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Heterodera Glycines Utilizes Promiscuous Spliced Leaders And Demonstrates A Unique Preference For A Species-Specifc Spliced Leader Over C. Elegans Sl1, Stacey N. Barnes, Rick E. Masonbrink, Tom R. Maier, Arun S. Seetharam, Anoop S. Sindhu, Andrew J. Severin, Thomas J. Baum 2019 Iowa State University

Heterodera Glycines Utilizes Promiscuous Spliced Leaders And Demonstrates A Unique Preference For A Species-Specifc Spliced Leader Over C. Elegans Sl1, Stacey N. Barnes, Rick E. Masonbrink, Tom R. Maier, Arun S. Seetharam, Anoop S. Sindhu, Andrew J. Severin, Thomas J. Baum

Office of Biotechnology Publications

Spliced leader trans-splicing (SLTS) plays a part in the maturation of pre-mRNAs in select species across multiple phyla but is particularly prevalent in Nematoda. The role of spliced leaders (SL) within the cell is unclear and an accurate assessment of SL occurrence within an organism is possible only after extensive sequencing data are available, which is not currently the case for many nematode species. SL discovery is further complicated by an absence of SL sequences from high-throughput sequencing results due to incomplete sequencing of the 5'-ends of transcripts during RNA-seq library preparation, known as 5'-bias. Existing datasets and ...


Strain-Specific Protein Interaction And Localization Of Two Strains Of Potato Yellow Dwarf Virus And Functional Domains Of Their Matrix Protein, Chanyong Jang 2019 University of Kentucky

Strain-Specific Protein Interaction And Localization Of Two Strains Of Potato Yellow Dwarf Virus And Functional Domains Of Their Matrix Protein, Chanyong Jang

Theses and Dissertations--Plant Pathology

Potato yellow dwarf virus (PYDV) is the type species of the genus nucleorhabdovirus which is typified by its nucleotropic characters of the members. The virus accomplishes its replication and morphogenesis in the nuclei of infected cells. Two strains, Constricta strain (CYDV) and Sanguinolenta strain (SYDV) have been described at the level of vector-specificity. CYDV is vectored by Agallia constricta and SYDV is transmitted by Aceratagllia sanguinolenta. The full-length genome of CYDV was sequenced. The 12,792 nt antisense genome encodes seven open reading frames in the order of, nucleocapsid protein (N), unknown protein (X), phosphoprotein (P), movement protein (Y), matrix ...


Arabidopsis Bioinformatics Resources: The Current State, Challenges, And Priorities For The Future, Colleen Doherty, Justin Walley, Eve Wurtele, et al. 2019 North Carolina State University

Arabidopsis Bioinformatics Resources: The Current State, Challenges, And Priorities For The Future, Colleen Doherty, Justin Walley, Eve Wurtele, Et Al.

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

Effective research, education, and outreach efforts by the Arabidopsis thalianacommunity, as well as other scientific communities that depend on Arabidopsis resources, depend vitally on easily available and publicly‐shared resources. These resources include reference genome sequence data and an ever‐increasing number of diverse data sets and data types. TAIR (The Arabidopsis Information Resource) and Araport (originally named the Arabidopsis Information Portal) are community informatics resources that provide tools, data, and applications to the more than 30,000 researchers worldwide that use in their work either Arabidopsis as a primary system of study or data derived from Arabidopsis. Four ...


Apple Disease Forecasting Models: When Climate Changes The Rules, Elizabeth W. Garofalo 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Apple Disease Forecasting Models: When Climate Changes The Rules, Elizabeth W. Garofalo

Masters Theses

With a changing global climate, plant pathologists must understand the impact aberrant weather events may have on the development of plant diseases. Fungal plant infections are largely dependent on temperature and precipitation, climate parameters that are predicted to change more in this century. Venturia inaequalis causes apple scab, one of the most destructive apple diseases of temperate growing regions. Temperature and precipitation drive apple scab infections and forecast models, which guide growers in efficient, effective fungicide applications. In some recent years in the Northeast, these models have failed to accurately predict when ascospores of this fungus are available to cause ...


Defining The Genetic Regulation Of Appressorium Formation In Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, Hazel Apiyo Buyu 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Defining The Genetic Regulation Of Appressorium Formation In Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, Hazel Apiyo Buyu

Theses and Dissertations

Cercospora zeae-maydis is one of the primary pathogens associated with gray leaf spot, one of the most damaging foliar diseases of maize in the world. Gray leaf spot can be managed to some extent by cultural practices and fungicide applications. To infect maize, C. zeae-maydis grows towards stomata and forms infectious structures, termed appressoria, over stomatal pores. Prior research on the pathogen revealed that appressorium formation is crucial for foliar infection. Although several genes involved in pathogenesis have been identified in C. zeae-maydis, the molecular regulation of appressorium formation in this pathogen is poorly understood. Specifically, how the fungus senses ...


