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Validation Of A Hairy Roots System To Study Soybean-Soybean Aphid Interactions, Stephanie C. Morriss, Matthew E. Studham, Gregory L. Tylka, Gustavo C. Macintosh 2017 Iowa State University

Validation Of A Hairy Roots System To Study Soybean-Soybean Aphid Interactions, Stephanie C. Morriss, Matthew E. Studham, Gregory L. Tylka, Gustavo C. Macintosh

Gregory Tylka

The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) is one of the main insect pests of soybean (Glycine max) worldwide. Genomics approaches have provided important data on transcriptome changes, both in the insect and in the plant, in response to the plant-aphid interaction. However, the difficulties to transform soybean and to rear soybean aphid on artificial media have hindered our ability to systematically test the function of genes identified by those analyses as mediators of plant resistance to the insect. An efficient approach to produce transgenic soybean material is the production of transformed hairy roots using Agrobacterium rhizogenes; however, soybean aphids colonize leaves ...


Reverse-Genetic Analysis Of The Two Biotin-Containing Subunit Genes Of The Heteromeric Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase In Arabidopsis Indicates A Unidirectional Functional Redundancy, Xu Li, Hilal Ilarslan, Libuse Brachova, Hui-Rong Qian, Ling Li, Ping Che, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Basil J. Nikolau 2017 Iowa State University

Reverse-Genetic Analysis Of The Two Biotin-Containing Subunit Genes Of The Heteromeric Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase In Arabidopsis Indicates A Unidirectional Functional Redundancy, Xu Li, Hilal Ilarslan, Libuse Brachova, Hui-Rong Qian, Ling Li, Ping Che, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Basil J. Nikolau

Eve Wurtele

The heteromeric acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase catalyzes the first and committed reaction of de novo fatty acid biosynthesis in plastids. This enzyme is composed of four subunits: biotin carboxyl-carrier protein (BCCP), biotin carboxylase, α-carboxyltransferase, and β-carboxyltransferase. With the exception of BCCP, single-copy genes encode these subunits in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Reverse-genetic approaches were used to individually investigate the physiological significance of the two paralogous BCCP-coding genes, CAC1A (At5g16390, codes for BCCP1) and CAC1B (At5g15530, codes for BCCP2). Transfer DNA insertional alleles that completely eliminate the accumulation of BCCP2 have no perceptible effect on plant growth, development, and fatty acid accumulation. In ...


Materials And Method For Increasing A Plant's Resistance To Stress, Ling Li, Eve Syrkin Wurtele 2017 Iowa State University

Materials And Method For Increasing A Plant's Resistance To Stress, Ling Li, Eve Syrkin Wurtele

Eve Wurtele

Method of increasing resistance to a pathogen or a pest in a plant comprising introducing into the plant and expressing therein a polynucleotide comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding a Qua-Quine Starch (QQS) polypeptide; method of producing a plant with increased resistance to a pathogen or a pest comprising crossing a plant obtained in accordance with the above method with a second plant to produce progeny plants and selecting progeny plants with increased resistance to a pathogen or a pest; a plant with increased resistance to a pathogen or a pest; a seed of the plant; a hybrid of the plant ...


Materials And Method For Modifying A Biochemical Component In A Plant, Ling Li, Eve Syrkin Wurtele 2017 Iowa State University

Materials And Method For Modifying A Biochemical Component In A Plant, Ling Li, Eve Syrkin Wurtele

Eve Wurtele

A method of modifying the amount of at least one biochemical component in a plant comprising expressing Qua-Quine Starch (QQS) in the plant, the wild-type of which does not express QQS; a transgenic plant, or part thereof, which comprises and expresses QQS as a transgene and in which the amount of at least one biochemical component is modified; a tissue culture of regenerable cells of the transgenic plant; a vector comprising a nucleotide sequence, which encodes the coding sequence of QQS, operably linked to a non-native promoter, which promotes expression of the nucleotide sequence in a plant, which is other ...


