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Transcriptome Response Of Cassava Leaves Under Natural Shade, Zehong Ding, Yang Zhang, Yi Xiao, Fangfang Liu, Minghui Wang, Xinguang Zhu, Peng Liu, Qi Sun, Wenquan Wang, Ming Peng, Tom Brutnell, Pinghua Li 2016 Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (CATAS), Haikou, Hainan

Transcriptome Response Of Cassava Leaves Under Natural Shade, Zehong Ding, Yang Zhang, Yi Xiao, Fangfang Liu, Minghui Wang, Xinguang Zhu, Peng Liu, Qi Sun, Wenquan Wang, Ming Peng, Tom Brutnell, Pinghua Li

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Cassava is an important staple crop in tropical and sub-tropical areas. As a common farming practice, cassava is usually cultivated intercropping with other crops and subjected to various degrees of shading, which causes reduced productivity. Herein, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on a series of developmental cassava leaves under both full sunlight and natural shade conditions. Gene expression profiles of these two conditions exhibited similar developmental transitions, e.g. genes related to cell wall and basic cellular metabolism were highly expressed in immature leaves, genes involved in lipid metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis were highly expressed during the transition stages ...


Nanocomposite Adhesive Of English Ivy (Hedera Helix): Bioproduction, Nanoparticle Isolation, And Molecular Analysis, Jason Neil Burris 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Nanocomposite Adhesive Of English Ivy (Hedera Helix): Bioproduction, Nanoparticle Isolation, And Molecular Analysis, Jason Neil Burris

Doctoral Dissertations

English ivy naturally produces organic nanoparticles from its adventitious root hairs, and possesses characteristics that may allow them to replace metal-based nanoparticles in common applications, such as sunscreen. At the onset of the research, it was hypothesized that a physical mechanism of attachment, similar to the gecko footpad, was used to generate the adhesive force for attachment; however, through the results obtained from recent work, it is clear that a biochemical mechanism is involved in the generation of the strength of adhesion. Therefore, the goal of this research was to provide a better understanding of the genetic basis of nanoparticle ...


Comparative Evolutionary Analysis Of Organellar Genomic Diversity In Green Plants, Weishu Fan 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Comparative Evolutionary Analysis Of Organellar Genomic Diversity In Green Plants, Weishu Fan

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) and plastid genome (plastome) of plants vary immensely in genome size and gene content. They have also developed several eccentric features, such as the preference for horizontal gene transfer of mitochondrial genes, the reduction of the plastome in non-photosynthetic plants, and variable amounts of RNA editing affecting both genomes. Different organismal lifestyles can partially account for the highly diverse organellar genomes across the tree of green plants. For example, endosymbiotic and parasitic lifestyles can dramatically affect the genomic architectures of plant mitochondria and plastids. In this study, the organellar genomes of several green plants with atypical ...


Reducing Pollen Dispersal Using Forest Windbreaks, Carol Auer, Thomas Meyer, Vernie Sagun 2016 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Reducing Pollen Dispersal Using Forest Windbreaks, Carol Auer, Thomas Meyer, Vernie Sagun

Plant Science Articles

The adoption of genetically engineered (GE) crops has created a demand for practical methods to mitigate pollen dispersal and gene flow. The goal of this project was to measure the ability of a narrow forest windbreak to reduce downwind pollen fluxes from switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a North American grass and model biofuels feedstock. Switchgrass fields were established in two identical plots where one had a forest windbreak and the other was in an open (control) site. Switchgrass reproduction, pollen dispersal, wind speed, and wind direction were measured over two years. Daily release of switchgrass pollen peaked at 11:00-13 ...


Rna-Seq Based Analysis Of Population Structure Within The Maize Inbred B73, Zhikai Liang, James C. Schnable 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Rna-Seq Based Analysis Of Population Structure Within The Maize Inbred B73, Zhikai Liang, James C. Schnable

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Recent reports have shown than many identically named genetic lines used in research around the world actually contain large amounts of uncharacterized genetic variation as a result of cross contamination of stocks, unintentional crossing, residual heterozygosity within original stocks, or de novo mutation. 27 public, large scale, RNA-seq datasets from 20 independent research groups around the world were used to assess variation within the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) inbred B73, a four decade old variety which served as the reference genotype for the original maize genome sequencing project and is widely used in genetic, genomic, and phenotypic research. Several ...


