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Evaluation Of Genetic Gain For Dynamic Leaf Traits In Maize Using Field Spectroscopy, Jonathan Luetchens 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evaluation Of Genetic Gain For Dynamic Leaf Traits In Maize Using Field Spectroscopy, Jonathan Luetchens

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Rapid introduction of cheap and precise genotyping technology has created a void between genotypes and phenotypes in maize breeding. While detailed genetic information is easily accessible, the data are lacking robust phenotypes to be used in mapping studies like genome-wide association. As a result, high-throughput phenotyping tools are necessary to rigorously characterize specific traits. In this study, agronomic traits and an active spectrometer system were used to monitor 36 era hybrids – popular commercial maize hybrids grown from 1936 to 2012 – to discover how various traits have changed over time. In conjunction with increased grain yield of 76 kg/ha per ...


Molecular Breeding Strategies For Improvement Of Complex Traits In Soybean, Christopher Joseph Smallwood 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Molecular Breeding Strategies For Improvement Of Complex Traits In Soybean, Christopher Joseph Smallwood

Doctoral Dissertations

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] is the leading oilseed crop grown in the world. Yield, fatty acids, protein, and oil are commercially important soybean traits; thus evaluation of breeding strategies for improvement of these traits is merited. To accomplish this, a comparison of molecular and phenotypic breeding strategies from progeny row selections was performed. From this it was determined that molecular strategies consistently outperformed phenotypic selections (PS) in the progeny row stage for soybean yield, fatty acids, protein, and oil. For yield, Epistacy was the preferred selection method. For fatty acids, protein, and oil, the genomic selection (GS) strategies were ...


Interactions Among Insect Defoliation, Insecticide Treatments, And Growth Rate In American And Hybrid Chestnuts, Ashley Elizabeth Case 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Interactions Among Insect Defoliation, Insecticide Treatments, And Growth Rate In American And Hybrid Chestnuts, Ashley Elizabeth Case

Masters Theses

The American chestnut, Castanea dentata, was once one of the most useful and abundant canopy trees in eastern North American forests. Over the last 200 years, the species has been decimated by two exotic pathogens, Phytophthora cinnamomi and Cryphonectria parasitica, killing millions of trees and reducing surviving Castanea dentata to short-lived sprouts. Cryphonectria parasitica-resistance breeding programs are currently producing advanced backcross generations, which are being compared with pure American chestnut in field tests of growth performance and Cryphonectria parasitica resistance. The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus, has been identified as a common defoliator of chestnut seedlings in these tests ...


Comparison Of Seed Yield, Oil And Phenotypic Traits Among Selected Parents And Crosses Of Niger, Victoria Grace Benelli 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Comparison Of Seed Yield, Oil And Phenotypic Traits Among Selected Parents And Crosses Of Niger, Victoria Grace Benelli

Masters Theses

Niger (Guizotia abyssinica (L.f) Cass.) is primarily marketed as favorite seed among American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis) as well as pine siskin, redpoll, house finches, and ground feeding birds like quail and dove. As a part of a balanced diet, it is crucial for these species to consume a higher percentage of fats than other bird species. Fourteen niger accessions of Indian, Ethiopian, and American origin were obtained from USDA/ ARS germplasm collection at Pullman, WA and planted in August 2012 at the East Tennessee Research & Education Center. Five of these accessions were crossed to form different populations that were ...


Biochemical And Proteomic Profiling Of Maize Endosperm Texture And Protein Quality, Kyla J. Morton 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Biochemical And Proteomic Profiling Of Maize Endosperm Texture And Protein Quality, Kyla J. Morton

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The research described herein, focuses on the biochemical and proteomic analysis of the maize endosperm and what influences kernel texture. Quality Protein Maize (QPM) is a hard endosperm version of the high-lysine opaque2 (o2) mutant but the genes involved in modifying the soft o2 endosperm are unknown. Pyrophosphate (PPi)-dependent fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFP) catalyzes the ATP-independent conversion of fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate in glycolysis. We found a large increase in transcript and protein levels of the alpha regulatory subunit of PFP (PFPα) in QPM endosperm. In vitro enzyme assays show a significant increase in forward PFP activity ...