A Pectin Methylesterase Zmpme3 Is Expressed In Gametophyte Factor1-S (Ga1-S) Silks And Maps To That Locus In Maize (Zea Mays L.), Adrienne N. Moran Lauter, Michael G. Muszynski, Ryan D. Huffman, M. Paul Scott 2017 U.S. Department of Agriculture

A Pectin Methylesterase Zmpme3 Is Expressed In Gametophyte Factor1-S (Ga1-S) Silks And Maps To That Locus In Maize (Zea Mays L.), Adrienne N. Moran Lauter, Michael G. Muszynski, Ryan D. Huffman, M. Paul Scott

M. Paul Scott

The ga1 locus of maize confers unilateral cross incompatibility, preventing cross pollination between females carrying the incompatible Ga1-s allele and males not carrying a corresponding compatible allele. To characterize this system at the molecular level, we carried out a transcript profiling experiment in which silks from near isogenic lines carrying the Ga1-sand ga1 alleles were compared. While several differentially expressed genes were identified, only one mapped to the known location of ga1. This gene is a pectin methylesterase (PME), which we designated as ZmPme3, and is present and expressed only in Ga1-s genotypes. While a functional ZmPME3 is ...


Seed Production In Corn And Soybean, Kendall Lamkey 2017 Iowa State University

Seed Production In Corn And Soybean, Kendall Lamkey

Kendall R Lamkey

Seed production is one of the least visible yet most important aspects of food and feed production. This part of the system is often taken for granted, even by the farmers who plant the seed. One of the reasons is that much of the seed in the United States is provided by the private sector, particularly for corn and soybean. Also, seed production is a technical process that requires in-depth knowledge of the reproductive mechanisms in plants.


A Pectin Methylesterase Zmpme3 Is Expressed In Gametophyte Factor1-S (Ga1-S) Silks And Maps To That Locus In Maize (Zea Mays L.), Adrienne N. Moran Lauter, Michael G. Muszynski, Ryan D. Huffman, M. Paul Scott 2017 U.S. Department of Agriculture

A Pectin Methylesterase Zmpme3 Is Expressed In Gametophyte Factor1-S (Ga1-S) Silks And Maps To That Locus In Maize (Zea Mays L.), Adrienne N. Moran Lauter, Michael G. Muszynski, Ryan D. Huffman, M. Paul Scott

Agronomy Publications

The ga1 locus of maize confers unilateral cross incompatibility, preventing cross pollination between females carrying the incompatible Ga1-s allele and males not carrying a corresponding compatible allele. To characterize this system at the molecular level, we carried out a transcript profiling experiment in which silks from near isogenic lines carrying the Ga1-sand ga1 alleles were compared. While several differentially expressed genes were identified, only one mapped to the known location of ga1. This gene is a pectin methylesterase (PME), which we designated as ZmPme3, and is present and expressed only in Ga1-s genotypes. While a functional ZmPME3 is ...


Spatial Mapping And Profiling Of Metabolite Distributions During Germination, Robbyn Anand, Adam D. Feenstra, Liza E. Alexander, Zhihong Song, Andrew R. Korte, Marna Yandeaue-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau, Young-Jin Lee 2017 Iowa State University

Spatial Mapping And Profiling Of Metabolite Distributions During Germination, Robbyn Anand, Adam D. Feenstra, Liza E. Alexander, Zhihong Song, Andrew R. Korte, Marna Yandeaue-Nelson, Basil J. Nikolau, Young-Jin Lee

Chemistry Publications

Germination is a highly complex process by which seeds begin to develop and establish themselves as viable organisms. In this paper, we utilize a combination of GC-MS, LC-fluorescence, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) approaches to profile and visualize the metabolic distributions of germinating seeds from two different inbreds of maize seeds, B73 and Mo17. GC and LC analyses demonstrate that the two inbreds are highly differentiated in their metabolite profiles throughout the course of germination, especially with regard to amino acids, sugar alcohols, and small organic acids. Crude dissection of the seed followed by GC-MS analysis of polar metabolites also ...