Dawn Or Doom: The Risks And Rewards Of Emerging Technologies, Diana Hancock, Steve Tally, Gerry McCartney, Michele Arthur 2016 Purdue University

Dawn Or Doom: The Risks And Rewards Of Emerging Technologies, Diana Hancock, Steve Tally, Gerry Mccartney, Michele Arthur

Purdue P-12 Networking Summit & Poster Session

Dawn or Doom is a free and open to the public conference at Purdue where we focus on benefits and risks surrounding some of the technologies that are both the most disruptive to current practices and being adopted the fastest. A collection of Purdue faculty experts and some outside speakers showcase their many perspectives related to this technology explosion, explore conditions that will foster innovation and investment into the next generation, and address the big-picture issues where both optimism and pessimism are warranted.


Identification Of Candidate Genes Underlying An Iron Efficiency Quantitative Trait Locus In Soybean, Gregory A. Peiffer, Keith E. King, Andrew J. Severin, Gregory D. May, Silvia R. Cianzio, Shun Fu Lin, Nicholas C. Lauter, Randy C. Shoemaker 2016 Iowa State University

Identification Of Candidate Genes Underlying An Iron Efficiency Quantitative Trait Locus In Soybean, Gregory A. Peiffer, Keith E. King, Andrew J. Severin, Gregory D. May, Silvia R. Cianzio, Shun Fu Lin, Nicholas C. Lauter, Randy C. Shoemaker

Andrew Severin

Prevalent on calcareous soils in the United States and abroad, iron deficiency is among the most common and severe nutritional stresses in plants. In soybean (Glycine max) commercial plantings, the identification and use of iron-efficient genotypes has proven to be the best form of managing this soil-related plant stress. Previous studies conducted in soybean identified a significant iron efficiency quantitative trait locus (QTL) explaining more than 70% of the phenotypic variation for the trait. In this research, we identified candidate genes underlying this QTL through molecular breeding, mapping, and transcriptome sequencing. Introgression mapping was performed using two related near-isogenic lines ...


A Brief History Of Corn: Looking Back To Move Forward, Jon Derek Pruitt 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Brief History Of Corn: Looking Back To Move Forward, Jon Derek Pruitt

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

Maize was domesticated from teosinte in Mexico some 7,000 to 10,000 years ago and quickly spread through the Americas. It has become one of the most important crops at a local and global level. Two types, Northern Flint corn and Southern Dent corns provided the basis of the genetic background of modern maize hybrids. The development of hybrids, first double-cross and later single-cross hybrids, along with a transition to high input farming provided huge yield increases, which have continued to improve with improving technology.

Increase in maize production also caused a rise in Western corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera ...


Maize Chromosome 1 Mapping Of Ac/Ds Induced Genome Rearrangements, Keaton Phillips 2016 Iowa State University

Maize Chromosome 1 Mapping Of Ac/Ds Induced Genome Rearrangements, Keaton Phillips

Honors Projects and Posters

The maize genome is dynamic with major structural differences between lines. In our line of interest structural rearrangements due to the Ac/Ds transposable element system lead to changes in kernel color. These phenotypes occur in individual kernels due to the activation or deactivation of pericarp color genes, P1 and P2. Using bioinformatics software like CoGe and Samtools along with previous sequencing data we compared our line of interest to major maize lines, B73 and w22, to find similarities and differences that could help explain phenotypic changes. While comparing and mapping our line of interest we did not find more ...


