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The Use Of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum) Suspension Cells For Rapid Screening Of Chloroplast Transformation Vectors, Lindsey Shover 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Use Of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum) Suspension Cells For Rapid Screening Of Chloroplast Transformation Vectors, Lindsey Shover

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Chloroplast genetic engineering is unique in that it allows for high levels of gene expression while providing a means of natural bio-confinement. Although the chloroplast genome sequence of over 800 plant species is known, the elements that naturally regulate chloroplast gene expression are poorly understood. Recently, our lab has developed a 264 part modular cloning kit that contains known chloroplast regulatory elements. This kit can be used for the construction of novel chloroplast transformation cassettes; however, functional testing of these cassettes is currently hindered by standard chloroplast transformation technologies. Therefore, the aim of this experiment was to develop a rapid ...


Identification And Characterization Of Salinity Tolerance Genes By Activation Tagging In Arabidopsis, Jawaher Alkahtani 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Identification And Characterization Of Salinity Tolerance Genes By Activation Tagging In Arabidopsis, Jawaher Alkahtani

Theses and Dissertations

Salinity often affects irrigated areas in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. The existence and accumulation of soluble salts in the soil layers limit the growth of crops essential for our food. Salt stress dramatically affects plant growth, plant development, as well as crop yield. Arabidopsis thaliana is the plant model that provides a comprehensive knowledge of plant development, genetics and physiology, and response to abiotic stresses such as salinity. The redundancy of genes due to duplication, even in the simple model genome of Arabidopsis, limits the value of knockout (KO) mutagenesis to provide complete information on gene function ...


A Genome Wide Association Study For Fusarium Head Blight Resistance In Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat, Amanda Holder 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Genome Wide Association Study For Fusarium Head Blight Resistance In Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat, Amanda Holder

Theses and Dissertations

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease of small grains caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. FHB poses potential economic losses and health risks due to the accumulation of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) on infected seed heads. The objectives of this study are: 1) evaluate soft red winter wheat (SRWW) lines for resistance to FHB in terms of resistance to initial inoculum (incidence); resistance to spread within the head (severity); resistance to DON accumulation; and resistance to Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK), 2) determine the frequency and effect of known FHB resistance genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL), and 3 ...


An Evaluation Of Breeding, Agronomic, And Processing Methodologies Of Vegetable Soybean (Edamame) To Increase Domestic Production In The United States Market, David Octor Moseley 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

An Evaluation Of Breeding, Agronomic, And Processing Methodologies Of Vegetable Soybean (Edamame) To Increase Domestic Production In The United States Market, David Octor Moseley

Theses and Dissertations

Edamame is a food-grade soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) that is either harvested immature (R6 stage) or after plant maturity (R8 stage). At R6, the premium product will have crescent- shaped large green pods and gray pubescence. At R8, the seed will either have stayed green or will have turned yellow, black, or brown. Edamame is a healthy snack with a sweet flavor and firm texture. The edamame market is growing in the United States, creating a need for more adapted varieties. The genetic diversity is low among adapted large-seeded breeding lines. Finding diverse accessions will help develop larger and ...


Genetic And Phytopathological Studies On Charcoal Rot Resistance In Soybean [Glycine Max (L) Merr.], Marcos Paulo da Silva 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Genetic And Phytopathological Studies On Charcoal Rot Resistance In Soybean [Glycine Max (L) Merr.], Marcos Paulo Da Silva

Theses and Dissertations

Charcoal rot of soybean (Glycine max (L.), caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is a disease of economic significance in the United States. The identification and quantification of the resistance is difficult, and very little is known about the genetics and markers linked to the charcoal rot (CR) resistance genes. Current assay methods can be time consuming, and data may vary between tests. The objectives of this study were to 1) create a robust seed plate assay (SPA) for CR resistance by comparing results with cut-stem and CFUI assays; 2) correlate and compare field data disease assessments with SPA; 3) identify QTLs ...


Testing The Potential Of Novel Grain Crop Cultivation In Rural Malawi During The Dry Season Through Irrigation And Soil Modification, Jessica Truman 2018 Brigham Young University

Testing The Potential Of Novel Grain Crop Cultivation In Rural Malawi During The Dry Season Through Irrigation And Soil Modification, Jessica Truman

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This research project studied the germination and growth rates of oat and quinoa crops in Mtalimanja, Malawi. This project was part of a larger effort by General Mills and Brigham Young University researchers to increase the diversity and nutrient content of crops in impoverished countries worldwide. It was conducted from May to August 2017 during Malawi’s dry season. Tetraploid oats and quinoa, both modified to increase the protein content of harvested grains, were planted under three different soil conditions: unamended soil, soil mixed with composted chicken litter, and soil with surface-applied granular fertilizer. The research plots were watered daily ...