Understanding And Predicting Nematode Damage On Soybean Using Spatially Weighted Analysis, Barry Boney 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Understanding And Predicting Nematode Damage On Soybean Using Spatially Weighted Analysis, Barry Boney

Theses and Dissertations

Aerial imagery offers great potential as a predictive scouting method and could allow growers to better understand crop performance over time. Evidence suggests that the seed treatments fluopyram and abamectin result in decreased reproduction and root galling by Meloidogyne incognita, but yield protection in fields with higher or different nematode pressure is unclear. The objective of this work was to determine the efficacy of these seed treatments compared to 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) applied site-specifically and then predict where these might best be applied to other fields. In a soybean field infested with M. incognita, apparent electrical conductivity was highly ...


Evaluation Of Rice Stink Bug, Oebalus Pugnax (F.), Damage And Monitoring Techniques In Rice, Oryza Sativa L., And Grain Sorghum, Sorghum Bicolor (L.), Aaron Joseph Cato 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Rice Stink Bug, Oebalus Pugnax (F.), Damage And Monitoring Techniques In Rice, Oryza Sativa L., And Grain Sorghum, Sorghum Bicolor (L.), Aaron Joseph Cato

Theses and Dissertations

Rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.), is a serious pest of headed rice, Oryza sativa L. and an occasional pest of heading grain sorghum in the Mid-south. Work from this dissertation focuses on resolving gaps in and knowledge of rice stink bug sampling and management, and attempts to create a basis for rice stink bug damage assessment in future studies.

Field experiments were conducted from 2016-2018 to asses variation in sweep net sampling by observing producers, researchers, extension personnel, consultants and their workers. Large levels of variation were found in sweep lengths between observed sweepers and reliability of smaller sweep ...


Where Are All Of Arkansas' Chinquapins? An Ecological Assessment Of Castanea Throughout The State, Logan Pierce Estes 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Where Are All Of Arkansas' Chinquapins? An Ecological Assessment Of Castanea Throughout The State, Logan Pierce Estes

Theses and Dissertations

Around the turn of the twentieth-century, the chestnut blight fungus (Cryphonectria parasitica) was accidentally introduced into North America. This strong pathogen, which specializes on trees of the genus Castanea, spread rapidly and within half a century had nearly extirpated North America’s Castanea natives from their ranges. During this catastrophe, the American chestnut (Castanea dentata) garnered much of the scientific attention, pushing the other Castanea natives – the chinquapins – to the wayside. More than a century following the spread of the blight, little research into the ecology of North America’s chinquapins had been performed, leaving these trees significantly underrepresented. The ...


Impact Of Roadside Maintenance Practices On Larinus Minutus (Gyllenhal), A Biological Control Agent Of Spotted Knapweed, Mary Elizabeth Ferguson 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Impact Of Roadside Maintenance Practices On Larinus Minutus (Gyllenhal), A Biological Control Agent Of Spotted Knapweed, Mary Elizabeth Ferguson

Theses and Dissertations

Spotted knapweed, Centaurea stoebe, is an invasive weed found throughout much of the United States. Spotted knapweed is a rangeland weed where it was originally introduced into western North America in the 1880s.Where spotted knapweed spread to the southeastern U.S., it is found mostly along roadsides. It has been the focus of a biological control program beginning in the 1960s, with 12 insects established, with the final introductions occurring in the 1990s. After the success observed in the western U.S. and Canada with one of these insects, Larinus minutus, this weevil was established in northwestern Arkansas. It ...


Efficacy Of Antimicrobial Mitigation On Escherichia Coli Cfu And Growth And Development Of Hydroponic Leafy Greens, Nathan J. Eylands 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Efficacy Of Antimicrobial Mitigation On Escherichia Coli Cfu And Growth And Development Of Hydroponic Leafy Greens, Nathan J. Eylands

Theses and Dissertations

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have set new standards that apply to agriculturalists producing crops eaten fresh and/or raw by consumers. This new produce safety rule, known as the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA), has established science-based standards for all areas of production in agriculture with regards to microbial contamination. Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 is a particular bacterium of concern under FSMA guidelines. Grower compliance is mandatory and therefore vital to the continuation of any farm. Greenhouse hydroponic growers have shown advantages in efficiency when compared to conventional farming methodology. Those, however, with recirculating hydroponic systems ...