Bpmv-Based Viral Constructs Useful For Vigs And Expression Of Heterologous Proteins In Legumes, John H. Hill, Chunquan Zhang, Steven A. Whitham 2017 Iowa State University

Bpmv-Based Viral Constructs Useful For Vigs And Expression Of Heterologous Proteins In Legumes, John H. Hill, Chunquan Zhang, Steven A. Whitham

Steven Whitham

The invention provides Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) vectors useful for expression of heterologous proteins in plants such as soybean. The BPMV vectors are also useful for virus-induced gene silencing. The vectors of the invention include modifications of BPMV RNA1 sequences so that infection with the vectors produces only moderate symptoms. The vectors also comprise novel RNA2 vectors which specifically provide for non-translated VIGS constructs and further which do not require in frame insertion of heterologous sequences to be expressed.


Bpmv-Based Viral Constructs Useful For Vigs And Expression Of Heterologous Proteins In Legumes Patent Application, John H. Hill, Chunquan Zhang, Steven A. Whitham 2017 Iowa State University

Bpmv-Based Viral Constructs Useful For Vigs And Expression Of Heterologous Proteins In Legumes Patent Application, John H. Hill, Chunquan Zhang, Steven A. Whitham

Steven Whitham

The invention provides Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) vectors useful for expression of heterologous proteins in plants such as soybean. The BPMV vectors are also useful for virus-induced gene silencing. The vectors of the invention include modifications of BPMV RNA1 sequences so that infection with the vectors produces only moderate symptoms. The vectors also comprise novel RNA2 vectors which specifically provide for non-translated VIGS constructs and further which do not require in frame insertion of heterologous sequences to be expressed.


A Small Cysteine-Rich Protein From The Asian Soybean Rust Fungus, Phakopsora Pachyrhizi, Suppresses Plant Immunity, Mingsheng Qi, Tobias I. Link, Manuel Müller, Daniela Hirschburger, Ramesh N. Pudake, Kerry F. Pedley, Edward Braun, Ralf T. Voegele, Thomas J. Baum, Steven A. Whitham 2017 Iowa State University

A Small Cysteine-Rich Protein From The Asian Soybean Rust Fungus, Phakopsora Pachyrhizi, Suppresses Plant Immunity, Mingsheng Qi, Tobias I. Link, Manuel Müller, Daniela Hirschburger, Ramesh N. Pudake, Kerry F. Pedley, Edward Braun, Ralf T. Voegele, Thomas J. Baum, Steven A. Whitham

Steven Whitham

The Asian soybean rust fungus, Phakopsora pachyrhizi, is an obligate biotrophic pathogen causing severe soybean disease epidemics. Molecular mechanisms by which P. pachyrhizi and other rust fungi interact with their host plants are poorly understood. The genomes of all rust fungi encode many small, secreted cysteine-rich proteins (SSCRP). While these proteins are thought to function within the host, their roles are completely unknown. Here, we present the characterization of P. pachyrhizi effector candidate 23 (PpEC23), a SSCRP that we show to suppress plant immunity. Furthermore, we show that PpEC23 interacts with soybean transcription factor GmSPL12l and that ...


Recurrent Selection To Alter Grain Phytic Acid Concentration And Iron Bioavailability, Alyssa W. Beavers, A. Susana Goggi, Manju B. Reddy, Adrienne Moran Lauter, M. Paul Scott 2017 Michigan State University

Recurrent Selection To Alter Grain Phytic Acid Concentration And Iron Bioavailability, Alyssa W. Beavers, A. Susana Goggi, Manju B. Reddy, Adrienne Moran Lauter, M. Paul Scott

Manju B. Reddy

Iron is an important micronutrient and Fe deficiency is a global health concern. Phytic acid inhibits Fe absorption and cannot be digested by monogastric livestock or humans. High phytate concentration in staple crops may be one of the contributing factors for the high incidence of anemia in developing countries because of its inhibiting effect on Fe absorption. In seeds, it serves as the main storage compound for P. Low phytic acid mutants (lpa) in maize (Zea mays L.) have improved Fe bioavailability, but they have poor germination. Our objective was to develop both low phytic acid (LPA) and high phytic ...


