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Selection And Genetic Drift In North American Maize, Collin Lamkey 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Selection And Genetic Drift In North American Maize, Collin Lamkey

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Characterizing the impact of selection and genetic drift in the formation of heterotic groups and patterns in maize can reveal important insights into the mechanism underlying adaptation, and the relative importance of each force in defining population structure. The objectives were to characterize the role selection for hybrid performance had in defining population structure in both a reciprocal full-sib selection (RFS) program and a large collection of historically important inbred lines.

The Illumina GoldenGate Assay was used to genotype the University of Nebraska-Lincoln Replicated Recurrent Selection (UNL-RpRS) program. Eight cycles of S1-progeny and RFS selection were conducted for an index ...


Chromosome Counts For Packera Paupercula Variety Gypsophila, Chad Larson 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Chromosome Counts For Packera Paupercula Variety Gypsophila, Chad Larson

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

New plant species develop when diploid plants (having two sets of chromosomes) spontaneously double their chromosomes and the resulting tetraploids (having four sets of chromosomes) are no longer able to back cross to diploid members of the population. The North American plant species Packera paupercula (balsam-leafed ragwort), is widespread and morphologically diverse. An isolated group of populations from the chalky soils of west-central Alabama was recently named Packera paupercula variety gypsophila (the chalk-loving balsam ragwort). The variety’s large diameter pollen grains suggest it may be tetraploid. This project attempts the first chromosome count for the variety by examining cells ...


Characterization Of Fall Leaves As A Source Of Cellulosic Ethanol, Justin Burum 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Characterization Of Fall Leaves As A Source Of Cellulosic Ethanol, Justin Burum

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Ethanol is becoming increasingly popular as a fossil fuel additive or substitute. However, current production of ethanol from corn impacts food prices and appears to have an overall low net yield. New sources need to be identified and new processes developed for ethanol production. Cellulosic ethanol is one such new source. Plant material contains a large amount of cellulose and other polysaccharides which are potential feed stocks for ethanol production. The purpose of this experiment was to characterize the polysaccharide, lignin, and ash content of fall leaves to estimate their potential for ethanol production. A slight modification of the NREL ...


Expression Of 9/13 Hydroperoxide Lyase In Cucumber Leaves, Samee Ranginwala 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Expression Of 9/13 Hydroperoxide Lyase In Cucumber Leaves, Samee Ranginwala

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Fatty Acid 9/13-Hydroperoxide Lyase (9/13-HPL) in the cucumber plant is an enzyme that cleaves either 9- or 13-hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids to form volatile C9 or C6 aldehydes respectively. Since these aldehydes may play a role in the plant’s defenses against pathogens (K. Matsui, et. al. Phytochemistry 67 (2006) 649-657), the enzyme is stress induced during vulnerable times such as when the plant is injured. In order to better understand how this enzyme is induced, we have developed a Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction method to quantitate levels of 9/13-HPL mRNA. In initial experiments, the ...


Effects Of Culture Media And Plant Growth Regulators On Micropropagation Of Willow (Salix Matsudana ‘Golden Spiral’) And Hazelnut (Corylus Colurna ‘Te Terra Red), Dongxue Shi 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Effects Of Culture Media And Plant Growth Regulators On Micropropagation Of Willow (Salix Matsudana ‘Golden Spiral’) And Hazelnut (Corylus Colurna ‘Te Terra Red), Dongxue Shi

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The branches and leaves of Salix matsudana ‘Golden Spiral’ , willow, grow in a twisted manner, which makes it an important bonsai plant. Its mature stems have potential for the woody cut floral industry. Corylus colurna ‘ Te Terra Red’, hazelnut, distinguished by red or purple leaves in the spring, has potential ornamental value in the horticulture industry for landscape use. Micropropagation of these two plants could provide more and healthier plantlets for rapid commercial scale-up by the nursery industry. Nas and Read Medium (NRM) is a newer medium developed specifically for hazelnut species by Nas and Read based on the composition ...


Fall Seed Guide 2014, Teshome Regassa, P. Stephen Baenziger, Greg Kruger, Dipak Santra 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Fall Seed Guide 2014, Teshome Regassa, P. Stephen Baenziger, Greg Kruger, Dipak Santra

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Crops include in this guide are winter wheat, winter barley, and triticale. You may receive this guide in the mail or through the University of Nebraska Extension network. The data and other information this guide is based on can be found at our web site: http://cropwatch.unl.edu/ varietytest/ and http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/ncia. Additional information is available at the wheat variety virtual tour web site http://cropwatch.unl.edu/wheat/virtual or the winter wheat variety selection tool page http://citnews.unl.edu/winter_wheat_tool/index.shtml.