Genetic Diversity Of Miscanthus In The Us Naturalized Populations Based On Molecular Marker, Suma Basak 2015 Tuskegee University

Genetic Diversity Of Miscanthus In The Us Naturalized Populations Based On Molecular Marker, Suma Basak

College of Agriculture, Environment and Nutrition Sciences Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Miscanthus is a fast growing bioenergy grass, tolerant of adverse conditions and has high biomass production, and is increasingly attractive as a potential source of cellulosic ethanol. An understanding of genetic variation in naturalized populations of Miscanthus in the US may help in selecting appropriate parents for breeding superior cultivars that are adapted in the wide-ranging and changing environments. The molecular marker analysis of Miscanthus is an important tool towards the genetic improvement program of this bioenergy grass. As sugarcane is closely related to Miscanthus, we employed its DNA markers as probes to explore genetic diversity within and among ...


Diallel Analysis Of Biomass And Ethanol Yield In Leaves Versus Stems Of Lowland Switchgrass, Alexandria Christina Desantis 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Diallel Analysis Of Biomass And Ethanol Yield In Leaves Versus Stems Of Lowland Switchgrass, Alexandria Christina Desantis

Masters Theses

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm season perennial grass used widely as a forage crop. This research seeks to address improving biomass yield and predicted ethanol yield through certain traits by the following objectives: (1) differences in average biomass and predicted ethanol yields from leaves versus stems, (2) genetic variance and heritability estimates of biomass and ethanol yield traits (3) general (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) among the five parents for biomass and ethanol yield, and (4) correlations between agronomic and morphological traits. Five parents with varying morphological traits were crossed in a diallel design, excluding selfs. Clonal ...


Differences In Beta Diversity Between Exotic And Native Grasslands Vary With Scale Along A Latitudinal Gradient, Leanne M. Martin, Brian J. Wilsey 2015 Iowa State University

Differences In Beta Diversity Between Exotic And Native Grasslands Vary With Scale Along A Latitudinal Gradient, Leanne M. Martin, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Biodiversity can be partitioned into alpha, beta, and gamma components, and beta diversity is not as clearly understood. Biotic homogenization predicts that exotic species should lower beta diversity at global and continental scales, but it is still unclear how exotic species impact beta diversity at smaller scales. Exotic species could theoretically increase or decrease beta diversity relative to natives depending on many factors, including abiotic conditions, community assembly history, management, dispersal rates of species, and connectivity among patches. We sampled plant species abundances in 42 novel, exotic- and native-dominated (remnant) grasslands across a latitudinal gradient in the tallgrass prairie region ...


Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Iron Chelates In Managing Iron Deficiency Chlorosis In Grain Sorghum, A. Obour, R. Perumal 2015 Kansas State University

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Iron Chelates In Managing Iron Deficiency Chlorosis In Grain Sorghum, A. Obour, R. Perumal

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Grain sorghum production in alkaline or calcareous soils is frequently affected by iron (Fe) chlorosis. Soil conditions such as high pH, high free calcium carbonate (lime), and low organic matter favor development of iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC), which can delay crop maturity and reduce yields. Two field experiments were conducted in the summer of 2014 to determine the effectiveness of Fe chelate application in alleviating IDC in grain sorghum. Treatments in the first study were four Fe chelate application rates (0, 3, 6, and 9 lb/a) applied either in-furrow with the seed at the time of planting or 2 ...


Sugar-Enhanced And Synergistic Sweet Corn Cultivar Evaluation For Northern Indiana, 2014, Elizabeth Maynard 2015 Purdue University - Main Campus

Sugar-Enhanced And Synergistic Sweet Corn Cultivar Evaluation For Northern Indiana, 2014, Elizabeth Maynard

Purdue Fruit and Vegetable Research Reports

Indiana sweet corn acreage harvested for fresh market averaged 5,233 acres annually from 2011- 2013, with a yield of 63 hundredweight per acre (149 crates or 3.1 tons per acre) and an annual value of $13.9 million (USDA NASS, 2014).

Sweet corn fields for fresh market sales are located throughout the state. In northern Indiana, bicolor corn is most commonly grown. Varieties with improved eating quality are of interest to both producers and consumers. Producers are also interested in yield, ear size, appearance, and agronomic characteristics.

This paper reports on nine bicolor and one yellow sugar-enhanced or ...


Supersweet Sweet Corn Cultivar Evaluation For Northern Indiana, 2014, Elizabeth Maynard 2015 Purdue University - Main Campus

Supersweet Sweet Corn Cultivar Evaluation For Northern Indiana, 2014, Elizabeth Maynard

Purdue Fruit and Vegetable Research Reports

Indiana sweet corn acreage harvested for fresh market averaged 5,233 acres annually from 2011- 2013, with a yield of 63 hundreweight per acre (149 crates or 3.1 tons per acre) and an annual value of $13.9 million (USDA NASS, 2014). Sweet corn fields for fresh market sales are located throughout the state. In northern Indiana, bicolor corn is most commonly grown.

