Mac3a And Mac3b, Two Core Subunits Of The Mos4-Associated Complex, Positively Influence Mirna Biogenesis, 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Mac3a And Mac3b, Two Core Subunits Of The Mos4-Associated Complex, Positively Influence Mirna Biogenesis, Shengjun Li, Kan Liu, Bangjun Zhou, Mu Li, Shuxin Zhang, Lirong Zeng, Chi Zhang, Bin Yu
Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation
MAC3A and MAC3B are conserved U-box containing proteins in eukaryotes. They are subunits of the MOS4-associated complex (MAC) that plays essential roles in plant immunity and development in Arabidopsis. However, their functional mechanisms remain elusive. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana MAC3A and MAC3B act redundantly in microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis. Lack of both MAC3A and MAC3B in the mac3b mac3b double mutant reduces the accumulation of miRNAs, causing elevated transcript levels of miRNA targets. mac3a mac3b also decreases the levels of primary miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs). However, MAC3A and MAC3B do not affect the promoter activity of genes encoding miRNAs (MIR ...
Aac Penhold Canada Prairie Spring Red Wheat, 2018 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
Aac Penhold Canada Prairie Spring Red Wheat, R. D. Cuthbert, R. M. Depauw, R. E. Knox, Asheesh K. Singh, T. N. Mccaig, B. Mccallum, T. Fetch, B. L. Beres
AAC Penhold, an awned hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar, yielded significantly more grain than 5700PR while maturing 2 days earlier, and 7.5 cm shorter stature. The seed size was significantly larger than 5700PR and 5701PR, with a test weight significantly heavier than both checks. AAC Penhold expressed resistance to prevalent races of leaf rust and common bunt, and moderate resistance to fusarium head blight and stem rust. AAC Penhold had higher grain and flour protein than the checks and improved Hagberg Falling Number, amylograph viscosity, and water absorption. AAC Penhold is eligible for grades of the ...
Identifying New Sources Of Resistance To Brown Stem Rot In Soybean, 2018 Iowa State University
Identifying New Sources Of Resistance To Brown Stem Rot In Soybean, Chantal E. Mccabe, Asheesh K. Singh, Leonor F. Leandro, Silvia R. Cianzio, Michelle A. Graham
Brown stem rot (BSR), caused by the fungus Phialophora gregata f. sp. sojae (Allington & D.W. Chamberlain) W. Gams (syn. Cadophora gregata), causes yield losses up to 38%. Three dominant BSR-resistant genes have been identified: Rbs1, Rbs2, and Rbs3. Additional BSR resistance loci will complement breeding efforts by expanding the soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] genetic base. The objective of this research was to determine if PI 594637, PI 594638B, PI 594650A, and PI 594858B contained novel BSR resistance genes. The accessions were crossed to three genotypes with known BSR resistance genes and populations were developed for allelism studies. A ...
Advancing Our Understanding Of Charcoal Rot In Soybeans, 2018 Purdue University
Advancing Our Understanding Of Charcoal Rot In Soybeans, Martha P. Romero Luna, Daren Mueller, Alemu Mengistu, Asheesh K. Singh, Glen L. Hartman, Kiersten A. Wise
Charcoal rot [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid] of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is an important but commonly misidentified disease, and very few summary articles exist on this pathosystem. Research conducted over the past 10 yr has improved our understanding of the environment conducive to disease development, host resistance, and improved disease diagnosis and management. This article summarizes the currently available research with an emphasis on disease management.
Delayed Senescence In Soybean: Terminology, Research Update, And Survey Results From Growers, 2018 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Delayed Senescence In Soybean: Terminology, Research Update, And Survey Results From Growers, C. J. Harbach, T. W. Allen, C. R. Bowen, J. A. Davis, C. B. Hill, M. Leitman, B. R. Leonard, D. S. Mueller, G. B. Padgett, X. A. Phillips, R. W. Schneider, E. J. Sikora, A. K. Singh, G. L. Hartman
The terms used to describe symptoms of delayed senescence in soybean often are used inconsistently or interchangeably and do not adequately distinguish the observed symptoms in the field. Various causes have been proposed to explain the development of delayed senescence symptoms. In this article, we review published reports on delayed senescence symptoms in soybean, summarize current research findings, provide examples of terms related to specific symptoms, and present an overview of the results of a multi-state survey directed to soybean growers to understand their concerns about delayed soybean senescence. Some of these terms, such as green bean syndrome and green ...