Our rainfed plots in Keith County were lost to hail damage ...


An Evaluation Of Watermelon (Citrullus Spp.) Germplasm For Additional Sources Of Resistance To The Twospotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus Urticae Koch)., Hector Cantu Jr. 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

An Evaluation Of Watermelon (Citrullus Spp.) Germplasm For Additional Sources Of Resistance To The Twospotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus Urticae Koch)., Hector Cantu Jr.

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Fourteen U.S plant introduction (PI) accessions of C. lanatus var. lanatus (4), C. lanatus var. citroides (5) C. colocynthis (5) and a known susceptible commercial cultivar ‘Sugar Baby’ were evaluated for resistance to the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, in a limited free-choice and free-choice bioassay under laboratory conditions. The limited free choice bioassay, involved nine Petri dish cages that held five randomly assigned leaves individually inoculated with two adult females and one adult male. Eggs, larva, and adults were counted over a nine day period. The free choice bioassay involved the even distribution of three mite infested ...


Production Of Minitubers From Potato Seedlings And Advanced Selections, Benildo G. de los Reyes 2014 The University of Maine

Production Of Minitubers From Potato Seedlings And Advanced Selections, Benildo G. De Los Reyes

University of Maine Office of Research and Sponsored Programs: Final Reports

This cooperation between the University of Maine and USDA-ARS was aimed at providing the infrastructure and manpower support for the propagation and advancement of tetraploid potato breeding materials for the USDFA-ARS-Beltsville Potato Breeding Program (K. Haynes, PI).


Are Local Filters Blind To Provenance? Ant Seed Predation Suppresses Exotic Plants More Than Natives, Dean Pearson, Nadia S. Icasatti, Jose L. Hierro, Benjamin J. Bird 2014 University of Montana

Are Local Filters Blind To Provenance? Ant Seed Predation Suppresses Exotic Plants More Than Natives, Dean Pearson, Nadia S. Icasatti, Jose L. Hierro, Benjamin J. Bird

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The question of whether species’ origins influence invasion outcomes has been a point of substantial debate in invasion ecology. Theoretically, colonization outcomes can be predicted based on how species’ traits interact with community filters, a process presumably blind to species’ origins. Yet, exotic plant introductions commonly result in monospecific plant densities not commonly seen in native assemblages, suggesting that exotic species may respond to community filters differently than natives. Here, we tested whether exotic and native species differed in their responses to a local community filter by examining how ant seed predation affected recruitment of eighteen native and exotic plant ...


Functional Genomics Of Maize Endosperm Maturation And Protein Quality, Lingling Yuan 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Functional Genomics Of Maize Endosperm Maturation And Protein Quality, Lingling Yuan

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Maize is one of the most important cereal crops and widely cultivated throughout the world. The study on maize kernel development including protein quality improvement is essential for removing dietary protein deficiency because of the lack of essential amino acids, especially lysine and tryptophan, in maize kernel. Quality Protein Maize (QPM) is a hard kernel variant of the high-lysine mutant, opaque-2. We created opaque QPM variants to identify opaque-2 modifier genes and to investigate deletion mutagenesis combined with Illumina sequencing as a maize functional genomics tool. A K0326Y-QPM deletion mutant, line 107, was null for the 27- and 50-kD γ-zeins ...


Characterization Of Genetically Modified High Biomass Producing Tobacco Plant, Pankaj Singh Kuhar 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Characterization Of Genetically Modified High Biomass Producing Tobacco Plant, Pankaj Singh Kuhar

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Global warming and peak oil has clouded our energy security. In light of this situation, bioethanol as emerged as one of the most amenable solutions to the problem. However bioethanol has its own shortcomings and transgenics seem imperative to exploit its full potential. A high biomass producing line in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) was identified during a routine genetic transformation, termed giant recombinant (GR). To characterize the phenotype of the giant line, growth rate and lignocellulosic composition was analyzed relative to the non-transgenic control line. The GR line accounted for 240% more biomass than the untransformed line within ...


Improving Cocoa Production Through Lean: A Case Study Of The Ghanaian Cocoa Industry, Kwasi Boateng 2014 Western Kentucky University

Improving Cocoa Production Through Lean: A Case Study Of The Ghanaian Cocoa Industry, Kwasi Boateng

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Cocoa has been useful in several ways, especially to countries that produce it and consumers all over the world. Its benefits range from improving economies to satisfying millions all over the world who desire one cocoa product or the other. The production of cocoa however is not without its own attendant problems. Aging tree stock, spread of diseases, and production capacity problems are, but a few of many challenges that seed gardens that produce cocoa face. This study investigated the pollination process on selected seed gardens in Ghana, the second largest world producer of cocoa. The purpose of this study ...