Varieties with improved eating quality are of interest to both producers and consumers. The term ‘supersweet’ commonly refers to sweet corn with two copies of the shrunken-2 (sh2) gene that have high levels of sugar in ...


Midwest Vegetable Trial Report For 2014, Elizabeth Maynard 2015 Purdue University - Main Campus

Midwest Vegetable Trial Report For 2014, Elizabeth Maynard

Purdue Fruit and Vegetable Research Reports

This is a compilation of 30 research trial reports from seven land-grant universities in the midwestern and northeastern United States. Crops covered include Asian vegetables (Napa cabbage, pak choy or bok choi, mizuna, tatsoi, Yukina savoy, komatsuna, senposai, and Tokyo bekana) broccoli, cantaloupe, cucumber, kohlrabi, pepper, potato, pumpkin, radish, sweet corn, tomato, and watermelon. Several crops were evaluated in high tunnels or hoophouses. Most trials compared different cultivars or varieties. Four reports addressed specific growing practices: the use of hairy vetch to supply nitrogen, biochar use in a high tunnel bag culture system, effects of organic soil amendments, and scion-rootstock ...


Selection And Basis For 2,4-D (2,4-Dicholorphenoxyacetic Acid) Tolerance In Red Clover (Trifolium Pratense), Tara L. B. Lewis 2015 University of Kentucky

Selection And Basis For 2,4-D (2,4-Dicholorphenoxyacetic Acid) Tolerance In Red Clover (Trifolium Pratense), Tara L. B. Lewis

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

A red clover (Trifolium pratense) population (UK), from a cross between the cultivar Kenland and a 2,4-D tolerant population (Florida), was recurrently selected for 2,4-D tolerance with evaluations after the 6th, 7th, and 8th selection cycles. All UK populations were more 2,4-D tolerant than Kenland. The 2,4-D tolerance following the 6th selection cycle was similar to the Florida population and tolerance was increased following 7 and 8 cycles of selection by removing plants showing 2,4-D injury and doubling the rate of 2,4-D used for selection.

Yield and forage quality were ...


Integrating Sheep Grazing Into Cereal-Based Crop Rotations: Spring Wheat Yields And Weed Communities, Zach J. Miller, Fabian D. Menalled, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Patrick G. Hatfield 2015 Montana State University

Integrating Sheep Grazing Into Cereal-Based Crop Rotations: Spring Wheat Yields And Weed Communities, Zach J. Miller, Fabian D. Menalled, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Patrick G. Hatfield

Agronomy Publications

Crop diversification and integration of livestock into cropping systems may improve the economic and environmental sustainability of agricultural systems. However, few studies have examined the integration of these practices in the semiarid areas of the Northern Great Plains (NGP). A 3-yr experiment was conducted near Bozeman, MT, to compare the effects of crop rotation diversity and weed management practices imposed during fallow periods [sheep (Ovis aries) grazing, reduced tillage, and conventional tillage] on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yields and weed pressure. Management treatments were applied to replicated whole plots, within which the split-plots received crop rotation treatments [continuous spring ...


Management And Tillage Infl Uence Barley Forage Productivity And Water Use In Dryland Cropping Systems, Andrew W. Lenssen, U. M. Sainju, J. D. Jabro, B. L. Allen, R. G. Evans 2015 Iowa State University

Management And Tillage Infl Uence Barley Forage Productivity And Water Use In Dryland Cropping Systems, Andrew W. Lenssen, U. M. Sainju, J. D. Jabro, B. L. Allen, R. G. Evans

Agronomy Publications

Annual cereal forages are resilient in water use (WU), water use efficiency (WUE), and weed control compared with grain crops in dryland systems. The combined influence of tillage and management systems on annual cereal forage productivity and WU is not well documented. We conducted a field study for the effects of tillage (no-till and tilled) and management (ecological and conventional) systems on WU and performance of forage barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and weed biomass in two crop rotations (wheat [Triticum aestivum L.]–forage barley–pea [Pisum sativum L.] and wheat–forage barley–corn [Zea mays L.] –pea) from 2004 to ...


