The 3-Hydroxyacyl-Acp Dehydratase Component Of The Plant Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Synthase System, 2017 Iowa State University
The 3-Hydroxyacyl-Acp Dehydratase Component Of The Plant Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Synthase System, Xin Guan, Yozo Okazaki, Andrew Lithio, Ling Li, Xuefeng Zhao, Huanan Jin, Dan Nettleton, Kazuki Saito, Basil J. Nikolau
We report the characterization of the Arabidopsis 3-hydroxyacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) dehydratase (mtHD) component of the mitochondrial fatty acid synthase (mtFAS) system, encoded by AT5G60335. The mitochondrial localization and catalytic capability of mtHD were demonstrated with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenesis experiment, and by in vivo complementation and in vitro enzymatic assays. RNAi knockdown lines with reduced mtHD expression exhibit traits typically associated with mtFAS mutants, namely a miniaturized morphological appearance, reduced lipoylation of lipoylated proteins, and altered metabolomes consistent with the reduced catalytic activity of lipoylated enzymes. These alterations are reversed when mthd-rnai mutant plants are grown in ...
Reverse-Genetic Analysis Of The Two Biotin-Containing Subunit Genes Of The Heteromeric Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase In Arabidopsis Indicates A Unidirectional Functional Redundancy, 2017 Iowa State University
Reverse-Genetic Analysis Of The Two Biotin-Containing Subunit Genes Of The Heteromeric Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase In Arabidopsis Indicates A Unidirectional Functional Redundancy, Xu Li, Hilal Ilarslan, Libuse Brachova, Hui-Rong Qian, Ling Li, Ping Che, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Basil J. Nikolau
The heteromeric acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase catalyzes the first and committed reaction of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids. This enzyme is composed of four subunits: biotin carboxyl-carrier protein (BCCP), biotin carboxylase, α-carboxyltransferase, and β-carboxyltransferase. With the exception of BCCP, single-copy genes encode these subunits in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Reverse-genetic approaches were used to individually investigate the physiological significance of the two paralogous BCCP-coding genes, CAC1A (At5g16390, codes for BCCP1) and CAC1B (At5g15530, codes for BCCP2). Transfer DNA insertional alleles that completely eliminate the accumulation of BCCP2 have no perceptible effect on plant growth, development, and fatty acid accumulation. In ...
Materials And Method For Modifying A Biochemical Component In A Plant, 2017 Iowa State University
Materials And Method For Modifying A Biochemical Component In A Plant, Ling Li, Eve Syrkin Wurtele
A method of modifying the amount of at least one biochemical component in a plant comprising expressing Qua-Quine Starch (QQS) in the plant, the wild-type of which does not express QQS; a transgenic plant, or part thereof, which comprises and expresses QQS as a transgene and in which the amount of at least one biochemical component is modified; a tissue culture of regenerable cells of the transgenic plant; a vector comprising a nucleotide sequence, which encodes the coding sequence of QQS, operably linked to a non-native promoter, which promotes expression of the nucleotide sequence in a plant, which is other ...
Materials And Method For Increasing A Plant's Resistance To Stress, 2017 Iowa State University
Materials And Method For Increasing A Plant's Resistance To Stress, Ling Li, Eve Syrkin Wurtele
Method of increasing resistance to a pathogen or a pest in a plant comprising introducing into the plant and expressing therein a polynucleotide comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a Qua-Quine Starch (QQS) polypeptide; method of producing a plant with increased resistance to a pathogen or a pest comprising crossing a plant obtained in accordance with the above method with a second plant to produce progeny plants and selecting progeny plants with increased resistance to a pathogen or a pest; a plant with increased resistance to a pathogen or a pest; a seed of the plant; a hybrid of the plant ...
Comparative Transcriptome Reconstruction Of Four Hypericum Species Focused On Hypericin Biosynthesis, 2017 Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice
Comparative Transcriptome Reconstruction Of Four Hypericum Species Focused On Hypericin Biosynthesis, Miroslav Sotak, Odeta Czerankova, Daniel Klein, Zuzana Jurcackova, Ling Li, Eva Cellarova
Next generation sequencing technology rapidly developed research applications in the field of plant functional genomics. Several Hypericum spp. with an aim to generate and enhance gene annotations especially for genes coding the enzymes supposedly included in biosynthesis of valuable bioactive compounds were analyzed. The first de novo transcriptome profiling of Hypericum annulatum Moris, H. tomentosum L., H. kalmianum L., and H. androsaemum L. leaves cultivated in vitro was accomplished. All four species with only limited genomic information were selected on the basis of differences in ability to synthesize hypericins and presence of dark nodules accumulating these metabolites with purpose to ...