Effect Of Cultivar And Type On Pepper Yield And Weight, Elizabeth 'Egan' Blessinger 2018 Western Kentucky University

Effect Of Cultivar And Type On Pepper Yield And Weight, Elizabeth 'Egan' Blessinger

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Peppers (Capsicum) are a valuable commodity throughout the world. They provide food, coloring additives, vitamins, and ornamental aesthetics. Peppers can be grown in many different areas of the world and their success is based on variety selection. Breeding cultivars for superior performance is critical to success. Recent consumer desire for less chemical use throughout the growing process has resulted in new cultivar developments..

The objective of this research was to investigate how cultivar and type affect the yield and weight of field grown peppers. This study provides valuable information for growers in determining which cultivars are suitable for production in ...


Effects Of Endophytic Entomopathogenic Fungi On Soybean Aphid And Identification Of Metarhizium Isolates From Agricultural Fields, Eric H. Clifton, Stefan T, Jaronski, Brad S. Coates, Erin W. Hodgson, Aaron J. Gassmann 2018 Iowa State University

Effects Of Endophytic Entomopathogenic Fungi On Soybean Aphid And Identification Of Metarhizium Isolates From Agricultural Fields, Eric H. Clifton, Stefan T, Jaronski, Brad S. Coates, Erin W. Hodgson, Aaron J. Gassmann

Entomology Publications

Terrestrial plants can harbor endophytic fungi that may induce changes in plant physiology that in turn affect interactions with herbivorous insects. We evaluated whether the application of entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum to soybean seeds could become endophytic and affect interactions with soybean aphid (Aphis glycinesMatsumura). It was found that A. glycines population sizes increased on plants with M. brunneum (strain F52) seed inoculum, but no significant effects were shown with analogous treatments with B. bassiana (strain GHA). Fungi recovered from soybean plant tissues indicate that endophytism was established, and that B. bassiana was more prevalent. Metarhizium ...


The Effect Of Two Planting Dates And Methods On Snap Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Production In A Tunnel House, Edward Sparks, Victor Khan, Ramble Ankumah, James E. Currington, Nathaniel Ellison, George X. Hunter Jr., Jeffery L. Moore 2018 Tuskegee University

The Effect Of Two Planting Dates And Methods On Snap Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris) Production In A Tunnel House, Edward Sparks, Victor Khan, Ramble Ankumah, James E. Currington, Nathaniel Ellison, George X. Hunter Jr., Jeffery L. Moore

Professional Agricultural Workers Journal

The study was conducted to evaluate the impact of two planting dates and methods on snap bean yields in a tunnel house. The main plots included planting dates March 17 and 31, 2016 for first and second plantings. The sub-plots consisted of planting Method 1 where one seed per hill was planted every 4” apart, and planting Method 2 where three seeds per hill were planted every 12” apart; each treatment combination was replicated four times. The results of the study showed that it took 55 days for the snap beans to be ready for harvest for both planting dates ...


Genome-Wide Association Studies Of Doubled Haploid Exotic Introgression Lines For Root System Architecture Traits In Maize (Zea Mays L.), Darlene L. Sanchez, Sisi Liu, Rania Ibrahim, Michael Blanco, Thomas Lubberstedt 2018 Iowa State University

Genome-Wide Association Studies Of Doubled Haploid Exotic Introgression Lines For Root System Architecture Traits In Maize (Zea Mays L.), Darlene L. Sanchez, Sisi Liu, Rania Ibrahim, Michael Blanco, Thomas Lubberstedt

Agronomy Publications

Root system architecture (RSA) is becoming recognized as important for water and nutrient acquisition in plants. This study focuses on finding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with seedling RSA traits from 300 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from crosses between Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) accessions and inbred lines PHB47 and PHZ51. These DH lines were genotyped using 62,077 SNP markers, while root and shoot phenotype data were collected from 14-day old seedlings. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were conducted using three models to offset false positives/negatives. Multiple SNPs associated with seedling root traits were detected, some of which ...