28 - Terminal Die-Back, The Result Of A New Neofusicoccum Species, Courtney Cameron 2018 University of Georgia

28 - Terminal Die-Back, The Result Of A New Neofusicoccum Species, Courtney Cameron

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Neofusicoccum, a member of the Botryosphaeriaceae family, is a fungal pathogen of woody hosts. It is a threat to pecans (Carya illinoinensis) throughout the South as it damages the above ground parts of plants. Terminal die-back is the most common symptom, resulting in dying or browning of terminal leaflets, and eventually entire compound leaves, scattered throughout a tree. The pathogen often remains dormant until the host's immune response is suppressed by environmental factors such as drought. Some orchards in Georgia have begun displaying terminal die-back. The causal fungus has been identified as a member of the genus Neofusicoccum, but ...


Epidemiology And Management Of Fusarium Head Blight And Foliar Fungal Diseases Of Wheat, Carlos Bolanos-Carriel 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Epidemiology And Management Of Fusarium Head Blight And Foliar Fungal Diseases Of Wheat, Carlos Bolanos-Carriel

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum, the FHB-associated mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), and foliar fungal diseases are significant threats to wheat production. This research 1) evaluated the effects of fungicide chemical class, application timing, and cultivar resistance on FHB and DON under field conditions; 2) evaluated the effects of field-applied fungicide chemical class, grain moisture, and time on DON under grain storage conditions; 3) evaluated the effects of field-applied fungicide chemical class and time on trichothecene-related gene (Tri5) expression under grain storage conditions; 4) determined the optimum F. graminearum spore concentration and spike bagging period following inoculation for ...


Distribution And Incidence Of Mosaic And Evaluation Of Susceptibility In Louisiana's Current Sugarcane Germplasm, Jancee Rice 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Distribution And Incidence Of Mosaic And Evaluation Of Susceptibility In Louisiana's Current Sugarcane Germplasm, Jancee Rice

LSU Master's Theses

Mosaic is a viral disease of sugarcane caused primarily by Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) in Louisiana. Low mosaic incidence has resulted from successful breeding for resistance. However, mosaic was detected in breeding program experimental clones and a new cultivar, HoCP 09-804.Therefore, multiple research approaches were undertaken to assess the current status of mosaic in Louisiana sugarcane and prevent it from re-emerging as an important problem. Field surveys conducted during 2016-2018 of breeding program yield trials and experimental clone seed-cane increases determined disease incidence and distribution. Mosaic was detected in three of five sugarcane production areas and incidence ranged from ...


Aac Viewfield Hard Red Spring Wheat, R. D. Cuthbert, R. M. DePauw, A. K. Singh, B. McCallum, T. Fetch 2018 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Aac Viewfield Hard Red Spring Wheat, R. D. Cuthbert, R. M. Depauw, A. K. Singh, B. Mccallum, T. Fetch

Agronomy Publications

AAC Viewfield hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has grain yield significantly higher than the check cultivars Katepwa and Lillian and is similar to Carberry. AAC Viewfield matures significantly later than Katewpa and Lillian but is similar to Carberry. AAC Viewfield has an awned spike, a low lodging score indicative of strong straw, and significantly shorter plant stature than all checks. AAC Viewfield expressed resistance to prevalent races of yellow rust and stem rust, moderate resistance to leaf rust and common bunt, and intermediate resistance to Fusarium head blight. AAC Viewfield has quality attributes within the range of the ...


An Inquiry-Based Investigation Of Bacterial Soft Rot Of Potato, Robert Louis Hirsch, Seth Miller, Dennis Halterman 2018 University of Kentucky

An Inquiry-Based Investigation Of Bacterial Soft Rot Of Potato, Robert Louis Hirsch, Seth Miller, Dennis Halterman

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

Inquiry-based investigations of diseases are often difficult to safely undertake in middle school or high school science courses. However, by utilizing potatoes as a mammalian analogue, important groups of pathogens can be investigated with common materials available from the local supermarket. This article provides information to guide the exploration of factors underlying the development of the potato disease bacterial soft rot, caused by Pectobacterium caratovorum, and allows students the freedom to develop and test their own hypotheses regarding the development of symptoms, the spread of pathogens, and the impact of host and environmental variables on the progress of disease.


Factors Affecting Survival And Carpogenic Germination Of Pseudosclerotia Of Monilinia Vaccinii-Corymbosi, The Causal Agent Of Mummy Berry, On Vaccinium Angustifolium In Maine, Tyler L. Case 2018 University of Maine

Factors Affecting Survival And Carpogenic Germination Of Pseudosclerotia Of Monilinia Vaccinii-Corymbosi, The Causal Agent Of Mummy Berry, On Vaccinium Angustifolium In Maine, Tyler L. Case

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The primary focus of this research project was to identify factors in the field affecting survival and the environmental conditions affecting carpogenic germination of pseudosclerotia of Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi (MVC) which is a common fungal pathogen of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium) in Maine. The interactions between biological oranisms, such as fungi and insects with pseudosclerotia prior to and during the overwintering process were investigated in the research outlined below. Fungi from the surfaces of pseudosclerotia were screened as potential antagonists in a co-plate experiment. Most of the potentially antagonistic fungi tested reduced the width of the MVC reference cultures. These potential ...


