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Determining Effects Of Management Practices On Potato Early Dying And Soil Microbiome And Assessing Risk Of Fungicide Resistance In Verticillium Dahliae, Kedi Li 2021 The University of Maine

Determining Effects Of Management Practices On Potato Early Dying And Soil Microbiome And Assessing Risk Of Fungicide Resistance In Verticillium Dahliae, Kedi Li

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Potato early dying (PED) is a yield-constraining soilborne disease of potato, caused by Verticillium spp. with V. dahliae being the predominant causal agent. Since the pathogen inhabits soil for long periods, PED management aims to reduce the population of V. dahliae in soil. Benzovindiflupyr and azoxystrobin are effective chemicals and frequently used in the control of V. dahliae. In this study, field trials were conducted at Aroostook Farm, Presque Isle, ME in 2019 and 2020. Chemical and biological products have been studied for PED control, and fungicide resistance was also examined. To evaluate fungicide resistance, benzovindiflupyr was characterized on sensitivity ...


Influence Of Planting Date, Maturity Group, Harvest Aids And Fungicide Application On Soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Seed Quality, Ana Priscila Campos 2021 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Influence Of Planting Date, Maturity Group, Harvest Aids And Fungicide Application On Soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Seed Quality, Ana Priscila Campos

LSU Master's Theses

Field studies evaluated the influence of planting date, maturity group, and harvest timing on soybean yield and seed quality at the LSU AgCenter Northeast (NERS), Macon Ridge, and Dean Lee Research Stations in 2018-2020. In addition, the influence of harvest aid and fungicide application on seed quality impact from delayed harvest and environment was investigated at NERS in 2019 and 2020 in both field and environmentally controlled growth chambers. Soybean yield was maximized when maturity group IV and V soybean varieties were planted between Mid-April and Mid-May. Earlier and later planting dates did not result in maximized yield. Planting date ...


Optimization Of Dna Extraction From Difficult Sandy-Loam Soils, Anka Colo 2021 Western University

Optimization Of Dna Extraction From Difficult Sandy-Loam Soils, Anka Colo

Undergraduate Student Research Internships Conference

Ginseng is a high value perennial crop grown for its roots. A four-year cultivation cycle is required to obtain marketable ginseng roots, during which a condition called ginseng replant disease (GRD) develops. GRD is characterized by a severe root rot disease, and prevents the growth of newly planted ginseng in a former ginseng garden1. Microbiome analysis of ginseng garden soil will help our understanding of the formation of GRD and its severity. However, extracting DNA from the sandy-loam soils required for ginseng cultivation is difficult. Commercial kits are either too expensive or not applicable to the large volumes of soil ...


Powdery Mildews On Vegetables, Nick Volesky, Marion Murray, Claudia Nischwitz 2021 Utah State University

Powdery Mildews On Vegetables, Nick Volesky, Marion Murray, Claudia Nischwitz

All Current Publications

Powdery mildew is one of the most easily recognized fungal plant diseases. It is categorized by spots or patches of white-to-gray powder-like growth on foliage, stems, or fruit. Roughly 700 species exist that infect grasses, ornamentals, weeds, fruit trees, landscape trees, shrubs, and vegetables. The closely related species of fungi that cause powdery mildew are host-specific, meaning they cannot survive without the proper host. Powdery mildew fungi spread in conditions of low rainfall and hot temperatures, making Utah’s climate the perfect environment. This fact sheet provides information on powdery mildew and its management.


Telomere Roles In Fungal Genome Evolution And Adaptation, Mostafa Rahnama, Baohua Wang, Jane Dostart, Olga Novikova, Daniel Yackzan, Andrew T. Yackzan, Haley Bruss, Maray Baker, Haven Jacob, Xiaofei Zhang, April Lamb, Alex Stewart, Melanie Heist, Joey Hoover, Patrick Calie, Li Chen, Jinze Liu, Mark L. Farman 2021 University of Kentucky

Telomere Roles In Fungal Genome Evolution And Adaptation, Mostafa Rahnama, Baohua Wang, Jane Dostart, Olga Novikova, Daniel Yackzan, Andrew T. Yackzan, Haley Bruss, Maray Baker, Haven Jacob, Xiaofei Zhang, April Lamb, Alex Stewart, Melanie Heist, Joey Hoover, Patrick Calie, Li Chen, Jinze Liu, Mark L. Farman

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

Telomeres form the ends of linear chromosomes and usually comprise protein complexes that bind to simple repeated sequence motifs that are added to the 3′ ends of DNA by the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). One of the primary functions attributed to telomeres is to solve the “end-replication problem” which, if left unaddressed, would cause gradual, inexorable attrition of sequences from the chromosome ends and, eventually, loss of viability. Telomere-binding proteins also protect the chromosome from 5′ to 3′ exonuclease action, and disguise the chromosome ends from the double-strand break repair machinery whose illegitimate action potentially generates catastrophic chromosome aberrations. Telomeres ...