Mac3a And Mac3b, Two Core Subunits Of The Mos4-Associated Complex, Positively Influence Mirna Biogenesis, Shengjun Li, Kan Liu, Bangjun Zhou, Mu Li, Shuxin Zhang, Lirong Zeng, Chi Zhang, Bin Yu 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mac3a And Mac3b, Two Core Subunits Of The Mos4-Associated Complex, Positively Influence Mirna Biogenesis, Shengjun Li, Kan Liu, Bangjun Zhou, Mu Li, Shuxin Zhang, Lirong Zeng, Chi Zhang, Bin Yu

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

MAC3A and MAC3B are conserved U-box containing proteins in eukaryotes. They are subunits of the MOS4-associated complex (MAC) that plays essential roles in plant immunity and development in Arabidopsis. However, their functional mechanisms remain elusive. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana MAC3A and MAC3B act redundantly in microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis. Lack of both MAC3A and MAC3B in the mac3b mac3b double mutant reduces the accumulation of miRNAs, causing elevated transcript levels of miRNA targets. mac3a mac3b also decreases the levels of primary miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs). However, MAC3A and MAC3B do not affect the promoter activity of genes encoding miRNAs (MIR ...


Qtl Mapping In Three Connected Populations Reveals A Set Of Consensus Genomic Regions For Low Temperature Germination Ability In Zea Mays L., Xuhui Li, Guihua Wang, Junjie Fu, Li Li, Guangyao Jia, Lisha Ren, Thomas Lubberstedt, Guoying Wang, Jianhua Wang, Riliang Gu 2018 China Agricultural University

Qtl Mapping In Three Connected Populations Reveals A Set Of Consensus Genomic Regions For Low Temperature Germination Ability In Zea Mays L., Xuhui Li, Guihua Wang, Junjie Fu, Li Li, Guangyao Jia, Lisha Ren, Thomas Lubberstedt, Guoying Wang, Jianhua Wang, Riliang Gu

Agronomy Publications

Improving seed vigor in response to cold stress is an important breeding objective in maize that allows early sowing. Using two cold tolerant inbred lines 220 and P9-10 and two susceptible lines Y1518 and PH4CV, three connected F2:3 populations were generated for detecting quantitative trait locus (QTL) related to seed low-temperature germination ability. At 10°C, two germination traits (emergence rate and germination index) were collected from a sand bed and three seedling traits (seedling root length, shoot length, and total length) were extracted from paper rolls. Significant correlations were found among all traits in all populations. Via single-population ...


A Foxtail Mosaic Virus Vector For Virus-Induced Gene Silencing In Maize, Yu Mei, Chunquan Zhang, Bliss M. Kernodle, John H. Hill, Steven A. Whitham 2018 Iowa State University

A Foxtail Mosaic Virus Vector For Virus-Induced Gene Silencing In Maize, Yu Mei, Chunquan Zhang, Bliss M. Kernodle, John H. Hill, Steven A. Whitham

Steven Whitham

Plant viruses have been widely used as vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). A limited number of viruses have been developed into viral vectors for the purposes of gene expression or VIGS in monocotyledonous plants, and among these, the tripartite viruses Brome mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus have been shown to induce VIGS in maize (Zea mays). We describe here a new DNA-based VIGS system derived from Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV), a monopartite virus that is able to establish systemic infection and silencing of endogenous maize genes homologous to gene fragments inserted into the FoMV ...


Virus-Induced Gene Silencing And Transient Gene Expression In Soybean (Glycine Max) Using Bean Pod Mottle Virus Infectious Clones, Steven A. Whitham, Lori M. Lincoln, R. V. Chowda-Reddy, Jaime D. Dittman, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Michelle A. Graham 2018 Iowa State University

Virus-Induced Gene Silencing And Transient Gene Expression In Soybean (Glycine Max) Using Bean Pod Mottle Virus Infectious Clones, Steven A. Whitham, Lori M. Lincoln, R. V. Chowda-Reddy, Jaime D. Dittman, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Michelle A. Graham

Steven Whitham

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful and rapid approach for determining the functions of plant genes. The basis of VIGS is that a viral genome is engineered so that it can carry fragments of plant genes, typically in the 200 to 300 base pair size range. The recombinant viruses are used to infect experimental plants, and wherever the virus invades, the target gene or genes will be silenced. VIGS is thus transient, and in the span of a few weeks, it is possible to design VIGS constructs and then generate loss-of-function phenotypes through RNA silencing of the target genes ...


Soybean Functional Genomics: Bridging The Genotype-To-Phenotype Gap, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Michelle A. Graham, Steven A. Whitham 2018 United States Department of Agriculture

Soybean Functional Genomics: Bridging The Genotype-To-Phenotype Gap, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Michelle A. Graham, Steven A. Whitham

Steven Whitham

Technological advances coupled with the economic importance of soybean have led to increased efforts to understand gene function and associate genes with phenotypes of agronomic and fundamental interest. Functional genomics approaches aim to develop sufficient understanding needed to bridge the genotype-to-phenotype gap. In general terms, functional genomics approaches begin by using highly parallelized methods to analyze genomes, transcriptomes, proteomes, and metabolomes to generate hypotheses about genes that control phenotypes. Candidate genes are then tested for their contributions to phenotypes through various methods such as RNA silencing, genetic mutation, or overexpression. In this chapter, we review the current approaches, tools, and ...