A Screen For Arabidopsis Thalianamutants With Altered Susceptibility To Heterodera Schachtii, 2017 Iowa State University
A Screen For Arabidopsis Thalianamutants With Altered Susceptibility To Heterodera Schachtii, T. J. Baum, M. J. E. Wubben Ii, K. A. Hardy, H. Su, S. R. Rodermel
Genetic approaches are a powerful means to elucidate plant-pathogen interactions. An in vitro screening protocol was developed to identify Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with altered susceptibility to Heterodera schachtii, the sugar beet cyst nematode. In an initial screen of approximately 5,200 ethyl methanesulfonate-generated mutant plants, two stable mutations were identified. Both mutant lines were backcrossed and were found to harbor single recessive mutant alleles. Mutant line 2-4-6 shows an approximately two-fold increase in sedentary and developing nematodes, while mutant line 10-5-2 exhibits a significant decrease in susceptibility that manifests itself only after nematodes become sedentary. Analyses of progeny from crosses ...
Isolation Of Beta-1,4-Endoglucanase Genes From Globodera Tabacumand Their Expression During Parasitism, 2017 North Carolina State University
Isolation Of Beta-1,4-Endoglucanase Genes From Globodera Tabacumand Their Expression During Parasitism, M. Goellner, G. Smant, J. M. De Boer, T. J. Baum, E. L. Davis
Two beta-1,4-endoglucanase (EGase) cDNAs were isolated from Globodera tabacum, the tobacco cyst nematode, and have been designated as GT-eng-1 and GT-eng-2. GT-eng-1 and GT-eng-2 encode precursor proteins with a predicted secretion signal sequence, cellulolytic catalytic domain, and a linker domain. The protein product GT-ENG-1 contains an additional 95 amino acid carboxy terminal sequence with strong similarity to type II cellulose binding domains. Riboprobes and polyclonal antibodies raised to recombinant cyst nematode EGases were used to follow expression patterns of EGase transcripts and proteins throughout the nematode life cycle. EGase transcripts and proteins were specifically detected within the subventral esophageal ...
Effects Of Zinc Fertilization Of Corn On Hatching Of Heterodera Glycines In Soil, 2017 Iowa State University
Effects Of Zinc Fertilization Of Corn On Hatching Of Heterodera Glycines In Soil, J. E. Behm, G. L. Tylka, T. L. Niblack, W. J. Wiebold, P. A. Donald
Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of zinc fertilizers on hatching and soil population densities of Heterodera glycines. In vitro egg hatching in solutions of reagent-grade zinc sulfate and zinc chloride and fertilizer-grade zinc sulfate was significantly greater than hatching in deionized water, whereas zinc chelate fertilizer significantly inhibited egg hatching relative to deionized water. In greenhouse experiments, no differences in cumulative percentage egg hatch were detected in soil naturally infested with H. glycines amended with fertilizer-grade zinc sulfate and zinc chelate at rates equivalent to 0, 1.12, 11.2, and 112 kg Zn/ha and subsequently planted ...
The Soybean Rhg1 Locus For Resistance To The Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera Glycines Regulates The Expression Of A Large Number Of Stress- And Defense-Related Genes In Degenerating Feeding Cells, 2017 University of Missouri
The Soybean Rhg1 Locus For Resistance To The Soybean Cyst Nematode Heterodera Glycines Regulates The Expression Of A Large Number Of Stress- And Defense-Related Genes In Degenerating Feeding Cells, Pramod Kaitheri Kandoth, Nagabhushana Ithal, Justin Recknor, Tom Maier, Dan Nettleton, Thomas J. Baum, Melissa G. Mitchum
To gain new insights into the mechanism of soybean (Glycine max) resistance to the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines), we compared gene expression profiles of developing syncytia in soybean near-isogenic lines differing at Rhg1 (for resistance to Heterodera glycines), a major quantitative trait locus for resistance, by coupling laser capture microdissection with microarray analysis. Gene expression profiling revealed that 1,447 genes were differentially expressed between the two lines. Of these, 241 (16.8%) were stress- and defense-related genes. Several stress-related genes were up-regulated in the resistant line, including those encoding homologs of enzymes that lead to increased levels of ...
The Novel Cyst Nematode Effector Protein 19c07 Interacts With The Arabidopsis Auxin Influx Transporter Lax3 To Control Feeding Site Development, Chris Lee, Demosthenis Chronis, Charlotte Kenning, Benjamin Peret, Tarek Hewezi, Eric L. Davis, Thomas J. Baum, Richard Hussey, Malcolm Bennett, Melissa G. Mitchum
Plant-parasitic cyst nematodes penetrate plant roots and transform cells near the vasculature into specialized feeding sites called syncytia. Syncytia form by incorporating neighboring cells into a single fused cell by cell wall dissolution. This process is initiated via injection of esophageal gland cell effector proteins from the nematode stylet into the host cell. Once inside the cell, these proteins may interact with host proteins that regulate the phytohormone auxin, as cellular concentrations of auxin increase in developing syncytia. Soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) Hg19C07 is a novel effector protein expressed specifically in the dorsal gland cell during nematode parasitism. Here ...