Is A Mitochondrial Plasmid Really A Virus?, Mackenzie Strehle 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Is A Mitochondrial Plasmid Really A Virus?, Mackenzie Strehle

UCARE Research Products

In addition to containing a large and complex mitochondrial genome, the mitochondria of several species of plants have been shown to contain an independent, self-replicating DNA molecule in the form of a plasmid. Plants in the Brassica genus contain a linear plasmid that is approximately 11.6 kilobases in length. The plasmid is characterized by the presence of terminal inverted repeats and covalently bonded proteins at its termini (Handa 2008). The plasmid also contains six ORFs that encode DNA and RNA polymerases and a number of unknown proteins (Figure 1). Currently, both the function of this plasmid and the mechanisms ...


Bio-Piracy: Creating Proprietary Rights In Plant Genetic Resources, James O. Odek 2016 University of Nairobi

Bio-Piracy: Creating Proprietary Rights In Plant Genetic Resources, James O. Odek

Journal of Intellectual Property Law

No abstract provided.


Molecular Evolution And Functional Divergence Of Trace Amine–Associated Receptors, Seong-il Eyun, Hideaki Moriyama, Federico G. Hoffmann, Etsuko Moriyama 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Molecular Evolution And Functional Divergence Of Trace Amine–Associated Receptors, Seong-Il Eyun, Hideaki Moriyama, Federico G. Hoffmann, Etsuko Moriyama

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Trace amine-associated receptors (TAARs) are a member of the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily and are known to be expressed in olfactory sensory neurons. A limited number of molecular evolutionary studies have been done for TAARs so far. To elucidate how lineage-specific evolution contributed to their functional divergence, we examined 30 metazoan genomes. In total, 493 TAAR gene candidates (including 84 pseudogenes) were identified from 26 vertebrate genomes. TAARs were not identified from non-vertebrate genomes. An ancestral-type TAAR-like gene appeared to have emerged in lamprey.We found four therian-specific TAAR subfamilies (one eutherian-specific and three metatherian- specific) in addition to previously known ...


Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops As Metabolic Engineering Platforms For Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production, Li-Hua Zhu, Frans Krens, Mark A. Smith, Xueyuan Li, Weicong Qi, Elbertus N. van Loo, Tim Iven, Ivo Feussner, Tara J. Nazarenus, Dongxin Huai, David C. Taylor, Xue-Rong Zhou, Allan G. Green, Jay Shockey, K. Thomas Klasson, Robert T. Mullen, Bangquan Huang, John M. Dyer, Edgar B. Cahoon 2016 Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Dedicated Industrial Oilseed Crops As Metabolic Engineering Platforms For Sustainable Industrial Feedstock Production, Li-Hua Zhu, Frans Krens, Mark A. Smith, Xueyuan Li, Weicong Qi, Elbertus N. Van Loo, Tim Iven, Ivo Feussner, Tara J. Nazarenus, Dongxin Huai, David C. Taylor, Xue-Rong Zhou, Allan G. Green, Jay Shockey, K. Thomas Klasson, Robert T. Mullen, Bangquan Huang, John M. Dyer, Edgar B. Cahoon

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant ...


Ginkgo And Welwitschia Mitogenomes Reveal Extreme Contrasts In Gymnosperm Mitochondrial Evolution, Wenhu Guo, Felix Grewe, Weishu Fan, Gregory J. Young, Volker Knoop, Jeffrey D. Palmer, Jeffrey P. Mower 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Ginkgo And Welwitschia Mitogenomes Reveal Extreme Contrasts In Gymnosperm Mitochondrial Evolution, Wenhu Guo, Felix Grewe, Weishu Fan, Gregory J. Young, Volker Knoop, Jeffrey D. Palmer, Jeffrey P. Mower

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of flowering plants are well known for their extreme diversity in size, structure, gene content, and rates of sequence evolution and recombination. In contrast, little is known about mitogenomic diversity and evolution within gymnosperms. Only a single complete genome sequence is available, from the cycad Cycas taitungensis, while limited information is available for the one draft sequence, from Norway spruce (Picea abies). To examine mitogenomic evolution in gymnosperms, we generated complete genome sequences for the ginkgo tree (Ginkgo biloba) and a gnetophyte (Welwitschia mirabilis). There is great disparity in size, sequence conservation, levels of shared DNA, and ...