Genetic Diversity In Hypericum And Aflp Markers For Species-Specific Identification Of H. Perforatum L., Ryan J. Percifield, Jennifer S. Hawkins, Joe-Ann McCoy, Mark P. Widrlechner, Jonathan F. Wendel 2017 Iowa State University

Genetic Diversity In Hypericum And Aflp Markers For Species-Specific Identification Of H. Perforatum L., Ryan J. Percifield, Jennifer S. Hawkins, Joe-Ann Mccoy, Mark P. Widrlechner, Jonathan F. Wendel

Jonathan F. Wendel

One of the top-selling medicinal products worldwide is Hypericum perforatum (St. John's Wort). Despite its cosmopolitan distribution and utilization, little is known regarding the relationship of the bioactive compounds in H. perforatum to the plants from which they are purportedly derived. In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis of 56 Hypericum accessions, representing 11 species, was conducted to gain a better understanding of diversity within Hypericum species, especially within cultivated accessions of H. perforatum, and to establish a molecular methodology that will provide breeders and regulators with a simple, affordable, and accurate tool with which to identify ...


Development And Evaluation Of Environmentally-Sensitive Genetic Male Sterile Lines For Louisiana Hybrid Rice, Federico Molina Casella 2017 Louisiana State University

Development And Evaluation Of Environmentally-Sensitive Genetic Male Sterile Lines For Louisiana Hybrid Rice, Federico Molina Casella

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The Louisiana rice industry generates ~ 400 million dollars each year toward our state economy. Louisiana varieties are typically bred as pure lines, but hybrid (F1) varieties have the potential to increase grain yields 15% or more over conventional sources. A primary goal of the LSU AgCenter Hybrid Breeding program is to breed elite cross combinations (hybrid varieties) through development of environmentally sensitive male sterile and fertile pollinator lines. Extensive multi-location yield trials in Louisiana have demonstrated high grain and head rice yields for candidate hybrids, but improvements in maturity, lodging, and grain chalk are needed. To address these challenges ...


Characterization Of Acaricide Resistance, Plant-Mediated Rnai Against Two-Spotted Spider Mites (Tetranychus Urticae Koch), And Assessing Off- And Non-Target Effects, Hooman Hosseinzadeh Namin 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Characterization Of Acaricide Resistance, Plant-Mediated Rnai Against Two-Spotted Spider Mites (Tetranychus Urticae Koch), And Assessing Off- And Non-Target Effects, Hooman Hosseinzadeh Namin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The two-spotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae (Koch), is one of the most damaging agricultural pests in the world. It feeds on over 150 crops, causing considerable yield losses in greenhouses and agricultural fields. Currently, using synthetic acaricides is the main method to control TSSM. However, it can develop resistance to acaricides with repeated exposure, and typically resistance can occur within two to four years. To understand the underlying mechanisms of spider mite adaptation to acaricides is an essential part of resistance management strategy. The resistance ratio of the pyridaben-selected strain compared with the pre-selection strain was estimated at greater ...


Predicted Gains From Recurrent Selection In The Bs11 Maize Population, P. S. Guzman, K. R. Lamkey 2017 Iowa State University

Predicted Gains From Recurrent Selection In The Bs11 Maize Population, P. S. Guzman, K. R. Lamkey

Kendall R Lamkey

Random genetic drift and inbreeding depression resulting from the use of small effective population size limit the gain of recurrent selection programs. The objectives of our study were to predict the gains of S2, S1, full-sib, and modified-ear-to-row recurrent selection methods in maize (Zea mays L.) with varying effective population sizes of 5, 10, 20, and 30 and to compare these predicted gains with the realized gains obtained in a related study. Using the variance estimates of the BS11C0 population, predicted gain cycle-1 was computed based on single trait selection and index selection. Predicted gain cycle-1 for S1-progeny selection method ...