B.R. Wells Arkansas Rice Research Studies 2020, J. Hardke, X. Sha, N. Bateman 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

B.R. Wells Arkansas Rice Research Studies 2020, J. Hardke, X. Sha, N. Bateman

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series

Arkansas is the leading rice producer in the United States. The state represents 47.5% of total U.S. rice production and 48.1% of the total acres planted to rice in 2020. Rice cultural practices vary across the state and across the U.S. However, these practices are also dynamic and continue to evolve in response to changing political, environmental, and economic times. This survey was initiated in 2002 to monitor and record changes in the way Arkansas rice producers approach their livelihood. The survey was conducted by polling county extension agents in each of the counties in Arkansas ...


Corn Smut (Ustilago Maydis), Kalen Taylor, Nick Volesky, Claudia Nischwitz, Marion Murray 2021 Utah State University

Corn Smut (Ustilago Maydis), Kalen Taylor, Nick Volesky, Claudia Nischwitz, Marion Murray

All Current Publications

Corn smut is caused by the fungus Ustilago maydis. Smut rarely occurs in Utah and is not considered economically important for grain production. For home gardeners and small farms, serious smut infections on sweet corn can cause ears to be inedible. U. maydis spreads from plant to plant by wind-borne or water-splashed spores onto silks or through existing wounds. Therefore, keeping corn plants insect- and disease-free reduces the number of entry points for infections. This fact sheet reviews the disease cycle, identification, and management.


The Backyard Garden - Leafy Greens Pests, Nick Volesky, Marion Murray 2021 Utah State University

The Backyard Garden - Leafy Greens Pests, Nick Volesky, Marion Murray

All Current Publications

This fact sheet provides information about the diseases that affect leafy greens. It includes general information, other hosts, disease symptoms to watch for, and management options.


Human Apobec3 Variations And Viral Infection, Shiva Sadeghpour, Saeideh Khodaee, Mostafa Rahnama, Hamzeh Rahimi, Diako Ebrahimi 2021 University of California, Irvine

Human Apobec3 Variations And Viral Infection, Shiva Sadeghpour, Saeideh Khodaee, Mostafa Rahnama, Hamzeh Rahimi, Diako Ebrahimi

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

Human APOBEC3 (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing catalytic polypeptide-like 3) enzymes are capable of inhibiting a wide range of endogenous and exogenous viruses using deaminase and deaminase-independent mechanisms. These enzymes are essential components of our innate immune system, as evidenced by (a) their strong positive selection and expansion in primates, (b) the evolution of viral counter-defense mechanisms, such as proteasomal degradation mediated by HIV Vif, and (c) hypermutation and inactivation of a large number of integrated HIV-1 proviruses. Numerous APOBEC3 single nucleotide polymorphisms, haplotypes, and splice variants have been identified in humans. Several of these variants have been reported to be associated ...


Genetic Relationships In The Toxin-Producing Fungal Endophyte, Alternaria Oxytropis Using Polyketide Synthase And Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthase Genes, Rebecca Creamer, Deana Baucom Hille, Marwa Neyaz, Tesneem Nusayr, Christopher L. Schardl, Daniel Cook 2021 New Mexico State University

Genetic Relationships In The Toxin-Producing Fungal Endophyte, Alternaria Oxytropis Using Polyketide Synthase And Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthase Genes, Rebecca Creamer, Deana Baucom Hille, Marwa Neyaz, Tesneem Nusayr, Christopher L. Schardl, Daniel Cook

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

The legume Oxytropis sericea hosts a fungal endophyte, Alternaria oxytropis, which produces secondary metabolites (SM), including the toxin swainsonine. Polyketide synthase (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) enzymes are associated with biosynthesis of fungal SM. To better understand the origins of the SM, an unannotated genome of A. oxytropis was assessed for protein sequences similar to known PKS and NRPS enzymes of fungi. Contigs exhibiting identity with known genes were analyzed at nucleotide and protein levels using available databases. Software were used to identify PKS and NRPS domains and predict identity and function. Confirmation of sequence for selected gene sequences ...