The Regulatory Status Of Genome-Edited Crops, Jeffrey D. Wolt, Kan Wang, Bing Yang 2016 Iowa State University

The Regulatory Status Of Genome-Edited Crops, Jeffrey D. Wolt, Kan Wang, Bing Yang

Agronomy Publications

Genome editing with engineered nucleases (GEEN) represents a highly specific and efficient tool for crop improvement with the potential to rapidly generate useful novel phenotypes/traits. Genome editing techniques initiate specifically targeted double strand breaks facilitating DNA-repair pathways that lead to base additions or deletions by non-homologous end joining as well as targeted gene replacements or transgene insertions involving homology-directed repair mechanisms. Many of these techniques and the ancillary processes they employ generate phenotypic variation that is indistinguishable from that obtained through natural means or conventional mutagenesis; and therefore, they do not readily fit current definitions of genetically engineered or ...


Isolation And Characteristics Of New Grape Microsatellites, Kirsten Scott, L Lee, T Dow, Robert Henry 2016 Southern Cross University

Isolation And Characteristics Of New Grape Microsatellites, Kirsten Scott, L Lee, T Dow, Robert Henry

Dow Scott

No abstract provided.


A Bacterial Effector Co-Opts Calmodulin To Target The Plant Microtubule Network, Ming Guo, Panya Kim, Guangyong Li, Christian Elowsky, James R. Alfano 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Bacterial Effector Co-Opts Calmodulin To Target The Plant Microtubule Network, Ming Guo, Panya Kim, Guangyong Li, Christian Elowsky, James R. Alfano

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae depends on effector proteins secreted by its type III secretion system for the pathogenesis of plants. The majority of these effector proteins are known suppressors of immunity, but their plant targets remain elusive. Using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model host, we report that the HopE1 effector uses the host calcium sensor, calmodulin (CaM), as a co-factor to target the microtubule- associated protein 65 (MAP65), an important component of the microtubule network. HopE1 interacted with MAP65 in a CaMdependent manner, resulting in MAP65-GFP dissociation from microtubules. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing HopE1 had reduced secretion of the immunity ...


Sugar-Enhanced And Synergistic Sweet Corn Cultivar Evaluation For Northern Indiana, 2015, Elizabeth Maynard, Israel S. Calsoyas 2016 Purdue University - Main Campus

Sugar-Enhanced And Synergistic Sweet Corn Cultivar Evaluation For Northern Indiana, 2015, Elizabeth Maynard, Israel S. Calsoyas

Purdue Fruit and Vegetable Research Reports

This paper reports on seven bicolor and two yellow sugar-enhanced or synergistic sweet corn entries that were evaluated at the Pinney-Purdue Agricultural Center in Wanatah, Indiana.


Supersweet Sweet Corn Cultivar Evaluation For Northern Indiana, 2015, Elizabeth Maynard, Israel S. Calsoyas 2016 Purdue University - Main Campus

Supersweet Sweet Corn Cultivar Evaluation For Northern Indiana, 2015, Elizabeth Maynard, Israel S. Calsoyas

Purdue Fruit and Vegetable Research Reports

This paper reports on thirteen bicolor, two yellow, and three white supersweet sweet corn entries that were evaluated at the Pinney-Purdue Agricultural Center in Wanatah, Indiana.


Mini- And Heirloom Sweet Pepper Variety Performance In High Tunnels, 2015, Elizabeth Maynard, Israel S. Calsoyas 2016 Purdue University - Main Campus

Mini- And Heirloom Sweet Pepper Variety Performance In High Tunnels, 2015, Elizabeth Maynard, Israel S. Calsoyas

Purdue Fruit and Vegetable Research Reports

Trials on mini sweet peppers and other specialty sweet peppers in the Midwest have not recently been reported. We undertook this project to compare yield and fruit characteristics of hybrid and heirloom peppers grown in high tunnels using organic and conventional production methods.


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