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28 - Terminal Die-Back, The Result Of A New Neofusicoccum Species, Courtney Cameron 2018 University of Georgia

28 - Terminal Die-Back, The Result Of A New Neofusicoccum Species, Courtney Cameron

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Neofusicoccum, a member of the Botryosphaeriaceae family, is a fungal pathogen of woody hosts. It is a threat to pecans (Carya illinoinensis) throughout the South as it damages the above ground parts of plants. Terminal die-back is the most common symptom, resulting in dying or browning of terminal leaflets, and eventually entire compound leaves, scattered throughout a tree. The pathogen often remains dormant until the host's immune response is suppressed by environmental factors such as drought. Some orchards in Georgia have begun displaying terminal die-back. The causal fungus has been identified as a member of the genus Neofusicoccum, but ...


Epidemiology And Management Of Fusarium Head Blight And Foliar Fungal Diseases Of Wheat, Carlos Bolanos-Carriel 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Epidemiology And Management Of Fusarium Head Blight And Foliar Fungal Diseases Of Wheat, Carlos Bolanos-Carriel

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum, the FHB-associated mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), and foliar fungal diseases are significant threats to wheat production. This research 1) evaluated the effects of fungicide chemical class, application timing, and cultivar resistance on FHB and DON under field conditions; 2) evaluated the effects of field-applied fungicide chemical class, grain moisture, and time on DON under grain storage conditions; 3) evaluated the effects of field-applied fungicide chemical class and time on trichothecene-related gene (Tri5) expression under grain storage conditions; 4) determined the optimum F. graminearum spore concentration and spike bagging period following inoculation for ...


Distribution And Incidence Of Mosaic And Evaluation Of Susceptibility In Louisiana's Current Sugarcane Germplasm, Jancee Rice 2018 Louisiana State University

Distribution And Incidence Of Mosaic And Evaluation Of Susceptibility In Louisiana's Current Sugarcane Germplasm, Jancee Rice

LSU Master's Theses

Mosaic is a viral disease of sugarcane caused primarily by Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) in Louisiana. Low mosaic incidence has resulted from successful breeding for resistance. However, mosaic was detected in breeding program experimental clones and a new cultivar, HoCP 09-804.Therefore, multiple research approaches were undertaken to assess the current status of mosaic in Louisiana sugarcane and prevent it from re-emerging as an important problem. Field surveys conducted during 2016-2018 of breeding program yield trials and experimental clone seed-cane increases determined disease incidence and distribution. Mosaic was detected in three of five sugarcane production areas and incidence ranged from ...


Aac Viewfield Hard Red Spring Wheat, R. D. Cuthbert, R. M. DePauw, A. K. Singh, B. McCallum, T. Fetch 2018 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Aac Viewfield Hard Red Spring Wheat, R. D. Cuthbert, R. M. Depauw, A. K. Singh, B. Mccallum, T. Fetch

Agronomy Publications

AAC Viewfield hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has grain yield significantly higher than the check cultivars Katepwa and Lillian and is similar to Carberry. AAC Viewfield matures significantly later than Katewpa and Lillian but is similar to Carberry. AAC Viewfield has an awned spike, a low lodging score indicative of strong straw, and significantly shorter plant stature than all checks. AAC Viewfield expressed resistance to prevalent races of yellow rust and stem rust, moderate resistance to leaf rust and common bunt, and intermediate resistance to Fusarium head blight. AAC Viewfield has quality attributes within the range of the ...


Factors Affecting Survival And Carpogenic Germination Of Pseudosclerotia Of Monilinia Vaccinii-Corymbosi, The Causal Agent Of Mummy Berry, On Vaccinium Angustifolium In Maine, Tyler L. Case 2018 University of Maine

Factors Affecting Survival And Carpogenic Germination Of Pseudosclerotia Of Monilinia Vaccinii-Corymbosi, The Causal Agent Of Mummy Berry, On Vaccinium Angustifolium In Maine, Tyler L. Case

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The primary focus of this research project was to identify factors in the field affecting survival and the environmental conditions affecting carpogenic germination of pseudosclerotia of Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi (MVC) which is a common fungal pathogen of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) in Maine. The interactions between biological oranisms, such as fungi and insects with pseudosclerotia prior to and during the overwintering process were investigated in the research outlined below. Fungi from the surfaces of pseudosclerotia were screened as potential antagonists in a co-plate experiment. Most of the potentially antagonistic fungi tested reduced the width of the MVC reference cultures. These potential ...


