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Risk Assessment And Decision-Making For Genetically Modified Foods, Aynsley Kellow 2017 University of New Hampshire

Risk Assessment And Decision-Making For Genetically Modified Foods, Aynsley Kellow

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The author examines concerns about genetically modified foods and how those concerns have developed into policy responses markedly different in Europe than in the United States.


Towards The Development Of A Sustainable Soya Bean-Based Feedstock For Aquaculture, Hyunwoo Park, Steven Weier, Fareha Razvi, Pamela A. Peña, Neil A. Sims, Jennica Lowell, Cory Hungate, Karma Kissinger, Gavin Key, Paul Fraser, Jonathan Napier, Edgar B. Cahoon, Thomas Clemente 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Towards The Development Of A Sustainable Soya Bean-Based Feedstock For Aquaculture, Hyunwoo Park, Steven Weier, Fareha Razvi, Pamela A. Peña, Neil A. Sims, Jennica Lowell, Cory Hungate, Karma Kissinger, Gavin Key, Paul Fraser, Jonathan Napier, Edgar B. Cahoon, Thomas Clemente

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Soya bean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is sought after for both its oil and protein components. Genetic approaches to add value to either component are ongoing efforts in soya bean breeding and molecular biology programmes. The former is the primary vegetable oil consumed in the world. Hence, its primary usage is in direct human consumption. As a means to increase its utility in feed applications, thereby expanding the market of soya bean coproducts, we investigated the simultaneous displacement of marine ingredients in aquafeeds with soya bean-based protein and a high Omega-3 fatty acid soya bean oil, enriched with alpha-linolenic and ...


Cognition-Mediated Evolution Of Low-Quality Floral Nectars, Vladislav Nachev, Kai Petra Stich, Clemens Winter, Alan B. Bond, Alan Kamil, York Winter 2017 Humboldt University, Berlin

Cognition-Mediated Evolution Of Low-Quality Floral Nectars, Vladislav Nachev, Kai Petra Stich, Clemens Winter, Alan B. Bond, Alan Kamil, York Winter

Alan Bond Publications

Plants pollinated by hummingbirds or bats produce dilute nectars even though these animals prefer more concentrated sugar solutions. This mismatch is an unsolved evolutionary paradox. Here we show that lower quality, or more dilute, nectars evolve when the strength of preferring larger quantities or higher qualities of nectar diminishes as magnitudes of the physical stimuli increase. In a virtual evolution experiment conducted in the tropical rainforest, bats visited computer-automated flowers with simulated genomes that evolved relatively dilute nectars. Simulations replicated this evolution only when value functions, which relate the physical stimuli to subjective sensations, were nonlinear. Selection also depended on ...


Expression Of Apoplast-Targeted Plant Defensin Mtdef4.2 Confers Resistance To Leaf Rust Pathogen Puccinia Triticina But Does Not Affect Mycorrhizal Symbiosis In Transgenic Wheat, Jagdeep Kaur, John Fellers, Alok Adholeya, Siva L.S. Velivelli, Kaoutar El-Mounadi, Natalya Nersesian, Thomas E. Clemente, Dilip Shah 2017 Donald Danforth Plant Science Center

Expression Of Apoplast-Targeted Plant Defensin Mtdef4.2 Confers Resistance To Leaf Rust Pathogen Puccinia Triticina But Does Not Affect Mycorrhizal Symbiosis In Transgenic Wheat, Jagdeep Kaur, John Fellers, Alok Adholeya, Siva L.S. Velivelli, Kaoutar El-Mounadi, Natalya Nersesian, Thomas E. Clemente, Dilip Shah

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Rust fungi of the order Pucciniales are destructive pathogens of wheat worldwide. Leaf rust caused by the obligate, biotrophic basidiomycete fungus Puccinia triticina (Pt) is an economically important disease capable of causing up to 50 % yield losses. Historically, resistant wheat cultivars have been used to control leaf rust, but genetic resistance is ephemeral and breaks down with the emergence of new virulent Pt races. There is a need to develop alternative measures for control of leaf rust in wheat. Development of transgenic wheat expressing an antifungal defensin offers a promising approach to complement the endogenous resistance genes within the wheat ...