Arkansas Corn And Grain Sorghum Research Studies 2020, Victor Ford, Jason Kelley, Nathan McKinney II 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Arkansas Corn And Grain Sorghum Research Studies 2020, Victor Ford, Jason Kelley, Nathan Mckinney Ii

Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Series

The 2021 edition of the Arkansas Corn and Grain Sorghum Research Studies Series includes research results on topics pertaining to corn and grain sorghum production, including weed, disease, and insect management; economics; sustainability; irrigation; post-harvest drying; soil fertility; mycotoxins; cover crop management; feral hog control; and research verification program results. Our objective is to capture and broadly distribute the results of research projects funded by the Arkansas Corn and Grain Sorghum Board. The intended audience includes producers and their advisors, current investigators, and future researchers. The Series serves as a citable archive of research results. Reports in this publication are ...


The Importance Of Communication Skills To Independent Crop Consultants, Lindsay Overmyer 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Importance Of Communication Skills To Independent Crop Consultants, Lindsay Overmyer

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

Independent crop consulting companies provide services to farmers by scouting (i.e., collecting field observations of plants and pests) and developing management recommendations for individual fields. In production agriculture, independent crop consultants (ICCs) are professionals who are independent of product sales. They are knowledgeable in many disciplines including plant pathology, entomology, weed science, plant science, economics, water management, and soil science. However, ICCs must also have extensive communication skills to communicate to their audience of field scout(s), farmers, industry professionals, and government officials. The goal of this document is to examine how ICCs use their communication skills and how ...


Host-Induced Gene Silencing Of A Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Oxaloacetate Acetylhydrolase Using Bean Pod Mottle Virus As A Vehicle Reduces Disease On Soybean, Megan McCaghey, Dandan Shao, Jake Kurcezewski, Ally Lindstrom, Ashish Ranjan, Steven Whitham, Shawn P. Conley, Brett Williams, Damon L. Smith, Mehdi Kabbage 2021 University of Wisconsin-Madison

Host-Induced Gene Silencing Of A Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Oxaloacetate Acetylhydrolase Using Bean Pod Mottle Virus As A Vehicle Reduces Disease On Soybean, Megan Mccaghey, Dandan Shao, Jake Kurcezewski, Ally Lindstrom, Ashish Ranjan, Steven Whitham, Shawn P. Conley, Brett Williams, Damon L. Smith, Mehdi Kabbage

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

A lack of complete resistance in the current germplasm complicates the management of Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean. In this study, we used bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) as a vehicle to down-regulate expression of a key enzyme in the production of an important virulence factor in S. sclerotiorum, oxalic acid (OA). Specifically, we targeted a gene encoding oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase (Ssoah1), because Ssoah1 deletion mutants are OA deficient and non-pathogenic on soybean. We first established that S. sclerotiorum can uptake environmental RNAs by monitoring the translocation of Cy3-labeled double-stranded and small interfering RNA (ds/siRNAs ...


A Novel Viral Strategy For Host Factor Recruitment: The Co-Opted Proteasomal Rpn11 Protein Interaction Hub In Cooperation With Subverted Actin Filaments Are Targeted To Deliver Cytosolic Host Factors For Viral Replication, Melissa Molho, Wenwu Lin, Peter D. Nagy 2021 University of Kentucky

A Novel Viral Strategy For Host Factor Recruitment: The Co-Opted Proteasomal Rpn11 Protein Interaction Hub In Cooperation With Subverted Actin Filaments Are Targeted To Deliver Cytosolic Host Factors For Viral Replication, Melissa Molho, Wenwu Lin, Peter D. Nagy

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

Positive-strand (+)RNA viruses take advantage of the host cells by subverting a long list of host protein factors and transport vesicles and cellular organelles to build membranous viral replication organelles (VROs) that support robust RNA replication. How RNA viruses accomplish major recruitment tasks of a large number of cellular proteins are intensively studied. In case of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a single viral replication protein, named p33, carries out most of the recruitment duties. Yet, it is currently unknown how the viral p33 replication protein, which is membrane associated, is capable of the rapid and efficient recruitment of numerous ...