Arabidopsis Spermidine Synthase Is Targeted By An Effector Protein Of The Cyst Nematode Heterodera Schachtii, 2017 Iowa State University
Arabidopsis Spermidine Synthase Is Targeted By An Effector Protein Of The Cyst Nematode Heterodera Schachtii, Tarek Hewezi, Peter J. Howe, Tom R. Maier, Richard S. Hussey, Melissa G. Mitchum, Eric L. Davis, Thomas J. Baum
Cyst nematodes are sedentary plant parasites that cause dramatic cellular changes in the plant root to form feeding cells, so-called syncytia. 10A06 is a cyst nematode secretory protein that is most likely secreted as an effector into the developing syncytia during early plant parasitism. A homolog of the uncharacterized soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines), 10A06 gene was cloned from the sugar beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii), which is able to infect Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Constitutive expression of 10A06 in Arabidopsis affected plant morphology and increased susceptibility to H. schachtii as well as to other plant pathogens. Using yeast two-hybrid assays ...
Eight Nonhost Weed Species Of Heterodera Glycines In Iowa, 2017 Iowa State University
Eight Nonhost Weed Species Of Heterodera Glycines In Iowa, A. T. S. Wong, G. L. Tylka
The ability of the soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) to reproduce on eight weed species commonly occurring in Iowa was evaluated in greenhouse and field microplot experiments. Population densities of the nematode increased on H. g/ycines-susceptible soybean but not on H. g/ycines-resistant soybean, Canada thistle, cocklebur, eastern black nightshade, giant foxtail, lambsquarters, redroot pigweed, velvetleaf, and wild sunflower. All of the weeds evaluated were nonhosts of this H. glycines race 3 population.
Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping Of Winter Hardiness Metabolites In Autotetraploid Alfalfa (M. Sativa), 2017 Universidad Autónoma Chapingo
Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping Of Winter Hardiness Metabolites In Autotetraploid Alfalfa (M. Sativa), B. Alarcón Zúñiga, P. Scott, K. J. Moore, D. Luth, E. C. Brummer
M. Paul Scott
In winter hardy alfalfa cultivars, cold acclimation occurs prior to the onset of freezing temperatures and normally is accompanied with a series of metabolic and morphological adjustments. We are studying the accumulation pattern of metabolites throughout the autumn previous to freezing and relating them to winter survival in an Fl segregating population between the cross of M. sativa subsp. sativa and subsp. falcata. Morphological components and soluble carbohydrates, protein, amino-N groups, and free fatty acids were measured in 2001 and 2002 in the field. Broad sense heritability was intermediate for shoot and root mass and height, and for metabolites, ranged ...
Dissecting The Genetic Basis Of Salt Tolerance In Rice (Oryza Sativa), 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Dissecting The Genetic Basis Of Salt Tolerance In Rice (Oryza Sativa), Malachy Thomas Campbell
Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture
Excessive salt is a major factor limiting crop productivity. Rice is an important food crop worldwide, and provides a major source of calories for billions of people in tropical and subtropical developing countries. In many regions throughout Southeast Asia, rice is grown in low-lying coastal regions, which are prone to ingress by seawater. Rice is highly sensitive to salt stress, with mild salinity resulting in large reductions in yield. Improving salt tolerance in rice is essential for ensuring food security for many individuals throughput the developing world.
In this work, the overall goals were to characterize a diverse collection of ...
A Tandem Array Of Ent-Kaurene Synthases In Maize With Roles In Gibberellin And More Specialized Metabolism, 2017 Sichuan Agricultural University
A Tandem Array Of Ent-Kaurene Synthases In Maize With Roles In Gibberellin And More Specialized Metabolism, Jingye Fu, Fei Ren, Xuan Lu, Hongjie Mao, Meimei Xu, Jörg Degenhardt, Reuben J. Peters, Qiang Wang
Reuben J. Peters
While most commonly associated with its role in gibberellin (GA) phytohormone biosynthesis, ent-kaurene also serves as an intermediate in more specialized diterpenoid metabolism, as exemplified by the more than 800 known derived natural products. Among these are the maize kauralexins. However, no ent-kaurene synthases (KSs) have been identified from maize. The maize GA-deficient dwarf-5 (d5) mutant has been associated with a loss of KS activity. The relevant genetic lesion has been previously mapped, and was found here to correlate with the location of the KS-like gene ZmKSL3. Intriguingly, this forms part of a tandem array with two other terpene synthases ...