Midwest Vegetable Trial Report For 2016, Elizabeth Maynard, Brad Bergefurd 2017 Purdue University - Main Campus

Midwest Vegetable Trial Report For 2016, Elizabeth Maynard, Brad Bergefurd

Purdue Fruit and Vegetable Research Reports

This is a compilation of 21 research trial reports from six land-grant universities in the midwestern United States. Crops include dry beans, cantaloupe, cucumber, pepper, pumpkin, sweet corn, summer squash, winter squash, strawberry, tomato, watermelon, and winter melon. Several crops were evaluated in high tunnels or hoop houses. Most trials evaluated different cultivars or varieties. Three reports addressed specific growing practices: the use of poly-coated urea to supply nitrogen to sweet corn, potassium fertilization for high tunnel tomatoes, and use of cereal rye cover crop in butternut squash.


Development Of Highly Variable Microsatellite Markers For The Tetraploid Silene Stellata (Caryophyllaceae), Juannan Zhou, Michele R. Dudash, Charles B. Fenster, Elizabeth A. Zimmer 2016 University of Maryland at College Park

Development Of Highly Variable Microsatellite Markers For The Tetraploid Silene Stellata (Caryophyllaceae), Juannan Zhou, Michele R. Dudash, Charles B. Fenster, Elizabeth A. Zimmer

Natural Resource Management Faculty Publications

Premise of the study:We designed and tested microsatellite markers for the North American native species Silene stellata (Caryophyllaceae) to investigate its population genetic structure and identify selection on floral design through male reproductive success.

Methods and Results: A total of 153 candidate microsatellite loci were isolated based on next-generation sequencing. We identified 18 polymorphic microsatellite loci in three populations of S. stellata, with di- or trinucleotide repeats. Genotyping results showed the number of alleles per locus ranged from six to 45 and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.511 to 0.951. Five of these loci were successfully amplified in ...


Impact Of Climate Change On Soybean Breeding Objectives, Theodore M. I. Hartman 2016 Iowa State University

Impact Of Climate Change On Soybean Breeding Objectives, Theodore M. I. Hartman

Meteorology Senior Theses

Changes in climate, mainly changes in temperature, precipitation, and carbon dioxide concentration are predicted to occur. These changes in climate will affect weather conditions that are vitally important in the growth and development of crops. Historically, yield increases have been observed in many crops, including Glycine max (soybean). This yield increase has been associated with deliberate breeding objectives designed to optimize plant performance for the contemporary climate. This deliberate breeding initiative has modified plant physiologic parameters. This study looks at how changes in soybean physiological parameters, through different cultivars, have attributed to observed yield increases and how future climate changes ...


American Chestnut Sem Portfolio, Dakota Matthews 2016 SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

American Chestnut Sem Portfolio, Dakota Matthews

N.C. Brown Center for Ultrastructure Studies

Scanning electron microscopy micrographs of transgenic american chestnut pollen and anthers. Chinkapin anthers and pollen imaged also.


Evaluation Of Soybean Varieties Resistant To Soybean Cyst Nematode In Iowa—2016, Gregory L. Tylka, Gregory D. Gebhart, Christopher C. Marett, Mark P. Mullaney 2016 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Soybean Varieties Resistant To Soybean Cyst Nematode In Iowa—2016, Gregory L. Tylka, Gregory D. Gebhart, Christopher C. Marett, Mark P. Mullaney

Extension and Outreach Publications

Use of resistant soybean varieties is a very effective strategy for managing soybean cyst nematode (SCN), and numerous SCN-resistant soybean varieties are available for Iowa soybean farmers. Each year, SCNresistant soybean varieties are evaluated in SCN-infested fields throughout Iowa by Iowa State University personnel. The research described in this report was performed to assess the agronomic performance of maturity group (MG) I, II, and III SCN-resistant soybean varieties and to determine the effects of the varieties on SCN numbers or population densities.


Orm Expression Alters Sphingolipid Homeostasis And Differentially Affects Ceramide Synthase Activity, Athen N. Kimberlin, Gongshe Han, Kyle D. Luttgeharm, Ming Chen, Rebecca E. Cahoon, Julie M. Stone, Jonathan E. Markham, Teresa M. Dunn, Edgar B. Cahoon 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Orm Expression Alters Sphingolipid Homeostasis And Differentially Affects Ceramide Synthase Activity, Athen N. Kimberlin, Gongshe Han, Kyle D. Luttgeharm, Ming Chen, Rebecca E. Cahoon, Julie M. Stone, Jonathan E. Markham, Teresa M. Dunn, Edgar B. Cahoon

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Sphingolipid synthesis is tightly regulated in eukaryotes. This regulation in plants ensures sufficient sphingolipids to support growth while limiting the accumulation of sphingolipid metabolites that induce programmed cell death. Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) catalyzes the first step in sphingolipid biosynthesis and is considered the primary sphingolipid homeostatic regulatory point. In this report, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) putative SPT regulatory proteins, orosomucoidlike proteins AtORM1 and AtORM2, were found to interact physically with Arabidopsis SPT and to suppress SPT activity when coexpressed with Arabidopsis SPT subunits long-chain base1 (LCB1) and LCB2 and the small subunit of SPT in a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) SPT-deficient mutant ...