Influence Of Decay Fungi On Selected Anatomical Properties Of Aningeria Robusta A. Chev. Wood, Olayiwola Olaleye Ajala, Funke Grace Adebawo, Emmanuel Adekanye Adelusi, Olaoluwa Adeniyi Adegoke 2021 Federal College of Forestry, Ibadan, Nigeria

Influence Of Decay Fungi On Selected Anatomical Properties Of Aningeria Robusta A. Chev. Wood, Olayiwola Olaleye Ajala, Funke Grace Adebawo, Emmanuel Adekanye Adelusi, Olaoluwa Adeniyi Adegoke

Journal of Bioresource Management

Due to population explosion, the forest of Nigeria like most tropical forest is over exploited for choice traditional species. Therefore, need to investigate species that can substitute the species arise. Five trees of Aningeria robusta were harvested from Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria. Bolts of 50cm length were obtained at the base, middle and the top; radial strips also obtained for innerwood, middlewood and outerwood. Ten test specimens of dimension 12mm x 15mm x 25mm were obtained per zone. N-hexane heartwood extracts of a 30 year old Gliricidia sepium diluted with kerosene using volume by volume method into 0%, 25 ...


The Backyard Garden - Tomato Pests, Nick Volesky, Marion Murray 2021 Utah State University

The Backyard Garden - Tomato Pests, Nick Volesky, Marion Murray

All Current Publications

This fact sheet contains information about pests and diseases that affect tomatoes. It includes general information and guidance on severity, other hosts, symptoms, and management.


Identification And Comparison Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi And Soil Microbiomes Between American Chestnuts And Surrounding Hardwoods, Sarah Andrews, Geoffrey Eger, Isabella Vahle 2021 Kennesaw State University

Identification And Comparison Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi And Soil Microbiomes Between American Chestnuts And Surrounding Hardwoods, Sarah Andrews, Geoffrey Eger, Isabella Vahle

Symposium of Student Scholars

Background/Questions/Methods

The introduction of the Chinese chestnut blight in 1904 decimated native American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkh.) populations. In this study we aim to: 1) document the location of individual chestnuts in our vicinity; 2) document healthy versus blight infected individuals; 3) characterize putative differences in the soil microbiome between infected and non-infected individuals, as well as between chestnuts and hardwood neighbors. With this information we hope to provide new insights into mechanisms that may enhance blight and fungal resistance in American chestnuts through the understanding of the interactions between the trees and their surrounding soil microbiome ...


Fungi Associated With Herbaceous Plants In Coastal Northern California, Greg Huffman 2021 Dominican University of California

Fungi Associated With Herbaceous Plants In Coastal Northern California, Greg Huffman

Natural Sciences and Mathematics | Biological Sciences Master's Theses

The presence of fungal species associated with herbaceous plants was monitored in coastal Marin County, California, USA. The research involved a combination of field sampling surveys and data collection using a stratified random design, pathogen identification through microbiological and molecular analysis, and descriptive analysis and ordination of results. A total of two years of repeated sampling (four times a year) was organized to allow for the detection of seasonal differences in pathogen presence on aerial plant parts. The objective of this study was to identify microbial species present on herbaceous plants using ITS1 sequence analysis. Throughout March of 2018 to ...


Talking Plants: Examining The Role Of Podcasts In Communicating Plant Pathology Knowledge, Melissa Lim, Rebecca Swenson 2021 University of Minnesota

Talking Plants: Examining The Role Of Podcasts In Communicating Plant Pathology Knowledge, Melissa Lim, Rebecca Swenson

Journal of Applied Communications

Extension programs must constantly evaluate communication plans and platforms to determine if they are worth the investment of time, money, and resources. Podcasts are growing in popularity as a communication platform for education and entertainment. With the VARK model of learning styles and core plant pathology concepts as a guide, researchers evaluated the prevalence and type of plant pathology information in podcasts to better understand how podcasts could benefit Extension plant pathology programs. Using keywords related to plant pathology, researchers searched popular mobile podcast listening applications and evaluated relevant podcast episodes using content analysis methods. Results indicated few podcast shows ...


Baseline Sensitivity To Dmi Fungicides In Cercospora Spp. And Corynespora Spp. In Arkansas Soybeans, Evan Buckner 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Baseline Sensitivity To Dmi Fungicides In Cercospora Spp. And Corynespora Spp. In Arkansas Soybeans, Evan Buckner

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cercospora spp. and Corynespora spp. are two common foliar fungal pathogens in Arkansas amongst other soybean producing areas. Two primary diseases caused by Cercospora spp. are Cercospora Leaf Blight (CLB, caused mainly by C. kikuchii) and Frogeye Leaf Spot (C. sojina). Both diseases affect foliage, and when lesions collapse, leaves may fall prematurely resulting in yield loss. In the specific case of CLB, this is a disease on the rise since 2000, and also causes seed infection reducing seed quality. Target spot is a disease caused by Corynespora cassiicola, and is of less damaging for farmers in larger soybean producing ...


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