Generation Of An Attenuated, Cross-Protective Pepino Mosaic Virus Variant Through Alignment-Guided Mutagenesis Of The Viral Capsid Protein, Godwill M. Chewachong, Sally A. Miller, Joshua J. Blakeslee, David M. Francis, T. Jack Morris, Feng Qu 2015 Ohio State University

Generation Of An Attenuated, Cross-Protective Pepino Mosaic Virus Variant Through Alignment-Guided Mutagenesis Of The Viral Capsid Protein, Godwill M. Chewachong, Sally A. Miller, Joshua J. Blakeslee, David M. Francis, T. Jack Morris, Feng Qu

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Mild variants of many viruses are able to protect infected plants from subsequent invasion by more severe variants of the same viruses through a process known as cross-protection. In the past, the cross-protective viral variants were commonly derived from mild field isolates that were sometimes genetically heterogeneous, providing variable levels of crossprotection. Here, we report a novel approach to rapidly generate crossprotective variants of the tomato-infecting Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) independently of the availability of mild field isolates. Our approach sought to attenuate PepMV by mutating less conserved amino acid residues of the abundantly produced capsid protein (CP). These less-conserved ...


Examining Vegetative Growth Of Cool-Season Forage Grasses For Dairy Cattle Grazing Preference, Eric D. Billman 2015 University of Kentucky

Examining Vegetative Growth Of Cool-Season Forage Grasses For Dairy Cattle Grazing Preference, Eric D. Billman

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

The objective of this study was to determine dairy cattle preference amongst four species of cool-season forage grasses: eight orchardgrasses (Dactylis glomerata L.), five tall fescues [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort.], five perennial ryegrasses (Lolium perenne L.), and six festuloliums [xFestulolium braunii (K. Richt.) A. Camus.]; 24 cultivars in total. Each grazing trial utilized four Holstein-Friesian heifers over six hours. Maturity differences were eliminated by having animals graze only vegetative material. After six grazing trials (three each in 2014 and 2015), consistent results in animal preference were not found; three of the six trials did show preference (P


Breeding For Nitrogen Use Efficiency In Soft Red Winter Wheat, Katlyn Hitz 2015 University of Kentucky

Breeding For Nitrogen Use Efficiency In Soft Red Winter Wheat, Katlyn Hitz

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Nitrogen use efficient (NUE) wheat varieties have potential to reduce input costs for growers, limit N runoff into water ways, and increase wheat adaptability to warmer environments. Previous studies have done little to explain the genetic basis for NUE and components, nitrogen uptake efficiency (NUpE) and nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUtE). Four studies were conducted to 1) determine genotypic stability of NUE under high and low N regimes and under warming 2) determine effect of warming on NUE 3) indentify QTL associated with NUE components 4) assess the utility of canopy spectral reflectance (CSR) as a high-throughput phenotyping device for NUE ...


2015 Spring Seed Guide, Teshome Regassa, Charles Shapiro 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

2015 Spring Seed Guide, Teshome Regassa, Charles Shapiro

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

NEBRASKA CORN HYBRID TESTS CROP PRODUCTION SUMMARY: According to the National Agricultural Statistics Service, there were 8.75 million acres of corn harvested in Nebraska in 2014 producing approximately 1.58 billion bushels of grain. The total average corn yield for Nebraska in 2014 was a record 181 bushels per acre (bu/a). Total corn yields from the previous 10 years are reported below.

NEBRASKA SOYBEAN VARIETY TESTS - 2014 - CROP PRODUCTION SUMMARY: According to the National Agricultural Statistics Service, there were 5.4 million acres of soybeans planted in Nebraska in 2014. 5.35 million acres were harvested producing around ...


Assessing The Genetic Diversity Of The Genus Viburnum Using Simple Sequence Repeats, Deborah Dean 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Assessing The Genetic Diversity Of The Genus Viburnum Using Simple Sequence Repeats, Deborah Dean

Doctoral Dissertations

The genus Viburnum was established in 1753 by Linnaeus and is the largest genus in the Adoxaceae and consists of approximately 160 species. Viburnum species are small trees which grow throughout the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere (Hoch, 1995). While this genus shares little variety in fruit and flower morphology, it is diverse in many other traits. As molecular studies advance, this large genus continues to undergo reclassification. Here three SSR libraries were constructed to discern additional molecular insight into this vast genus.

Microsatellite markers were developed to characterize Viburnum on several different levels. V. dilatatum is an introduced ...


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