsive Pathways And Small Rna Changes Distinguish Variable Developmental Phenotypes Caused By Msh1 Loss, Mon-Ray Shao, Sunil Kumar Kenchanmane Raju, John D. Laurie, Robersy Sanchez, Sally A. Mackenzie

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Background: Proper regulation of nuclear-encoded, organelle-targeted genes is crucial for plastid and mitochondrial function. Among these genes, MutS Homolog 1 (MSH1) is notable for generating an assortment of mutant phenotypes with varying degrees of penetrance and pleiotropy. Stronger phenotypes have been connected to stress tolerance and epigenetic changes, and in Arabidopsis T-DNA mutants, two generations of homozygosity with the msh1 insertion are required before severe phenotypes begin to emerge. These observations prompted us to examine how msh1 mutants contrast according to generation and phenotype by profiling their respective transcriptomes and small RNA populations.

Results: Using RNA-seq, we analyze pathways that ...


Nitrogen Pulses And Competition Between Native And Invasive Plant Species, Nicolas Matallana, Mandy L. Slate, Ragan M. Callaway 2017 University of Montana, Missoula

Nitrogen Pulses And Competition Between Native And Invasive Plant Species, Nicolas Matallana, Mandy L. Slate, Ragan M. Callaway

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

Variation in the timing and size of resource fluctuations can influence how plants grow, allocate biomass, and reproduce. Resources are sometimes made available in relatively continuous, reliable pulses while other times they are temporally separated and unpredictable. Native and invasive plant species are thought to respond differently to resource fluctuations, or pulses, which can influence competitive outcomes. The “Fluctuating Resource Hypothesis” predicts that resource fluctuations benefit invasive species more than native species, potentially because many invaders are highly effective at rapidly capturing resources. In a field setting, we examined the effects of varying nitrogen pulses on competition between exotic invasive ...


Lsp Family Proteins Regulate Antibiotic Biosynthesis In Lysobacter Enzymogenes Oh11, Ruping Wang, Huiyong Xu, Yangyang Zhao, Juan Zhang, Gary Y. Yuen, Guoliang Qian, Fengquan Liu 2017 Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing

Lsp Family Proteins Regulate Antibiotic Biosynthesis In Lysobacter Enzymogenes Oh11, Ruping Wang, Huiyong Xu, Yangyang Zhao, Juan Zhang, Gary Y. Yuen, Guoliang Qian, Fengquan Liu

Papers in Plant Pathology

Ax21 family proteins have been shown to play regulatory roles in plant- and animal-pathogenic species in the bacterial family Xanthomonadaceae, but the protein have not been investigated previously in the non-pathogenic members of this bacterial family. Lysobacter enzymogenes, is a non-pathogenic species known for its capacity as a biocontrol agent of plant pathogens. It is also noted for the production of antimicrobial secondary metabolites, heat stable antifungal factor (HSAF) and WAP-8294A2, that have potential for agricultural and pharmaceutical applications. The species also displays type IV pili-dependent twitching motility and the production of multiple extracellular lytic enzymes as additional biocontrol-related traits ...


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