Genetic Variation And Trait Associations For Forage Yield And Quality Among F1 Half-Sib Families Of Switchgrass, Matthew Eric Bobbitt 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Genetic Variation And Trait Associations For Forage Yield And Quality Among F1 Half-Sib Families Of Switchgrass, Matthew Eric Bobbitt

Masters Theses

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is widely accepted as a forage crop throughout the United States. It is known for its performance on field sites that may be marginal for row crop production and as a warm season grass to fill gaps for cool season forages. With the increase of fuel and fertilizer costs, forage producers need higher yields and better quality than ever before. The objectives of this research were to: (i) compare four F1 [first generation] half-sib populations for their potential of producing superior lines for forage production, (ii) assess the genetic variances for yield, and (iii) evaluate ...


Genetic Variability For Biomass Yield, Yield Components, And Ethanol Yield Among Half-Sibs Of Switchgrass, Eifion Wyn Hughes 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Genetic Variability For Biomass Yield, Yield Components, And Ethanol Yield Among Half-Sibs Of Switchgrass, Eifion Wyn Hughes

Masters Theses

For bioenergy crops to be an economical alternative to fossil fuels, rapid biological and technological advancements will need to occur. Some advancements can be accomplished by producing new switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) varieties with higher biomass and ethanol yields. The objective of this research was to quantify biomass and ethanol yield potential of four F1 [F1] half-sib populations for future variety development as a bioenergy crop.

The four parental lines were PI 421999 (AR), PI 607837 (TX), PI 421552 (Cimarron), and Exp. # NSL-2001-1 (OK). Seed for one hundred and forty F1 [F1] half-sib progeny were produced in a ...


The Development Of Polyamines Throughout Brassica Rapa Over Its Lifecycle, Matthew Ryan Sullivan, Jon Larsen, Subhash C. Minocha 2014 University of New Hampshire

The Development Of Polyamines Throughout Brassica Rapa Over Its Lifecycle, Matthew Ryan Sullivan, Jon Larsen, Subhash C. Minocha

Student Research Projects

Polyamines are naturally produced chemicals in plants involved in growth, development and stress response. The primary objective of my study is to create a profile of changes in the entire life of the plant, in every organ at all stages of development from seed germination to seed formation. We have analyzed polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine in all parts of Brassica rapa, a small, rapid growing plant. Parallel to the polyamines, we will also study changes in the activities of the polyamine biosynthetic enzymes and the expression of their genes in different organs at different times. In the next stage ...


Influence Of Ultraviolet Radiation On Cell Wall Constituents In Reduced-Lignin Mutants Of Corn And Sorghum, Brock Bermel 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Influence Of Ultraviolet Radiation On Cell Wall Constituents In Reduced-Lignin Mutants Of Corn And Sorghum, Brock Bermel

Undergraduate Research Symposium

Brown midrib mutants (BMR) of corn (Zea mays) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) have reduced lignin content and have recently gained popularity in Southern Minnesota as forage material for grazing animals. These mutants have lowered expression of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase and caffeic O-methyltransferase enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway responsible for the construction of the cinnamyl alcohol subunits of lignin. Lignin is found in the secondary cell wall of higher plants, along with substantial amounts of cellulose and hemicellulose polysaccharides. Reduced lignin increases livestock digestibility of these plants, but may also increase susceptibility to environmental stress and lodging. Lignin is comprised of ...


Eliminating Host-Mediated Effects Demonstrates Bt Maize Producing Cry1f Has No Adverse Effects On The Parasitoid Cotesia Marginiventris, Jun-Ce Tian, Xiang-Ping Wang, Li-Ping Long, Jörg Romeis, Steven E. Naranjo, Richard L. Hellmich, Anthony M. Shelton 2014 Iowa State University

Eliminating Host-Mediated Effects Demonstrates Bt Maize Producing Cry1f Has No Adverse Effects On The Parasitoid Cotesia Marginiventris, Jun-Ce Tian, Xiang-Ping Wang, Li-Ping Long, Jörg Romeis, Steven E. Naranjo, Richard L. Hellmich, Anthony M. Shelton

Entomology Publications and Papers

The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an important pest of maize in the United States and many tropical areas in the western hemisphere. In 2001, Herculex I® (Cry1F) maize was commercially planted in the United States to control Lepidoptera, including S. frugiperda. In 2006, a population of S. frugiperda was discovered in Puerto Rico that had evolved resistance to Cry1F maize in the field, making it the first well-documented case of an insect with field resistance to a plant producing protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Using this resistant population, we conducted tri-trophic studies with a ...