Grapevine Vein Clearing Virus: Epidemiological Patterns And Construction Of A Clone, Cory Von Keith 2018 Missouri State University - Springfield

Grapevine Vein Clearing Virus: Epidemiological Patterns And Construction Of A Clone, Cory Von Keith

MSU Graduate Theses

Grapevine vein clearing virus (GVCV) is a recently discovered virus belonging to the Badnavirus genus. Characteristic to its name, the virus is associated with a disease where symptoms manifest as pronounced vein-clearing, resulting in severe berry deformation and vine decline in susceptible grape varieties. Sustainable production of wine is dependent on healthy plants. The associated disease is mainly found in Midwest vineyards. Attempts were made in this thesis to provide evidence of causality of the virus to the associated disease and to infer the historical path and migration pattern of GVCV. Conclusions and discussions will provide grape producers with the ...


A Deep Learning Framework To Discern And Count Microscopic Nematode Eggs, Adedotun Akintayo, Gregory L. Tylka, Asheesh K. Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Arti Singh, Soumik Sarkar 2018 Iowa State University

A Deep Learning Framework To Discern And Count Microscopic Nematode Eggs, Adedotun Akintayo, Gregory L. Tylka, Asheesh K. Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Arti Singh, Soumik Sarkar

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

In order to identify and control the menace of destructive pests via microscopic image-based identification state-of-the art deep learning architecture is demonstrated on the parasitic worm, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines. Soybean yield loss is negatively correlated with the density of SCN eggs that are present in the soil. While there has been progress in automating extraction of egg-filled cysts and eggs from soil samples counting SCN eggs obtained from soil samples using computer vision techniques has proven to be an extremely difficult challenge. Here we show that a deep learning architecture developed for rare object identification in ...


Qqs Orphan Gene And Its Interactor Nf‐Yc4 Reduce Susceptibility To Pathogens And Pests, Mingsheng Qi, Wenguang Zheng, Xuefeng Zhao, Jessica D. Hohenstein, Yuba Kandel, Seth O’Conner, Yifan Wang, Chuanlong Du, Dan Nettleton, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Gregory L. Tylka, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Steven A. Whitham, Ling Li 2018 Iowa State University

Qqs Orphan Gene And Its Interactor Nf‐Yc4 Reduce Susceptibility To Pathogens And Pests, Mingsheng Qi, Wenguang Zheng, Xuefeng Zhao, Jessica D. Hohenstein, Yuba Kandel, Seth O’Conner, Yifan Wang, Chuanlong Du, Dan Nettleton, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Gregory L. Tylka, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Steven A. Whitham, Ling Li

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Enhancing the nutritional quality and disease resistance of crops without sacrificing productivity is a key issue for developing varieties that are valuable to farmers and for simultaneously improving food security and sustainability. Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana species‐specific AtQQS (Qua‐Quine Starch) orphan gene or its interactor, NF‐YC4 (Nuclear Factor Y, subunit C4), has been shown to increase levels of leaf/seed protein without affecting the growth and yield of agronomic species. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of AtQQS and NF‐YC4 in Arabidopsis and soybean enhances resistance/reduces susceptibility to viruses, bacteria, fungi, aphids, and soybean cyst ...


Characterizing Virus-Induced Gene Silencing At The Cellular Level With In Situ Multimodal Imaging, Sadie J. Burkhow, Nicole M. Stephens, Yu Mei, Maria Emilia Duenas, Daniel J. Freppon, Geng Ding, Shea C. Smith, Young-Jin Lee, Basil J. Nikolau, Steven A. Whitham, Emily A. Smith 2018 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Characterizing Virus-Induced Gene Silencing At The Cellular Level With In Situ Multimodal Imaging, Sadie J. Burkhow, Nicole M. Stephens, Yu Mei, Maria Emilia Duenas, Daniel J. Freppon, Geng Ding, Shea C. Smith, Young-Jin Lee, Basil J. Nikolau, Steven A. Whitham, Emily A. Smith

Chemistry Publications

Background: Reverse genetic strategies, such as virus-induced gene silencing, are powerful techniques to study gene function. Currently, there are few tools to study the spatial dependence of the consequences of gene silencing at the cellular level.

Results: We report the use of multimodal Raman and mass spectrometry imaging to study the cellular-level biochemical changes that occur from silencing the phytoene desaturase (pds) gene using a Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV) vector in maize leaves. The multimodal imaging method allows the localized carotenoid distribution to be measured and reveals differences lost in the spatial average when analyzing a carotenoid extraction of the ...