Blocking Deprotonation With Retention Of Aromaticity In A Plant Ent-Copalyl Diphosphate Synthase Leads To Product Rearrangement, Kevin C. Potter, Jiachen Zi, Young J. Hong, Samuel Schulte, Brandi Malchow, Dean J. Tantillo, Reuben J. Peters
Reuben J. Peters
Biosynthesis of the labdane-related diterpenoids, a large superfamily of over 7,000 natural products, is characterized by the use of class II diterpene cyclases. The vast majority of these biocatalysts are exclusively found in plants, stemming from repeated evolutionary diversification of the ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase (CPS) required for gibberellin phytohormone biosynthesis – i.e., via gene duplication and neofunctionalization. As implied by this evolutionary scenario, these enzymes must exhibit catalytic plasticity that enables new products to readily arise. Consistent with this hypothesis, we have shown that substitution of smaller residues for the catalytic base group can lead to the ...
Cyp76m7 Is An Ent-Cassadiene C11Α-Hydroxylase Defining A Second Multifunctional Diterpenoid Biosynthetic Gene Cluster In Rice, Sivakumar Swaminathan, Dana Morrone, Qiang Wang, D. Bruce Fulton, Reuben J. Peters
Reuben J. Peters
Biosynthetic gene clusters are common in microbial organisms, but rare in plants, raising questions regarding the evolutionary forces that drive their assembly in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we characterize the biochemical function of a rice (Oryza sativa) cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, CYP76M7, which seems to act in the production of antifungal phytocassanes and defines a second diterpenoid biosynthetic gene cluster in rice. This cluster is uniquely multifunctional, containing enzymatic genes involved in the production of two distinct sets of phytoalexins, the antifungal phytocassanes and antibacterial oryzalides/oryzadiones, with the corresponding genes being subject to distinct transcriptional regulation. The lack of uniform coregulation ...
Cytochrome P450 Promiscuity Leads To A Bifurcating Biosynthetic Pathway For Tanshinones, 2017 China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences
Cytochrome P450 Promiscuity Leads To A Bifurcating Biosynthetic Pathway For Tanshinones, Juan Guo, Xiaohui Ma, Yuan Cai, Ying Ma, Zhilai Zhan, Yongjin J. Zhou, Wujun Liu, Mengxin Guan, Jian Yang, Guanghong Cui, Liping Kang, Lei Yang, Ye Shen, Jinfu Tang, Huixin Lin, Xiaojing Ma, Baolong Jin, Zhenming Liu, Reuben J. Peters, Zongbao K. Zhao, Luqi Huang
Reuben J. Peters
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) play key role in generating the structural diversity of terpenoids, the largest group of plant natural products. However, functional characterization of CYPs has been challenging because of the expansive families found in plant genomes, diverse reactivity and inaccessibility of their substrates and products. • Here we present the characterization of two CYPs, CYP76AH3 and CYP76AK1, that act sequentially to form a bifurcating pathway for the biosynthesis of tanshinones, the oxygenated diterpenoids from the Chinese medicinal plant Danshen. • These CYPs had similar transcription profiles to that of the known gene responsible for tanshinone production in elicited Danshen hairy roots ...
Machine Learning For High-Throughput Stress Phenotyping In Plants, 2017 Iowa State University
Machine Learning For High-Throughput Stress Phenotyping In Plants, Arti Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Asheesh Kumar Singh, Soumik Sarkar
Advances in automated and high-throughput imaging technologies have resulted in a deluge of high-resolution images and sensor data of plants. However, extracting patterns and features from this large corpus of data requires the use of machine learning (ML) tools to enable data assimilation and feature identification for stress phenotyping. Four stages of the decision cycle in plant stress phenotyping and plant breeding activities where different ML approaches can be deployed are (i) identification, (ii) classification, (iii) quantification, and (iv) prediction (ICQP). We provide here a comprehensive overview and user-friendly taxonomy of ML tools to enable the plant community to correctly ...
Phenotypic And Genotypic Diversity Of Eastern Leatherwood In Five Populations That Span Its Geographic Distribution, Bryan J. Peterson, William R. Graves, Jyotsna Sharma
William R Graves
Knowledge of variation among populations is important for making decisions about conservation of rare, threatened or endangered taxa. We investigated variation within and among five populations ofDirca palustris L. an understory shrub with a sporadic distribution and life-history traits that led us to predict strong phenotypic and genetic differentiation characteristic of historically limited gene flow. Populations sampled in Florida, Alabama, Illinois, Wisconsin and North Dakota spanned the geographic distribution of the species. Phenotypic traits differed among populations, and many traits correlated with latitude and environmental characteristics of the five sites. Principal components (PC) analysis showed that the first three PCs ...