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Biochemical And Proteomic Profiling Of Maize Endosperm Texture And Protein Quality, Kyla J. Morton 2015 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Biochemical And Proteomic Profiling Of Maize Endosperm Texture And Protein Quality, Kyla J. Morton

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

The research described herein, focuses on the biochemical and proteomic analysis of the maize endosperm and what influences kernel texture. Quality Protein Maize (QPM) is a hard endosperm version of the high-lysine opaque2 (o2) mutant but the genes involved in modifying the soft o2 endosperm are unknown. Pyrophosphate (PPi)-dependent fructose 6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFP) catalyzes the ATP-independent conversion of fructose 6-phosphate to fructose 1, 6-bisphosphate in glycolysis. We found a large increase in transcript and protein levels of the alpha regulatory subunit of PFP (PFPα) in QPM endosperm. In vitro enzyme assays show a significant increase in forward PFP activity ...


Genetic Diversity Of Miscanthus In The Us Naturalized Populations Based On Molecular Marker, Suma Basak 2015 Tuskegee University

Genetic Diversity Of Miscanthus In The Us Naturalized Populations Based On Molecular Marker, Suma Basak

College of Agriculture, Environment and Nutrition Sciences Graduate Theses and Dissertations

ABSTRACT

Miscanthus is a fast growing bioenergy grass, tolerant of adverse conditions and has high biomass production, and is increasingly attractive as a potential source of cellulosic ethanol. An understanding of genetic variation in naturalized populations of Miscanthus in the US may help in selecting appropriate parents for breeding superior cultivars that are adapted in the wide-ranging and changing environments. The molecular marker analysis of Miscanthus is an important tool towards the genetic improvement program of this bioenergy grass. As sugarcane is closely related to Miscanthus, we employed its DNA markers as probes to explore genetic diversity within and among ...


Diallel Analysis Of Biomass And Ethanol Yield In Leaves Versus Stems Of Lowland Switchgrass, Alexandria Christina Desantis 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Diallel Analysis Of Biomass And Ethanol Yield In Leaves Versus Stems Of Lowland Switchgrass, Alexandria Christina Desantis

Masters Theses

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a warm season perennial grass used widely as a forage crop. This research seeks to address improving biomass yield and predicted ethanol yield through certain traits by the following objectives: (1) differences in average biomass and predicted ethanol yields from leaves versus stems, (2) genetic variance and heritability estimates of biomass and ethanol yield traits (3) general (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) among the five parents for biomass and ethanol yield, and (4) correlations between agronomic and morphological traits. Five parents with varying morphological traits were crossed in a diallel design, excluding selfs. Clonal ...


Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Iron Chelates In Managing Iron Deficiency Chlorosis In Grain Sorghum, A. Obour, R. Perumal 2015 Kansas State University

Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Iron Chelates In Managing Iron Deficiency Chlorosis In Grain Sorghum, A. Obour, R. Perumal

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Grain sorghum production in alkaline or calcareous soils is frequently affected by iron (Fe) chlorosis. Soil conditions such as high pH, high free calcium carbonate (lime), and low organic matter favor development of iron deficiency chlorosis (IDC), which can delay crop maturity and reduce yields. Two field experiments were conducted in the summer of 2014 to determine the effectiveness of Fe chelate application in alleviating IDC in grain sorghum. Treatments in the first study were four Fe chelate application rates (0, 3, 6, and 9 lb/a) applied either in-furrow with the seed at the time of planting or 2 ...


Selection And Basis For 2,4-D (2,4-Dicholorphenoxyacetic Acid) Tolerance In Red Clover (Trifolium Pratense), Tara L. B. Lewis 2015 University of Kentucky

Selection And Basis For 2,4-D (2,4-Dicholorphenoxyacetic Acid) Tolerance In Red Clover (Trifolium Pratense), Tara L. B. Lewis

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

A red clover (Trifolium pratense) population (UK), from a cross between the cultivar Kenland and a 2,4-D tolerant population (Florida), was recurrently selected for 2,4-D tolerance with evaluations after the 6th, 7th, and 8th selection cycles. All UK populations were more 2,4-D tolerant than Kenland. The 2,4-D tolerance following the 6th selection cycle was similar to the Florida population and tolerance was increased following 7 and 8 cycles of selection by removing plants showing 2,4-D injury and doubling the rate of 2,4-D used for selection.

Yield and forage quality were ...