Main And Epistatic Loci Studies In Soybean For Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Resistance Reveal Multiple Modes Of Resistance In Multi-Environments, Tara C. Moellers, Arti Singh, Jiaoping Zhang, Jae Brungardt, Mehdi Kabbage, Daren S. Mueller, Craig R. Grau, Ashish Ranjan, Damon L. Smith, R. V. Chowdy-Reddy, Asheesh K. Singh
Genome-wide association (GWAS) and epistatic (GWES) studies along with expression studies in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] were leveraged to dissect the genetics of Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) [caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary], a significant fungal disease causing yield and quality losses. A large association panel of 466 diverse plant introduction accessions were phenotyped in multiple field and controlled environments to: (1) discover sources of resistance, (2) identify SNPs associated with resistance, and (3) determine putative candidate genes to elucidate the mode of resistance. We report 58 significant main effect loci and 24 significant epistatic interactions associated with ...
Genetic Architecture Of Charcoal Rot (Macrophomina Phaseolina) Resistance In Soybean Revealed Using A Diverse Panel, Sara M. Coser, R. V. Chowda Reddy, Jiaoping Zhang, Daren S. Mueller, Alemu Mengistu, Kiersten A. Wise, Tom W. Allen, Arti Singh, Asheesh K. Singh
Charcoal rot (CR) disease caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is responsible for significant yield losses in soybean production. Among the methods available for controlling this disease, breeding for resistance is the most promising. Progress in breeding efforts has been slow due to the insufficient information available on the genetic mechanisms related to resistance. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) enable unraveling the genetic architecture of resistance and identification of causal genes. The aims of this study were to identify new sources of resistance to CR in a collection of 459 diverse plant introductions from the USDA Soybean Germplasm Core Collection using field and ...
A Foxtail Mosaic Virus Vector For Virus-Induced Gene Silencing In Maize, 2018 Iowa State University
A Foxtail Mosaic Virus Vector For Virus-Induced Gene Silencing In Maize, Yu Mei, Chunquan Zhang, Bliss M. Kernodle, John H. Hill, Steven A. Whitham
Plant viruses have been widely used as vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). A limited number of viruses have been developed into viral vectors for the purposes of gene expression or VIGS in monocotyledonous plants, and among these, the tripartite viruses Brome mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus have been shown to induce VIGS in maize (Zea mays). We describe here a new DNA-based VIGS system derived from Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV), a monopartite virus that is able to establish systemic infection and silencing of endogenous maize genes homologous to gene fragments inserted into the FoMV ...
Virus-Induced Gene Silencing And Transient Gene Expression In Soybean (Glycine Max) Using Bean Pod Mottle Virus Infectious Clones, Steven A. Whitham, Lori M. Lincoln, R. V. Chowda-Reddy, Jaime D. Dittman, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Michelle A. Graham
Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful and rapid approach for determining the functions of plant genes. The basis of VIGS is that a viral genome is engineered so that it can carry fragments of plant genes, typically in the 200 to 300 base pair size range. The recombinant viruses are used to infect experimental plants, and wherever the virus invades, the target gene or genes will be silenced. VIGS is thus transient, and in the span of a few weeks, it is possible to design VIGS constructs and then generate loss-of-function phenotypes through RNA silencing of the target genes ...
Soybean Functional Genomics: Bridging The Genotype-To-Phenotype Gap, 2018 United States Department of Agriculture
Soybean Functional Genomics: Bridging The Genotype-To-Phenotype Gap, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Michelle A. Graham, Steven A. Whitham
Technological advances coupled with the economic importance of soybean have led to increased efforts to understand gene function and associate genes with phenotypes of agronomic and fundamental interest. Functional genomics approaches aim to develop sufficient understanding needed to bridge the genotype-to-phenotype gap. In general terms, functional genomics approaches begin by using highly parallelized methods to analyze genomes, transcriptomes, proteomes, and metabolomes to generate hypotheses about genes that control phenotypes. Candidate genes are then tested for their contributions to phenotypes through various methods such as RNA silencing, genetic mutation, or overexpression. In this chapter, we review the current approaches, tools, and ...