Soybean Cyst Nematode-Resistant Soybean Varieties For Iowa, Gregory L. Tylka, Mark P. Mullaney 2016 Iowa State University

Soybean Cyst Nematode-Resistant Soybean Varieties For Iowa, Gregory L. Tylka, Mark P. Mullaney

Extension and Outreach Publications

Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) is widespread in Iowa. The nematode reproduces quickly (completes several life cycles or generations per season), survives in the soil for 10 years or more in the absence of a soybean crop, and can cause substantial yield losses, particularly in dry years.


Transcriptome Response Of Cassava Leaves Under Natural Shade, Zehong Ding, Yang Zhang, Yi Xiao, Fangfang Liu, Minghui Wang, Xinguang Zhu, Peng Liu, Qi Sun, Wenquan Wang, Ming Peng, Tom Brutnell, Pinghua Li 2016 Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (CATAS), Haikou, Hainan

Transcriptome Response Of Cassava Leaves Under Natural Shade, Zehong Ding, Yang Zhang, Yi Xiao, Fangfang Liu, Minghui Wang, Xinguang Zhu, Peng Liu, Qi Sun, Wenquan Wang, Ming Peng, Tom Brutnell, Pinghua Li

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Cassava is an important staple crop in tropical and sub-tropical areas. As a common farming practice, cassava is usually cultivated intercropping with other crops and subjected to various degrees of shading, which causes reduced productivity. Herein, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on a series of developmental cassava leaves under both full sunlight and natural shade conditions. Gene expression profiles of these two conditions exhibited similar developmental transitions, e.g. genes related to cell wall and basic cellular metabolism were highly expressed in immature leaves, genes involved in lipid metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis were highly expressed during the transition stages ...


Nanocomposite Adhesive Of English Ivy (Hedera Helix): Bioproduction, Nanoparticle Isolation, And Molecular Analysis, Jason Neil Burris 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Nanocomposite Adhesive Of English Ivy (Hedera Helix): Bioproduction, Nanoparticle Isolation, And Molecular Analysis, Jason Neil Burris

Doctoral Dissertations

English ivy naturally produces organic nanoparticles from its adventitious root hairs, and possesses characteristics that may allow them to replace metal-based nanoparticles in common applications, such as sunscreen. At the onset of the research, it was hypothesized that a physical mechanism of attachment, similar to the gecko footpad, was used to generate the adhesive force for attachment; however, through the results obtained from recent work, it is clear that a biochemical mechanism is involved in the generation of the strength of adhesion. Therefore, the goal of this research was to provide a better understanding of the genetic basis of nanoparticle ...


Comparative Evolutionary Analysis Of Organellar Genomic Diversity In Green Plants, Weishu Fan 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Comparative Evolutionary Analysis Of Organellar Genomic Diversity In Green Plants, Weishu Fan

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) and plastid genome (plastome) of plants vary immensely in genome size and gene content. They have also developed several eccentric features, such as the preference for horizontal gene transfer of mitochondrial genes, the reduction of the plastome in non-photosynthetic plants, and variable amounts of RNA editing affecting both genomes. Different organismal lifestyles can partially account for the highly diverse organellar genomes across the tree of green plants. For example, endosymbiotic and parasitic lifestyles can dramatically affect the genomic architectures of plant mitochondria and plastids. In this study, the organellar genomes of several green plants with atypical ...


Reducing Pollen Dispersal Using Forest Windbreaks, Carol Auer, Thomas Meyer, Vernie Sagun 2016 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Reducing Pollen Dispersal Using Forest Windbreaks, Carol Auer, Thomas Meyer, Vernie Sagun

Plant Science Articles

The adoption of genetically engineered (GE) crops has created a demand for practical methods to mitigate pollen dispersal and gene flow. The goal of this project was to measure the ability of a narrow forest windbreak to reduce downwind pollen fluxes from switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a North American grass and model biofuels feedstock. Switchgrass fields were established in two identical plots where one had a forest windbreak and the other was in an open (control) site. Switchgrass reproduction, pollen dispersal, wind speed, and wind direction were measured over two years. Daily release of switchgrass pollen peaked at 11:00-13 ...