Evaluation Of Bacillus Strains For Plant Growth-Promotion Potentials On Corn (Zea Mays), Wheat (Triticum Aestivum), And Soybean (Glycine Max)., Rufus John Akinrinlola 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Evaluation Of Bacillus Strains For Plant Growth-Promotion Potentials On Corn (Zea Mays), Wheat (Triticum Aestivum), And Soybean (Glycine Max)., Rufus John Akinrinlola

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can increase plant growth and yield by facilitating nutrient availability, hormone production, and inhibiting plant deleterious microorganisms. Twelve strains of bacillus (endospore-forming bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Lysinibacillus) isolated from wheat rhizospheres were assessed for plant-growth promotion attributes in greenhouse and laboratory experiments. The objectives were to assess each strain’s potential to promote growth in corn, wheat, and soybean; and to determine whether the physiological traits expressed in vitro by the strains related to their effectiveness in promoting plant growth. Greenhouse experiments to assess growth-promotion potential were conducted by applying the strains ...


Seasonal Phenology, Distribution And Treatments For Polyphagotarsonemus Latus (Banks) On Primocane-Fruiting Blackberries (Rubus L. Subgenus Rubus) In Arkansas, Jessica Anne LeFors 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Seasonal Phenology, Distribution And Treatments For Polyphagotarsonemus Latus (Banks) On Primocane-Fruiting Blackberries (Rubus L. Subgenus Rubus) In Arkansas, Jessica Anne Lefors

Theses and Dissertations

Worldwide, blackberries (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus) are an economically important crop. In 2007, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (broad mites), were first reported damaging primocane-fruiting blackberries in Fayetteville, Arkansas. Since this time, broad mite damage to blackberries and yield loss has been reported in many states and countries. Despite the increasing reports of this blackberry pest, little is known about their population dynamics, and few treatments are available. Growers with broad mite populations need a pest management program to minimize yield loss. Therefore, there was a need to develop sampling techniques, describe broad mite seasonal phenology in blackberry fields, and determine efficacy ...


Response To Persistent Er Stress In Plants: A Multiphasic Process That Transitions Cells From Prosurvival Activities To Cell Death, Renu Srivastava, Zhaoxia Li, Giulia Russo, Jie Tang, Ran Bi, Usha Muppirala, Sivanandan Chudalayandi, Andrew J. Severin, Mingze He, Samuel I. Vaitkevicius, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Peng Liu, Ann E. Stapleton, Diane C. Bassham, Federica Brandizzi, Stephen H. Howell 2018 Iowa State University

Response To Persistent Er Stress In Plants: A Multiphasic Process That Transitions Cells From Prosurvival Activities To Cell Death, Renu Srivastava, Zhaoxia Li, Giulia Russo, Jie Tang, Ran Bi, Usha Muppirala, Sivanandan Chudalayandi, Andrew J. Severin, Mingze He, Samuel I. Vaitkevicius, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Peng Liu, Ann E. Stapleton, Diane C. Bassham, Federica Brandizzi, Stephen H. Howell

Office of Biotechnology Publications

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a highly conserved response that protects plants from adverse environmental conditions. The UPR is elicited by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, in which unfolded and misfolded proteins accumulate within the ER. Here, we induced the UPR in maize (Zea mays) seedlings to characterize the molecular events that occur over time during persistent ER stress. We found that a multiphasic program of gene expression was interwoven among other cellular events, including the induction of autophagy. One of the earliest phases involved the degradation by regulated IRE1-dependent RNA degradation (RIDD) of RNA transcripts derived from a family ...


Genetic And Phytopathological Studies On Charcoal Rot Resistance In Soybean [Glycine Max (L) Merr.], Marcos Paulo da Silva 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Genetic And Phytopathological Studies On Charcoal Rot Resistance In Soybean [Glycine Max (L) Merr.], Marcos Paulo Da Silva

Theses and Dissertations

Charcoal rot of soybean (Glycine max (L.), caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is a disease of economic significance in the United States. The identification and quantification of the resistance is difficult, and very little is known about the genetics and markers linked to the charcoal rot (CR) resistance genes. Current assay methods can be time consuming, and data may vary between tests. The objectives of this study were to 1) create a robust seed plate assay (SPA) for CR resistance by comparing results with cut-stem and CFUI assays; 2) correlate and compare field data disease assessments with SPA; 3) identify QTLs ...


Evaluation Of Dicamba Off-Target Movement And Subsequent Effects On Soybean Offspring, Gordon Travis Jones 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Dicamba Off-Target Movement And Subsequent Effects On Soybean Offspring, Gordon Travis Jones

Theses and Dissertations

Commercial launch of cotton with resistance to dicamba, glyphosate, and glufosinate occurred in 2015 and launch of soybean with resistance to dicamba and glyphosate occurred in early 2016. It is likely that non-dicamba-resistant soybean will be planted in close proximity to dicamba-resistant soybean and cotton. Therefore, experiments were conducted to examine the distance dicamba moves during an application using commercial application equipment, as well as the effect the drift events have upon soybean offspring. Additional experiments were designed to investigate the effect glyphosate addition to dicamba has upon soybean growth and yield as well as possible effects on offspring. Lastly ...