Hardy-Weinberg And Linkage Equilibrium Estimates In The Bsss And Bscb1 Random Mated Populations, J. A. Labate, K. R. Lamkey, M. Lee, W. Woodman 2017 Cornell University

Hardy-Weinberg And Linkage Equilibrium Estimates In The Bsss And Bscb1 Random Mated Populations, J. A. Labate, K. R. Lamkey, M. Lee, W. Woodman

Kendall R Lamkey

Because maize (Zea mays) is an annual species those working with it must frequently make crosses to preserve and periodically maintain populations. Random mating is performed either using hand-pollination techniques or in wind-pollinated isolated blocks. Eighty-two restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers were used to examine samples of random mated, hand-pollinated BSSS(R) and BSCB1(R) maize populations to find out whether their genotypic proportions conformed to predicted outcomes of random mating. The majority of loci conformed to expectations for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). Excess homozygosity was observed at 87% of the loci where the null hypothesis of HWE was rejected ...


Response To Selection And Changes In Genetic Parameters For 13 Plant And Ear Traits In Two Maize Recurrent Selection Programs, J. F. Holthaus, K. R. Lamkey 2017 Holden's Foundation Seeds, Inc.

Response To Selection And Changes In Genetic Parameters For 13 Plant And Ear Traits In Two Maize Recurrent Selection Programs, J. F. Holthaus, K. R. Lamkey

Kendall R Lamkey

Recurrent selection is a cyclical breeding procedure that focuses on improving the mean performance of a population by increasing the frequency of favorable alleles and maintaining adequate genetic variability for continued selection response. The Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic (BSSS) maize (Zea mavs L.) population has undergone continuous recurrent selection for more than 50 years as the base population for two independent selection programs. This study was designed to estimate the mean performance and important genetic parameters in BSSS before and after seven cycles of half- sib (I IS) progeny selection, six cycles of Srprogeny selection, and 11 cycles of reciprocal ...


Quantitative Genetics, Molecular Markers, And Plant Improvement, Kendall R. Lamkey, Michael Lee 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Quantitative Genetics, Molecular Markers, And Plant Improvement, Kendall R. Lamkey, Michael Lee

Kendall R Lamkey

Quantitative genetics in conjunction with statistics has provided much of the scientific framework for modern plant breeding. Although there has been no specific review of the contributions of quantitative genetics and statistics to plant breeding, the contributions have been undoubtedly profound and lasting. Quantitative genetic theory in many ways is robust to and naive of modern genetic principles. Little is known about the biology or the genetic architecture of quantitative traits. In this paper, five major areas of quantitative genetics -- number of loci controlling quantitative traits, nature of quantitative trait loci, gene action and effects, epistasis, and genotype x environment ...


Evaluation Of A Modified Reciprocal Recurrent Selection Procedure For Maize Improvement, W. A. Russell, D. J. Blackburn, Kendall R. Lamkey 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of A Modified Reciprocal Recurrent Selection Procedure For Maize Improvement, W. A. Russell, D. J. Blackburn, Kendall R. Lamkey

Kendall R Lamkey

Reciprocal recurrent selection in maize (:Zea mays L.) has been ve1y successful in improving yields of crosses of two populations wherein each population has been used as a tester for the other. A modification of the procedure was suggested that uses two inbred lines as testers instead of the populations. The purpose of our research was to compare the two procedures for progress achieved after three cycles of recurrent selection. The populations were BS21 and BS22 Synthetics used in a reciprocal recurrent selection program (BS21R x BS22R). For the modified procedure, inbred A632 was the tester for BS21, [BS21(A632Hl ...


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