Distribution Of Genomic Variation In The Usda Soybean Germplasm Collection And Relationship With Phenotypic Variation, Nonoy Batiller Bandillo 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Distribution Of Genomic Variation In The Usda Soybean Germplasm Collection And Relationship With Phenotypic Variation, Nonoy Batiller Bandillo

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection harbors a large stock of genetic diversity with potential to accelerate soybean cultivar development. The extent and nature of favorable alleles contained in the collection are not well known nor is the distribution of genetic variation and how it relates to phenotypic variation. The genotyping of the entire USDA Soybean Germplasm Collection marked the beginning of a systematic exploration of genetic diversity for genetic research and breeding. In this research, we conducted the first comprehensive analysis of population structure on the collection of ~14,400 soybean accessions [Glycine max (L.) Merr. and G. soja Siebold ...


Rna-Seq Based Analysis Of Population Structure Within The Maize Inbred B73, Zhikai Liang, James C. Schnable 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Rna-Seq Based Analysis Of Population Structure Within The Maize Inbred B73, Zhikai Liang, James C. Schnable

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Recent reports have shown than many identically named genetic lines used in research around the world actually contain large amounts of uncharacterized genetic variation as a result of cross contamination of stocks, unintentional crossing, residual heterozygosity within original stocks, or de novo mutation. 27 public, large scale, RNA-seq datasets from 20 independent research groups around the world were used to assess variation within the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) inbred B73, a four decade old variety which served as the reference genotype for the original maize genome sequencing project and is widely used in genetic, genomic, and phenotypic research. Several ...


Dawn Or Doom: The Risks And Rewards Of Emerging Technologies, Diana Hancock, Steve Tally, Gerry McCartney, Michele Arthur 2016 Purdue University

Dawn Or Doom: The Risks And Rewards Of Emerging Technologies, Diana Hancock, Steve Tally, Gerry Mccartney, Michele Arthur

Purdue P-12 Networking Summit & Poster Session

Dawn or Doom is a free and open to the public conference at Purdue where we focus on benefits and risks surrounding some of the technologies that are both the most disruptive to current practices and being adopted the fastest. A collection of Purdue faculty experts and some outside speakers showcase their many perspectives related to this technology explosion, explore conditions that will foster innovation and investment into the next generation, and address the big-picture issues where both optimism and pessimism are warranted.


Identification Of Candidate Genes Underlying An Iron Efficiency Quantitative Trait Locus In Soybean, Gregory A. Peiffer, Keith E. King, Andrew J. Severin, Gregory D. May, Silvia R. Cianzio, Shun Fu Lin, Nicholas C. Lauter, Randy C. Shoemaker 2016 Iowa State University

Identification Of Candidate Genes Underlying An Iron Efficiency Quantitative Trait Locus In Soybean, Gregory A. Peiffer, Keith E. King, Andrew J. Severin, Gregory D. May, Silvia R. Cianzio, Shun Fu Lin, Nicholas C. Lauter, Randy C. Shoemaker

Andrew Severin

Prevalent on calcareous soils in the United States and abroad, iron deficiency is among the most common and severe nutritional stresses in plants. In soybean (Glycine max) commercial plantings, the identification and use of iron-efficient genotypes has proven to be the best form of managing this soil-related plant stress. Previous studies conducted in soybean identified a significant iron efficiency quantitative trait locus (QTL) explaining more than 70% of the phenotypic variation for the trait. In this research, we identified candidate genes underlying this QTL through molecular breeding, mapping, and transcriptome sequencing. Introgression mapping was performed using two related near-isogenic lines ...


A Brief History Of Corn: Looking Back To Move Forward, Jon Derek Pruitt 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Brief History Of Corn: Looking Back To Move Forward, Jon Derek Pruitt

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

Maize was domesticated from teosinte in Mexico some 7,000 to 10,000 years ago and quickly spread through the Americas. It has become one of the most important crops at a local and global level. Two types, Northern Flint corn and Southern Dent corns provided the basis of the genetic background of modern maize hybrids. The development of hybrids, first double-cross and later single-cross hybrids, along with a transition to high input farming provided huge yield increases, which have continued to improve with improving technology.

Increase in maize production also caused a rise in Western corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera ...


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