Dicamba Effects On Soybean (Glycine Max) Growth, Yield, And Offspring, Mark Spencer McCown 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Dicamba Effects On Soybean (Glycine Max) Growth, Yield, And Offspring, Mark Spencer Mccown

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction of a new dicamba-resistant (Xtend) trait in soybean and cotton will increase dicamba herbicide use. Consequently, concern for injury to sensitive crops from off-target movement and tank contamination will likely increase. For soybean, foliar symptoms associated with dicamba damage do not necessarily reflect yield losses; hence, experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dicamba on soybean growth, yield, and offspring. Low rates of dicamba [1/64X (8.75 g ae ha-1) and 1/256X (2.18 g ae ha-1) of a normal 1X field rate (560 g ae ha-1)] were applied at two vegetative growth stages (V4, V6 ...


A Genome Wide Association Study For Fusarium Head Blight Resistance In Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat, Amanda Holder 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Genome Wide Association Study For Fusarium Head Blight Resistance In Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat, Amanda Holder

Theses and Dissertations

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease of small grains caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. FHB poses potential economic losses and health risks due to the accumulation of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) on infected seed heads. The objectives of this study are: 1) evaluate soft red winter wheat (SRWW) lines for resistance to FHB in terms of resistance to initial inoculum (incidence); resistance to spread within the head (severity); resistance to DON accumulation; and resistance to Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK), 2) determine the frequency and effect of known FHB resistance genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL), and 3 ...


Assessment Of Resistance To Botrytis Cinerea In Arabidopsis Expressing Grapevine Sts Genes And Analysis Of New Grapevine Vein Clearing Virus Isolates, Li Su 2018 Missouri State University

Assessment Of Resistance To Botrytis Cinerea In Arabidopsis Expressing Grapevine Sts Genes And Analysis Of New Grapevine Vein Clearing Virus Isolates, Li Su

MSU Graduate Theses

Grapevine stilbene synthase gene (STS) family is unusually large with more than 32 members of full-length genes. Resveratrol and piceid are synthesized in VaSTS7-, VvSTS22-, VaSTS22-transgenic Arabidopsis. To study the function of these STS genes in the resistance against Botrytis cinerea in vivo, lesion sizes on these STS transgenic Arabidopsis were compared to that on non-transgenic control Col-0, at 96 hours post inoculation with B. cinerea spores at 0, 200, or 1,000 spores/μl. In each experiment there were three biological replicates. Three lesion sizes from each replicate were averaged. The experiment was repeated three times. The results ...


Explaining Hyperspectral Imaging Based Plant Disease Identification: 3d Cnn And Saliency Maps, Koushik Nagasubramanian, Sarah Jones, Asheesh K. Singh, Arti Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar 2018 Iowa State University

Explaining Hyperspectral Imaging Based Plant Disease Identification: 3d Cnn And Saliency Maps, Koushik Nagasubramanian, Sarah Jones, Asheesh K. Singh, Arti Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar

Agronomy Publications

Our overarching goal is to develop an accurate and explainable model for plant disease identification using hyperspectral data. Charcoal rot is a soil borne fungal disease that affects the yield of soybean crops worldwide. Hyperspectral images were captured at 240 different wavelengths in the range of 383 - 1032 nm. We developed a 3D Convolutional Neural Network model for soybean charcoal rot disease identification. Our model has classification accuracy of 95.73\% and an infected class F1 score of 0.87. We infer the trained model using saliency map and visualize the most sensitive pixel locations that enable classification. The sensitivity ...


Exploration Of Soybean Nodule Microbiome For Plant Health Management, Serkan Tokgöz 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Exploration Of Soybean Nodule Microbiome For Plant Health Management, Serkan Tokgöz

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Root nodule is a unique environment formed in the legume roots through a highly specific symbiotic relationship between leguminous plants and nodule inducing bacteria. Over the years, Rhizobia have been thought as the only group of bacteria residing within the nodules. However, this consideration has been recently changed with the discovery of other groups of bacteria besides Rhizobia within the legume nodules. In an effort to identify beneficial bacteria for plant disease control and growth promotion, soybean nodules were studied as the source of nodule-associated bacteria. Metagenomics analysis of a single soybean nodule was conducted to determine the bacterial diversity ...


Metabolic Coupling On Roots, Gwyn A. Beattie 2018 Iowa State University

Metabolic Coupling On Roots, Gwyn A. Beattie

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

The coupling of root exudation of nutrients with microbial nutrient uptake preferences helps drive the assembly of rhizosphere microbiomes, enabling the use of metabolite interaction traits for engineering favorable microbial communities on roots.


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