Dynamic Transcriptome Profiling Of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (Bcmv) Infection In Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.), 2018 Kansas State University
Dynamic Transcriptome Profiling Of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (Bcmv) Infection In Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.), Kathleen Martin, Jugpreet Singh, John H. Hill, Steven A. Whitham, Steven B. Cannon
Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. The molecular responses in Phaseolus to BCMV infection have not yet been well characterized.
We report the transcriptional responses of a widely susceptible variety of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivar ‘Stringless green refugee’) to two BCMV strains, in a time-course experiment. We also report the genome sequence of a previously unreported BCMV strain. The interaction with ...
A Viral Protease Relocalizes In The Presence Of The Vector To Promote Vector Performance, 2018 University of California, Davis
A Viral Protease Relocalizes In The Presence Of The Vector To Promote Vector Performance, Aurélie Bak, Andrea L. Cheung, Chunling Yang, Steven A. Whitham, Clare L. Casteel
Vector-borne pathogens influence host characteristics relevant to host–vector contact, increasing pathogen transmission and survival. Previously, we demonstrated that infection with Turnip mosaic virus, a member of one of the largest families of plant-infecting viruses, increases vector attraction and reproduction on infected hosts. These changes were due to a single viral protein, NIa-Pro. Here we show that NIa-Pro responds to the presence of the aphid vector during infection by relocalizing to the vacuole. Remarkably, vacuolar localization is required for NIa-Pro’s ability to enhance aphid reproduction on host plants, vacuole localization disappears when aphids are removed, and this phenomenon occurs ...
Characterization Of Neofabraea Actinidiae And N. Brasiliensis As Causal Agents Of Apple Bull’S-Eye Rot In Southern Brazil, 2018 Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina
Characterization Of Neofabraea Actinidiae And N. Brasiliensis As Causal Agents Of Apple Bull’S-Eye Rot In Southern Brazil, Amauri Bogo, Carla C. Comparin, Rosa M. Valdebenito Sanhueza, Patricia Ritschel, Ricardo T. Casa, Fábio N. Silva, Sydney E. Everhart
Papers in Plant Pathology
The causal agents of apple bull’s-eye rot in southern Brazil have recently been described as Neofabraea actinidiae and N. brasiliensis. Isolates of both species were evaluated for response of mycelial growth index (MGI) to different temperatures, enzyme production, mycelial growth inhibition and effective concentrations (EC50 and EC100) of the fungicides triflumizole, pyrimethanil and thiophanate methyl, as well as aggressiveness on fruits of ‘Fuji’ hybrid and ‘Pink Lady’. There was significantly lower mycelium growth in N. brasiliensis compared with N. actinidiae at all temperatures tested. Neither species grew at 3 and 32°C. There were minor differences in ...
Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism And Plant-Fungal Interactions, 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism And Plant-Fungal Interactions, Lauren M. Segal, Richard A. Wilson
Papers in Plant Pathology
Fungal interactions with plants can involve specific morphogenetic developments to access host cells, the suppression of plant defenses, and the establishment of a feeding lifestyle that nourishes the colonizer often—but not always—at the expense of the host. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism is central to the infection process, and the stage-specific production and/or neutralization of ROS is critical to the success of the colonization process. ROS metabolism during infection is dynamic—sometimes seemingly contradictory—and involves endogenous and exogenous sources. Yet, intriguingly, molecular decision-making involved in the spatio-temporal control of ROS metabolism is largely unknown. When also ...