Breeding For Nitrogen Use Efficiency In Soft Red Winter Wheat, Katlyn Hitz 2015 University of Kentucky

Breeding For Nitrogen Use Efficiency In Soft Red Winter Wheat, Katlyn Hitz

Theses and Dissertations--Plant and Soil Sciences

Nitrogen use efficient (NUE) wheat varieties have potential to reduce input costs for growers, limit N runoff into water ways, and increase wheat adaptability to warmer environments. Previous studies have done little to explain the genetic basis for NUE and components, nitrogen uptake efficiency (NUpE) and nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUtE). Four studies were conducted to 1) determine genotypic stability of NUE under high and low N regimes and under warming 2) determine effect of warming on NUE 3) indentify QTL associated with NUE components 4) assess the utility of canopy spectral reflectance (CSR) as a high-throughput phenotyping device for NUE ...


Integrating Sheep Grazing Into Cereal-Based Crop Rotations: Spring Wheat Yields And Weed Communities, Zach J. Miller, Fabian D. Menalled, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Patrick G. Hatfield 2015 Montana State University

Integrating Sheep Grazing Into Cereal-Based Crop Rotations: Spring Wheat Yields And Weed Communities, Zach J. Miller, Fabian D. Menalled, Upendra M. Sainju, Andrew W. Lenssen, Patrick G. Hatfield

Agronomy Publications and Papers

Crop diversification and integration of livestock into cropping systems may improve the economic and environmental sustainability of agricultural systems. However, few studies have examined the integration of these practices in the semiarid areas of the Northern Great Plains (NGP). A 3-yr experiment was conducted near Bozeman, MT, to compare the effects of crop rotation diversity and weed management practices imposed during fallow periods [sheep (Ovis aries) grazing, reduced tillage, and conventional tillage] on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yields and weed pressure. Management treatments were applied to replicated whole plots, within which the split-plots received crop rotation treatments [continuous spring ...


Management And Tillage Infl Uence Barley Forage Productivity And Water Use In Dryland Cropping Systems, Andrew W. Lenssen, U. M. Sainju, J. D. Jabro, B. L. Allen, R. G. Evans 2015 Iowa State University

Management And Tillage Infl Uence Barley Forage Productivity And Water Use In Dryland Cropping Systems, Andrew W. Lenssen, U. M. Sainju, J. D. Jabro, B. L. Allen, R. G. Evans

Agronomy Publications and Papers

Annual cereal forages are resilient in water use (WU), water use efficiency (WUE), and weed control compared with grain crops in dryland systems. The combined influence of tillage and management systems on annual cereal forage productivity and WU is not well documented. We conducted a field study for the effects of tillage (no-till and tilled) and management (ecological and conventional) systems on WU and performance of forage barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and weed biomass in two crop rotations (wheat [Triticum aestivum L.]–forage barley–pea [Pisum sativum L.] and wheat–forage barley–corn [Zea mays L.] –pea) from 2004 to ...


Sugar-Enhanced And Synergistic Sweet Corn Cultivar Evaluation For Northern Indiana, 2014, Elizabeth Maynard 2015 Purdue University - Main Campus

Sugar-Enhanced And Synergistic Sweet Corn Cultivar Evaluation For Northern Indiana, 2014, Elizabeth Maynard

Purdue Fruit and Vegetable Research Reports

Indiana sweet corn acreage harvested for fresh market averaged 5,233 acres annually from 2011- 2013, with a yield of 63 hundredweight per acre (149 crates or 3.1 tons per acre) and an annual value of $13.9 million (USDA NASS, 2014).

Sweet corn fields for fresh market sales are located throughout the state. In northern Indiana, bicolor corn is most commonly grown. Varieties with improved eating quality are of interest to both producers and consumers. Producers are also interested in yield, ear size, appearance, and agronomic characteristics.

This paper reports on nine bicolor and one yellow sugar-enhanced or ...


Supersweet Sweet Corn Cultivar Evaluation For Northern Indiana, 2014, Elizabeth Maynard 2015 Purdue University - Main Campus

Supersweet Sweet Corn Cultivar Evaluation For Northern Indiana, 2014, Elizabeth Maynard

Purdue Fruit and Vegetable Research Reports

Indiana sweet corn acreage harvested for fresh market averaged 5,233 acres annually from 2011- 2013, with a yield of 63 hundreweight per acre (149 crates or 3.1 tons per acre) and an annual value of $13.9 million (USDA NASS, 2014). Sweet corn fields for fresh market sales are located throughout the state. In northern Indiana, bicolor corn is most commonly grown.

Varieties with improved eating quality are of interest to both producers and consumers. The term ‘supersweet’ commonly refers to sweet corn with two copies of the shrunken-2 (sh2) gene that have high levels of sugar in ...


Midwest Vegetable Trial Report For 2014, Elizabeth Maynard 2015 Purdue University - Main Campus

Midwest Vegetable Trial Report For 2014, Elizabeth Maynard

Purdue Fruit and Vegetable Research Reports

This is a compilation of 30 research trial reports from seven land-grant universities in the midwestern and northeastern United States. Crops covered include Asian vegetables (Napa cabbage, pak choy or bok choi, mizuna, tatsoi, Yukina savoy, komatsuna, senposai, and Tokyo bekana) broccoli, cantaloupe, cucumber, kohlrabi, pepper, potato, pumpkin, radish, sweet corn, tomato, and watermelon. Several crops were evaluated in high tunnels or hoophouses. Most trials compared different cultivars or varieties. Four reports addressed specific growing practices: the use of hairy vetch to supply nitrogen, biochar use in a high tunnel bag culture system, effects of organic soil amendments, and scion-rootstock ...


Assessing The Genetic Diversity Of The Genus Viburnum Using Simple Sequence Repeats, Deborah Dean 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Assessing The Genetic Diversity Of The Genus Viburnum Using Simple Sequence Repeats, Deborah Dean

Doctoral Dissertations

The genus Viburnum was established in 1753 by Linnaeus and is the largest genus in the Adoxaceae and consists of approximately 160 species. Viburnum species are small trees which grow throughout the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere (Hoch, 1995). While this genus shares little variety in fruit and flower morphology, it is diverse in many other traits. As molecular studies advance, this large genus continues to undergo reclassification. Here three SSR libraries were constructed to discern additional molecular insight into this vast genus.

Microsatellite markers were developed to characterize Viburnum on several different levels. V. dilatatum is an introduced ...


2015 Spring Seed Guide, Teshome Regassa, Charles Shapiro 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

2015 Spring Seed Guide, Teshome Regassa, Charles Shapiro

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

NEBRASKA CORN HYBRID TESTS CROP PRODUCTION SUMMARY: According to the National Agricultural Statistics Service, there were 8.75 million acres of corn harvested in Nebraska in 2014 producing approximately 1.58 billion bushels of grain. The total average corn yield for Nebraska in 2014 was a record 181 bushels per acre (bu/a). Total corn yields from the previous 10 years are reported below.

NEBRASKA SOYBEAN VARIETY TESTS - 2014 - CROP PRODUCTION SUMMARY: According to the National Agricultural Statistics Service, there were 5.4 million acres of soybeans planted in Nebraska in 2014. 5.35 million acres were harvested producing around ...


Carbohydrate Metabolism And The Trehalose Biosynthetic Pathway In Maize Kernels Grown In Vitro Under Sucrose Starvation Stress, Samuel W. Bledsoe 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Carbohydrate Metabolism And The Trehalose Biosynthetic Pathway In Maize Kernels Grown In Vitro Under Sucrose Starvation Stress, Samuel W. Bledsoe

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Drought is an increasing issue that many farmers encounter especially in hot arid climates with little rainfall. High temperatures and inadequate rainfall at certain stages in crop development can have disastrous consequences to yield. In maize, drought occurring near or during the flowering stage often causes significant kernel abortion that greatly impacts potential yield. The trehalose biosynthetic pathway has recently been found to be important in plant metabolism in response to stress in higher order plants. Trehalose is currently known throughout the plant and animal kingdoms as an osmoprotectant, high energy fuel source, structural component, and involved in pathogen response ...


Selection And Genetic Drift In North American Maize, Collin Lamkey 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Selection And Genetic Drift In North American Maize, Collin Lamkey

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Characterizing the impact of selection and genetic drift in the formation of heterotic groups and patterns in maize can reveal important insights into the mechanism underlying adaptation, and the relative importance of each force in defining population structure. The objectives were to characterize the role selection for hybrid performance had in defining population structure in both a reciprocal full-sib selection (RFS) program and a large collection of historically important inbred lines.

The Illumina GoldenGate Assay was used to genotype the University of Nebraska-Lincoln Replicated Recurrent Selection (UNL-RpRS) program. Eight cycles of S1-progeny and RFS selection were conducted for an index ...