Potato Breeding And Variety Development For Improved Quality And Pest Resistance In The Eastern United States, Gregory Porter, Andrei Alyokhin, David Lambert, Donald Halseth, G. Yencho, John Jemison, Joshua Freeman, Keith Perry, L. Brian Perkins, Lincoln Zotarelli, Mark Clough, Mary Camire, Matthew Kleinhenz, Nicholas Dufault, Richard Veilleux, Walter De Jong, Xinshun Qu 2014 The University of Maine

Potato Breeding And Variety Development For Improved Quality And Pest Resistance In The Eastern United States, Gregory Porter, Andrei Alyokhin, David Lambert, Donald Halseth, G. Yencho, John Jemison, Joshua Freeman, Keith Perry, L. Brian Perkins, Lincoln Zotarelli, Mark Clough, Mary Camire, Matthew Kleinhenz, Nicholas Dufault, Richard Veilleux, Walter De Jong, Xinshun Qu

University of Maine Office of Research and Sponsored Programs: Final Reports

The eastern U.S. potato industry needs new potato varieties to overcome pest problems while reducing agricultural chemical use and to enhance marketing opportunities. This project will conduct potato breeding, germplasm enhancement, and selection studies to improve potato productivity and quality for important eastern U.S. markets. Novel and highly improved potato germplasm and varieties will be developed to reduce the impact of economically important potato pests, such as golden nematode, late blight, pink rot, and scab.


Reassessment Of Practical Subspecies Identifications Of The Usda Daucus Carota L. Germplasm Collection: Morphological Data, David M. Spooner, Mark P. Widrlechner, Kathleen R. Reitsma, Debra E. Palmquist, Slim Rouz, Zeineb Ghrabi-Gammar, Mohamed Neffati, Béchir Bouzbida, Philipp W. Simon, Mohammed El Koudrim 2014 Iowa State University

Reassessment Of Practical Subspecies Identifications Of The Usda Daucus Carota L. Germplasm Collection: Morphological Data, David M. Spooner, Mark P. Widrlechner, Kathleen R. Reitsma, Debra E. Palmquist, Slim Rouz, Zeineb Ghrabi-Gammar, Mohamed Neffati, Béchir Bouzbida, Philipp W. Simon, Mohammed El Koudrim

NCRPIS Publications and Papers

The genus Daucus includes about 20 recognized species. The most widespread and economically important species, Daucus carota L., occurs on almost every continent. The cultivated carrot, subsp. sativus (Hoffm.) Schübl. and G. Martens, has been selected from wild populations that are extremely diverse, especially in the western Mediterranean. The predominant outcrossing and the lack of sexual isolating mechanisms among recognized infraspecific taxa complicate the taxonomy and identification of the wild populations, resulting in widely different interpretations of the number of infraspecific taxa. We measured 36 morphological characters from multiple individuals within each of 155 accessions of D. carota and from ...


Registration Of ‘Mattern’ Waxy (Amylose-Free) Winter Wheat, P S. Baenziger, R A. Graybosch, D K. Santra, T Regassa, Y Jin, S Wegulo, G Bai, P S. Amand, X Chen, B Seabourn, F Dowell, R Bowden, D M. Marshall 2014 University of Nebraska, Lincoln

Registration Of ‘Mattern’ Waxy (Amylose-Free) Winter Wheat, P S. Baenziger, R A. Graybosch, D K. Santra, T Regassa, Y Jin, S Wegulo, G Bai, P S. Amand, X Chen, B Seabourn, F Dowell, R Bowden, D M. Marshall

Teshome H. Regassa

‘Mattern’ (Reg. No. CV-1092, PI 665947) hard winter waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed cooperatively by the USDA–ARS and the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2012. Mattern has red grain color and waxy (amylose-free) endosperm starch. It was released primarily for its unique end-use quality attributes and for grain yield competitive with currently grown Nebraskaadapted cultivars. The waxy starch is conditioned by the presence of three naturally occurring mutations that eliminate production of the enzyme granule-bound starch synthase. Granule-bound starch synthase synthesizes amylose in typical wheats and other cereal crops. Mattern was tested experimentally as NX04Y2107 ...


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