Dynamic Transcriptome Profiling Of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (Bcmv) Infection In Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.), Kathleen Martin, Jugpreet Singh, John H. Hill, Steven A. Whitham, Steven B. Cannon 2018 Kansas State University

Dynamic Transcriptome Profiling Of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (Bcmv) Infection In Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.), Kathleen Martin, Jugpreet Singh, John H. Hill, Steven A. Whitham, Steven B. Cannon

Steven Whitham

Background

Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. The molecular responses in Phaseolus to BCMV infection have not yet been well characterized.

Results

We report the transcriptional responses of a widely susceptible variety of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivar ‘Stringless green refugee’) to two BCMV strains, in a time-course experiment. We also report the genome sequence of a previously unreported BCMV strain. The interaction with ...


Functions Of Maize Genes Encoding Pyruvate Phosphate Dikinase In Developing Endosperm, Ryan R. Lappe, John W. Baier, Susan K. Boehlein, Ryan Huffman, Qiaohui Lin, Fabrice Wattebled, A. Mark Settles, L. Curtis Hannah, Ljudmilla Borisjuk, Hardy Rolletschek, Jon D. Stewart, M. Paul Scott, Tracie A. Hennen-Bierwagen, Alan M. Myers 2018 Iowa State University

Functions Of Maize Genes Encoding Pyruvate Phosphate Dikinase In Developing Endosperm, Ryan R. Lappe, John W. Baier, Susan K. Boehlein, Ryan Huffman, Qiaohui Lin, Fabrice Wattebled, A. Mark Settles, L. Curtis Hannah, Ljudmilla Borisjuk, Hardy Rolletschek, Jon D. Stewart, M. Paul Scott, Tracie A. Hennen-Bierwagen, Alan M. Myers

Agronomy Publications

Maize opaque2 (o2) mutations are beneficial for endosperm nutritional quality but cause negative pleiotropic effects for reasons that are not fully understood. Direct targets of the bZIP transcriptional regulator encoded by o2 include pdk1 and pdk2 that specify pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK). This enzyme reversibly converts AMP, pyrophosphate, and phosphoenolpyruvate to ATP, orthophosphate, and pyruvate and provides diverse functions in plants. This study addressed PPDK function in maize starchy endosperm where it is highly abundant during grain fill. pdk1 and pdk2 were inactivated individually by transposon insertions, and both genes were simultaneously targeted by endosperm-specific RNAi. pdk2 accounts for the ...


Tomato Cultivar Evaluation In High Tunnels, Northern Indiana, 2017, Elizabeth Maynard, Erin A. Bluhm 2018 Purdue University - Main Campus

Tomato Cultivar Evaluation In High Tunnels, Northern Indiana, 2017, Elizabeth Maynard, Erin A. Bluhm

Purdue Fruit and Vegetable Research Reports

Tomatoes are a common crop grown in unheated greenhouses, commonly called high tunnels. Production in these structures has increased in recent years. This trial was conducted to evaluate varieties for their performance as a summer-harvested crop in soil-based high tunnel production systems. Five hybrid determinate varieties or line, one hybrid indeterminate, and one open-pollinated indeterminate variety were compared for yield, earliness, fruit size, and quality.


Sugar-Enhanced And Synergistic Sweet Corn Cultivar Evaluation For Northern Indiana, 2017, Elizabeth Maynard, Erin A. Bluhm 2018 Purdue University - Main Campus

Sugar-Enhanced And Synergistic Sweet Corn Cultivar Evaluation For Northern Indiana, 2017, Elizabeth Maynard, Erin A. Bluhm

Purdue Fruit and Vegetable Research Reports

This paper reports on six bicolor sugar-enhanced or synergistic sweet corn entries that were evaluated at the Pinney-Purdue Agricultural Center in Wanatah, Indiana.


Supersweet Sweet Corn Cultivar Evaluation For Northern Indiana, 2017, Elizabeth Maynard, Erin A. Bluhm 2018 Purdue University - Main Campus

Supersweet Sweet Corn Cultivar Evaluation For Northern Indiana, 2017, Elizabeth Maynard, Erin A. Bluhm

Purdue Fruit and Vegetable Research Reports

This paper reports on fifteen bicolor, two yellow, and two white supersweet sweet corn entries that were evaluated at the Pinney-Purdue Agricultural Center in Wanatah, Indiana.


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