Msh1-Induced Non-Genetic Variation Provides A Source Of Phenotypic Diversity In Sorghum Bicolor, Roberto de la Rosa Santamaria, Mon-Ray Shao, Guomei Wang, David O. Nino-Liu, Hardik Kundariya, Yashitola Wamboldt, Ismail M. Dweikat, Sally A. MacKenzie 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Msh1-Induced Non-Genetic Variation Provides A Source Of Phenotypic Diversity In Sorghum Bicolor, Roberto De La Rosa Santamaria, Mon-Ray Shao, Guomei Wang, David O. Nino-Liu, Hardik Kundariya, Yashitola Wamboldt, Ismail M. Dweikat, Sally A. Mackenzie

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

MutS Homolog 1 (MSH1) encodes a plant-specific protein that functions in mitochondria and chloroplasts. We showed previously that disruption or suppression of the MSH1 gene results in a process of developmental reprogramming that is heritable and non-genetic in subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, this developmental reprogramming process is accompanied by striking changes in gene expression of organellar and stress response genes. This developmentally reprogrammed state, when used in crossing, results in a range of variation for plant growth potential. Here we investigate the implications of MSH1 modulation in a crop species. We found that MSH1-mediated phenotypic variation in Sorghum bicolor ...


Chromosome Counts For Packera Paupercula Variety Gypsophila, Chad Larson 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Chromosome Counts For Packera Paupercula Variety Gypsophila, Chad Larson

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

New plant species develop when diploid plants (having two sets of chromosomes) spontaneously double their chromosomes and the resulting tetraploids (having four sets of chromosomes) are no longer able to back cross to diploid members of the population. The North American plant species Packera paupercula (balsam-leafed ragwort), is widespread and morphologically diverse. An isolated group of populations from the chalky soils of west-central Alabama was recently named Packera paupercula variety gypsophila (the chalk-loving balsam ragwort). The variety’s large diameter pollen grains suggest it may be tetraploid. This project attempts the first chromosome count for the variety by examining cells ...


Characterization Of Fall Leaves As A Source Of Cellulosic Ethanol, Justin Burum 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Characterization Of Fall Leaves As A Source Of Cellulosic Ethanol, Justin Burum

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Ethanol is becoming increasingly popular as a fossil fuel additive or substitute. However, current production of ethanol from corn impacts food prices and appears to have an overall low net yield. New sources need to be identified and new processes developed for ethanol production. Cellulosic ethanol is one such new source. Plant material contains a large amount of cellulose and other polysaccharides which are potential feed stocks for ethanol production. The purpose of this experiment was to characterize the polysaccharide, lignin, and ash content of fall leaves to estimate their potential for ethanol production. A slight modification of the NREL ...


Expression Of 9/13 Hydroperoxide Lyase In Cucumber Leaves, Samee Ranginwala 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Expression Of 9/13 Hydroperoxide Lyase In Cucumber Leaves, Samee Ranginwala

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Fatty Acid 9/13-Hydroperoxide Lyase (9/13-HPL) in the cucumber plant is an enzyme that cleaves either 9- or 13-hydroperoxides of polyunsaturated fatty acids to form volatile C9 or C6 aldehydes respectively. Since these aldehydes may play a role in the plant’s defenses against pathogens (K. Matsui, et. al. Phytochemistry 67 (2006) 649-657), the enzyme is stress induced during vulnerable times such as when the plant is injured. In order to better understand how this enzyme is induced, we have developed a Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction method to quantitate levels of 9/13-HPL mRNA. In initial experiments, the ...


Are Local Filters Blind To Provenance? Ant Seed Predation Suppresses Exotic Plants More Than Natives, Dean Pearson, Nadia S. Icasatti, Jose L. Hierro, Benjamin J. Bird 2014 University of Montana - Missoula

Are Local Filters Blind To Provenance? Ant Seed Predation Suppresses Exotic Plants More Than Natives, Dean Pearson, Nadia S. Icasatti, Jose L. Hierro, Benjamin J. Bird

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

The question of whether species’ origins influence invasion outcomes has been a point of substantial debate in invasion ecology. Theoretically, colonization outcomes can be predicted based on how species’ traits interact with community filters, a process presumably blind to species’ origins. Yet, exotic plant introductions commonly result in monospecific plant densities not commonly seen in native assemblages, suggesting that exotic species may respond to community filters differently than natives. Here, we tested whether exotic and native species differed in their responses to a local community filter by examining how ant seed predation affected recruitment of eighteen native and exotic plant ...


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