Grapevine Vein Clearing Virus: Epidemiological Patterns And Construction Of A Clone, Cory Von Keith 2018 Missouri State University - Springfield

Grapevine Vein Clearing Virus: Epidemiological Patterns And Construction Of A Clone, Cory Von Keith

MSU Graduate Theses

Grapevine vein clearing virus (GVCV) is a recently discovered virus belonging to the Badnavirus genus. Characteristic to its name, the virus is associated with a disease where symptoms manifest as pronounced vein-clearing, resulting in severe berry deformation and vine decline in susceptible grape varieties. Sustainable production of wine is dependent on healthy plants. The associated disease is mainly found in Midwest vineyards. Attempts were made in this thesis to provide evidence of causality of the virus to the associated disease and to infer the historical path and migration pattern of GVCV. Conclusions and discussions will provide grape producers with the ...


A Deep Learning Framework To Discern And Count Microscopic Nematode Eggs, Adedotun Akintayo, Gregory L. Tylka, Asheesh K. Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Arti Singh, Soumik Sarkar 2018 Iowa State University

A Deep Learning Framework To Discern And Count Microscopic Nematode Eggs, Adedotun Akintayo, Gregory L. Tylka, Asheesh K. Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Arti Singh, Soumik Sarkar

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

In order to identify and control the menace of destructive pests via microscopic image-based identification state-of-the art deep learning architecture is demonstrated on the parasitic worm, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines. Soybean yield loss is negatively correlated with the density of SCN eggs that are present in the soil. While there has been progress in automating extraction of egg-filled cysts and eggs from soil samples counting SCN eggs obtained from soil samples using computer vision techniques has proven to be an extremely difficult challenge. Here we show that a deep learning architecture developed for rare object identification in ...


Qqs Orphan Gene And Its Interactor Nf‐Yc4 Reduce Susceptibility To Pathogens And Pests, Mingsheng Qi, Wenguang Zheng, Xuefeng Zhao, Jessica D. Hohenstein, Yuba Kandel, Seth O’Conner, Yifan Wang, Chuanlong Du, Dan Nettleton, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Gregory L. Tylka, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Steven A. Whitham, Ling Li 2018 Iowa State University

Qqs Orphan Gene And Its Interactor Nf‐Yc4 Reduce Susceptibility To Pathogens And Pests, Mingsheng Qi, Wenguang Zheng, Xuefeng Zhao, Jessica D. Hohenstein, Yuba Kandel, Seth O’Conner, Yifan Wang, Chuanlong Du, Dan Nettleton, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Gregory L. Tylka, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Steven A. Whitham, Ling Li

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Enhancing the nutritional quality and disease resistance of crops without sacrificing productivity is a key issue for developing varieties that are valuable to farmers and for simultaneously improving food security and sustainability. Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana species‐specific AtQQS (Qua‐Quine Starch) orphan gene or its interactor, NF‐YC4 (Nuclear Factor Y, subunit C4), has been shown to increase levels of leaf/seed protein without affecting the growth and yield of agronomic species. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of AtQQS and NF‐YC4 in Arabidopsis and soybean enhances resistance/reduces susceptibility to viruses, bacteria, fungi, aphids, and soybean cyst ...


Pipecolic Acid Confers Systemic Immunity By Regulating Free Radicals, Caixia Wang, Ruiying Liu, Gah-Hyun Lim, Laura de Lorenzo, Keshun Yu, Kai Zhang, Arthur G. Hunt, Aardra Kachroo, Pradeep Kachroo 2018 Qingdao Agricultural University, China

Pipecolic Acid Confers Systemic Immunity By Regulating Free Radicals, Caixia Wang, Ruiying Liu, Gah-Hyun Lim, Laura De Lorenzo, Keshun Yu, Kai Zhang, Arthur G. Hunt, Aardra Kachroo, Pradeep Kachroo

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

Pipecolic acid (Pip), a non-proteinaceous product of lysine catabolism, is an important regulator of immunity in plants and humans alike. In plants, Pip accumulates upon pathogen infection and has been associated with systemic acquired resistance (SAR). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Pip-mediated signaling and its relationship to other known SAR inducers remain unknown. We show that in plants, Pip confers SAR by increasing levels of the free radicals, nitric oxide (NO), and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which act upstream of glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P). Plants defective in NO, ROS, G3P, or salicylic acid (SA) biosynthesis accumulate reduced Pip in their distal uninfected ...


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