Provitamin A Biofortification Of Cassava Enhances Shelf Life But Reduces Dry Matter Content Of Storage Roots Due To Altered Carbon Partitioning Into Starch, 2017 Donald Danforth Plant Science Center, St. Louis, MO
Provitamin A Biofortification Of Cassava Enhances Shelf Life But Reduces Dry Matter Content Of Storage Roots Due To Altered Carbon Partitioning Into Starch, Getu Beyene, Felix R. Solomon, Raj D. Chauhan, Eliana Gaitán-Solis, Narayanan Narayanan, Jackson Gehan, Dimuth Siritunga, Robin L. Stevens, John Jifon, Joyce Van Eck, Edward Linsler, Malia Gehan, Muhammad Ilyas, Martin Fregene, Richard T. Sayre, Paul Anderson, Nigel Taylor, Edgar B. Cahoon
Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation
Storage roots of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a major subsistence crop of sub-Saharan Africa, are calorie rich but deficient in essential micronutrients, including provitamin A β-carotene. In this study, β-carotene concentrations in cassava storage roots were enhanced by coexpression of transgenes for deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and bacterial phytoene synthase (crtB), mediated by the patatin-type 1 promoter. Storage roots harvested from field-grown plants accumulated carotenoids to ≤50 lg/g DW, 15- to 20-fold increases relative to roots from nontransgenic plants. Approximately 85%–90% of these carotenoids accumulated as all-trans-β-carotene, the most nutritionally efficacious carotenoid. β-Carotene-accumulating storage roots displayed delayed onset of ...
Acquisition Of Functions On The Outer Capsid Surface During Evolution Of Double-Stranded Rna Fungal Viruses, 2017 Centro Nacional de Biotecnología (CNB-CSIC), Spain
Acquisition Of Functions On The Outer Capsid Surface During Evolution Of Double-Stranded Rna Fungal Viruses, Carlos P. Mata, Daniel Luque, Josué Gómez-Blanco, Javier M. Rodríguez, José M. González, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Said A. Ghabrial, José L. Carrascosa, Benes L. Trus, José R. Castón
Plant Pathology Faculty Publications
Unlike their counterparts in bacterial and higher eukaryotic hosts, most fungal viruses are transmitted intracellularly and lack an extracellular phase. Here we determined the cryo-EM structure at 3.7 Å resolution of Rosellinia necatrix quadrivirus 1 (RnQV1), a fungal double-stranded (ds)RNA virus. RnQV1, the type species of the family Quadriviridae, has a multipartite genome consisting of four monocistronic segments. Whereas most dsRNA virus capsids are based on dimers of a single protein, the ~450-Å-diameter, T = 1 RnQV1 capsid is built of P2 and P4 protein heterodimers, each with more than 1000 residues. Despite a lack of sequence similarity between ...
Early Season Disease Management In Soybeans, 2017 Iowa State University
Early Season Disease Management In Soybeans, Sarah Cerra, Alison Robertson, Silvia Cianzio
Damping off and seed rot, caused by Phytophthora sojae, is an important early season disease of soybean in Iowa. The disease is favored by warm (>60 F), wet soil conditions. P. sojae is an oomycete that survives in the soil as thick-walled oospores. When soil conditions are warm and wet, the oospores germinate, producing sporangia, which in turn produce many zoospores. These spores have flagella that enable them to swim in freestanding water. The zoospores are attracted to soybean roots by root exudates, where they infect seedling roots and cause disease. Thus, wet soils are essential for infection by P ...
Building The "Rust Fast Track System" For Identifying Asian Soybean Rust In Iowa, 2017 Iowa State University
Building The "Rust Fast Track System" For Identifying Asian Soybean Rust In Iowa, Alison Robertson, Gregory L. Tylka
Asian soybean rust is a serious soybean leaf disease not yet discovered in Iowa. There are common soybean leaf diseases that may be confused with Asian soybean rust. To achieve accurate and prompt identification of Asian soybean rust throughout the state, the Iowa Soybean Rust Fast Track system was created. This unique system makes use of hundreds of private agricultural professionals throughout Iowa and 40 Iowa State University Extension field personnel to filter out suspected soybean rust samples that are common soybean leaf diseases, thereby ensuring that the ISU Plant Disease clinic is not inundated with minor diseases of soybean.
Understanding The Fungicides That Will Kill Asian Soybean Rust, 2017 Iowa State University
Understanding The Fungicides That Will Kill Asian Soybean Rust, Alison Robertson
Most of the fungicides approved for Asian soybean rust management in Iowa, and the United States, belong to either the chloronitrile, strobilurin, or triazole chemical groups. These groups all have different effects and modes of action; therefore, it is essential to understand how each group functions to protect soybean crops from infection by Phakopsora pachyrhizi and subsequent Asian soybean rust disease development.
Using Fungicides Effectively, 2017 Iowa State University
Using Fungicides Effectively, Alison Robertson
For a fungicide to be effective, three rules must be followed: