Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Plant Pathology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

3,753 Full-Text Articles 5,493 Authors 369,515 Downloads 62 Institutions

All Articles in Plant Pathology

Faceted Search

3,753 full-text articles. Page 1 of 92.

Qqs Orphan Gene And Its Interactor Nf‐Yc4 Reduce Susceptibility To Pathogens And Pests, Mingsheng Qi, Wenguang Zheng, Xuefeng Zhao, Jessica D. Hohenstein, Yuba Kandel, Seth O’Conner, Yifan Wang, Chuanlong Du, Dan Nettleton, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Gregory L. Tylka, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Steven A. Whitham, Ling Li 2018 Iowa State University

Qqs Orphan Gene And Its Interactor Nf‐Yc4 Reduce Susceptibility To Pathogens And Pests, Mingsheng Qi, Wenguang Zheng, Xuefeng Zhao, Jessica D. Hohenstein, Yuba Kandel, Seth O’Conner, Yifan Wang, Chuanlong Du, Dan Nettleton, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Gregory L. Tylka, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Steven A. Whitham, Ling Li

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Enhancing the nutritional quality and disease resistance of crops without sacrificing productivity is a key issue for developing varieties that are valuable to farmers and for simultaneously improving food security and sustainability. Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana species‐specific AtQQS (Qua‐Quine Starch) orphan gene or its interactor, NF‐YC4 (Nuclear Factor Y, subunit C4), has been shown to increase levels of leaf/seed protein without affecting the growth and yield of agronomic species. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of AtQQS and NF‐YC4 in Arabidopsis and soybean enhances resistance/reduces susceptibility to viruses, bacteria, fungi, aphids, and soybean cyst ...


Characterizing Virus-Induced Gene Silencing At The Cellular Level With In Situ Multimodal Imaging, Sadie J. Burkhow, Nicole M. Stephens, Yu Mei, Maria Emilia Duenas, Daniel J. Freppon, Geng Ding, Shea C. Smith, Young-Jin Lee, Basil J. Nikolau, Steven A. Whitham, Emily A. Smith 2018 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Characterizing Virus-Induced Gene Silencing At The Cellular Level With In Situ Multimodal Imaging, Sadie J. Burkhow, Nicole M. Stephens, Yu Mei, Maria Emilia Duenas, Daniel J. Freppon, Geng Ding, Shea C. Smith, Young-Jin Lee, Basil J. Nikolau, Steven A. Whitham, Emily A. Smith

Chemistry Publications

Background: Reverse genetic strategies, such as virus-induced gene silencing, are powerful techniques to study gene function. Currently, there are few tools to study the spatial dependence of the consequences of gene silencing at the cellular level.

Results: We report the use of multimodal Raman and mass spectrometry imaging to study the cellular-level biochemical changes that occur from silencing the phytoene desaturase (pds) gene using a Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV) vector in maize leaves. The multimodal imaging method allows the localized carotenoid distribution to be measured and reveals differences lost in the spatial average when analyzing a carotenoid extraction of the ...


Evaluation Of Bacillus Strains For Plant Growth-Promotion Potentials On Corn (Zea Mays), Wheat (Triticum Aestivum), And Soybean (Glycine Max)., Rufus John Akinrinlola 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Evaluation Of Bacillus Strains For Plant Growth-Promotion Potentials On Corn (Zea Mays), Wheat (Triticum Aestivum), And Soybean (Glycine Max)., Rufus John Akinrinlola

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can increase plant growth and yield by facilitating nutrient availability, hormone production, and inhibiting plant deleterious microorganisms. Twelve strains of bacillus (endospore-forming bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Lysinibacillus) isolated from wheat rhizospheres were assessed for plant-growth promotion attributes in greenhouse and laboratory experiments. The objectives were to assess each strain’s potential to promote growth in corn, wheat, and soybean; and to determine whether the physiological traits expressed in vitro by the strains related to their effectiveness in promoting plant growth. Greenhouse experiments to assess growth-promotion potential were conducted by applying the strains ...


Evaluation Of Dicamba Off-Target Movement And Subsequent Effects On Soybean Offspring, Gordon Travis Jones 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Dicamba Off-Target Movement And Subsequent Effects On Soybean Offspring, Gordon Travis Jones

Theses and Dissertations

Commercial launch of cotton with resistance to dicamba, glyphosate, and glufosinate occurred in 2015 and launch of soybean with resistance to dicamba and glyphosate occurred in early 2016. It is likely that non-dicamba-resistant soybean will be planted in close proximity to dicamba-resistant soybean and cotton. Therefore, experiments were conducted to examine the distance dicamba moves during an application using commercial application equipment, as well as the effect the drift events have upon soybean offspring. Additional experiments were designed to investigate the effect glyphosate addition to dicamba has upon soybean growth and yield as well as possible effects on offspring. Lastly ...


Seasonal Phenology, Distribution And Treatments For Polyphagotarsonemus Latus (Banks) On Primocane-Fruiting Blackberries (Rubus L. Subgenus Rubus) In Arkansas, Jessica Anne LeFors 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Seasonal Phenology, Distribution And Treatments For Polyphagotarsonemus Latus (Banks) On Primocane-Fruiting Blackberries (Rubus L. Subgenus Rubus) In Arkansas, Jessica Anne Lefors

Theses and Dissertations

Worldwide, blackberries (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus) are an economically important crop. In 2007, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (broad mites), were first reported damaging primocane-fruiting blackberries in Fayetteville, Arkansas. Since this time, broad mite damage to blackberries and yield loss has been reported in many states and countries. Despite the increasing reports of this blackberry pest, little is known about their population dynamics, and few treatments are available. Growers with broad mite populations need a pest management program to minimize yield loss. Therefore, there was a need to develop sampling techniques, describe broad mite seasonal phenology in blackberry fields, and determine efficacy ...


A Genome Wide Association Study For Fusarium Head Blight Resistance In Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat, Amanda Holder 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Genome Wide Association Study For Fusarium Head Blight Resistance In Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat, Amanda Holder

Theses and Dissertations

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease of small grains caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. FHB poses potential economic losses and health risks due to the accumulation of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) on infected seed heads. The objectives of this study are: 1) evaluate soft red winter wheat (SRWW) lines for resistance to FHB in terms of resistance to initial inoculum (incidence); resistance to spread within the head (severity); resistance to DON accumulation; and resistance to Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK), 2) determine the frequency and effect of known FHB resistance genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL), and 3 ...


Dicamba Effects On Soybean (Glycine Max) Growth, Yield, And Offspring, Mark Spencer McCown 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Dicamba Effects On Soybean (Glycine Max) Growth, Yield, And Offspring, Mark Spencer Mccown

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction of a new dicamba-resistant (Xtend) trait in soybean and cotton will increase dicamba herbicide use. Consequently, concern for injury to sensitive crops from off-target movement and tank contamination will likely increase. For soybean, foliar symptoms associated with dicamba damage do not necessarily reflect yield losses; hence, experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dicamba on soybean growth, yield, and offspring. Low rates of dicamba [1/64X (8.75 g ae ha-1) and 1/256X (2.18 g ae ha-1) of a normal 1X field rate (560 g ae ha-1)] were applied at two vegetative growth stages (V4, V6 ...


Genetic And Phytopathological Studies On Charcoal Rot Resistance In Soybean [Glycine Max (L) Merr.], Marcos Paulo da Silva 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Genetic And Phytopathological Studies On Charcoal Rot Resistance In Soybean [Glycine Max (L) Merr.], Marcos Paulo Da Silva

Theses and Dissertations

Charcoal rot of soybean (Glycine max (L.), caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is a disease of economic significance in the United States. The identification and quantification of the resistance is difficult, and very little is known about the genetics and markers linked to the charcoal rot (CR) resistance genes. Current assay methods can be time consuming, and data may vary between tests. The objectives of this study were to 1) create a robust seed plate assay (SPA) for CR resistance by comparing results with cut-stem and CFUI assays; 2) correlate and compare field data disease assessments with SPA; 3) identify QTLs ...


Exploration Of Soybean Nodule Microbiome For Plant Health Management, Serkan Tokgöz 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Exploration Of Soybean Nodule Microbiome For Plant Health Management, Serkan Tokgöz

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Root nodule is a unique environment formed in the legume roots through a highly specific symbiotic relationship between leguminous plants and nodule inducing bacteria. Over the years, Rhizobia have been thought as the only group of bacteria residing within the nodules. However, this consideration has been recently changed with the discovery of other groups of bacteria besides Rhizobia within the legume nodules. In an effort to identify beneficial bacteria for plant disease control and growth promotion, soybean nodules were studied as the source of nodule-associated bacteria. Metagenomics analysis of a single soybean nodule was conducted to determine the bacterial diversity ...


Does The Fungal Pathogen (Botryosphaeria Dothidea) Exceed The Dehydration Tolerance Of Its Chaparral Host?, Cristian M. Garcia 2018 Pepperdine University

Does The Fungal Pathogen (Botryosphaeria Dothidea) Exceed The Dehydration Tolerance Of Its Chaparral Host?, Cristian M. Garcia

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

We tested the hypothesis that an opportunistic endophytic fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea that frequently infects and causes dieback in several different species of chaparral shrubs in the Santa Monica Mountains continues to elongate and grow in host tissues at dehydration levels that exceed host survival. This was done by collecting several large branches from the field from three dominant species of co-occurring chaparral shrubs, Malosma laurina, Ceanothus spinosus, and Ceanothus megacarpus. We allowed branches to dehydrate at increasing lengths of time, from a few days to one week, in an air-conditioned laboratory, then sealed in plastic bags to allow tissuewater equilibration ...


Getting What You Want: A Compelling, Reusable, One-Page Message., Martin A. Draper, Betsy B. Draper 2018 Kansas State University

Getting What You Want: A Compelling, Reusable, One-Page Message., Martin A. Draper, Betsy B. Draper

Academic Chairpersons Conference Proceedings

Using examples from planning and evaluation, government and business models, presenters will share tactics and strategies for simple, concise communications on important issues. Participants will practice by developing a one-page position paper, briefing paper or decision memo.


Mac3a And Mac3b, Two Core Subunits Of The Mos4-Associated Complex, Positively Influence Mirna Biogenesis, Shengjun Li, Kan Liu, Bangjun Zhou, Mu Li, Shuxin Zhang, Lirong Zeng, Chi Zhang, Bin Yu 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mac3a And Mac3b, Two Core Subunits Of The Mos4-Associated Complex, Positively Influence Mirna Biogenesis, Shengjun Li, Kan Liu, Bangjun Zhou, Mu Li, Shuxin Zhang, Lirong Zeng, Chi Zhang, Bin Yu

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

MAC3A and MAC3B are conserved U-box containing proteins in eukaryotes. They are subunits of the MOS4-associated complex (MAC) that plays essential roles in plant immunity and development in Arabidopsis. However, their functional mechanisms remain elusive. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana MAC3A and MAC3B act redundantly in microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis. Lack of both MAC3A and MAC3B in the mac3b mac3b double mutant reduces the accumulation of miRNAs, causing elevated transcript levels of miRNA targets. mac3a mac3b also decreases the levels of primary miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs). However, MAC3A and MAC3B do not affect the promoter activity of genes encoding miRNAs (MIR ...


Analysis Of Extreme Phenotype Bulk Copy Number Variation (Xp-Cnv) Identified The Association Of Rp1 With Resistance To Goss's Wilt Of Maize, Ying Hu, Jie Ren, Zhao Peng, Arnoldo A. Umana, Ha Le, Tatiana Danilova, Junjie Fu, Haiyan Wang, Alison Robertson, Scot H. Hulbert, Frank F. White, Sanzhen Liu 2018 Kansas State University

Analysis Of Extreme Phenotype Bulk Copy Number Variation (Xp-Cnv) Identified The Association Of Rp1 With Resistance To Goss's Wilt Of Maize, Ying Hu, Jie Ren, Zhao Peng, Arnoldo A. Umana, Ha Le, Tatiana Danilova, Junjie Fu, Haiyan Wang, Alison Robertson, Scot H. Hulbert, Frank F. White, Sanzhen Liu

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Goss's wilt (GW) of maize is caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn) and has spread in recent years throughout the Great Plains, posing a threat to production. The genetic basis of plant resistance is unknown. Here, a simple method for quantifying disease symptoms was developed and used to select cohorts of highly resistant and highly susceptible lines known as extreme phenotypes (XP). Copy number variation (CNV) analyses using whole genome sequences of bulked XP revealed 141 genes containing CNV between the two XP groups. The CNV genes include the previously identified common rust resistant locus ...


A Foxtail Mosaic Virus Vector For Virus-Induced Gene Silencing In Maize, Yu Mei, Chunquan Zhang, Bliss M. Kernodle, John H. Hill, Steven A. Whitham 2018 Iowa State University

A Foxtail Mosaic Virus Vector For Virus-Induced Gene Silencing In Maize, Yu Mei, Chunquan Zhang, Bliss M. Kernodle, John H. Hill, Steven A. Whitham

Steven Whitham

Plant viruses have been widely used as vectors for foreign gene expression and virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). A limited number of viruses have been developed into viral vectors for the purposes of gene expression or VIGS in monocotyledonous plants, and among these, the tripartite viruses Brome mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus have been shown to induce VIGS in maize (Zea mays). We describe here a new DNA-based VIGS system derived from Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV), a monopartite virus that is able to establish systemic infection and silencing of endogenous maize genes homologous to gene fragments inserted into the FoMV ...


Virus-Induced Gene Silencing And Transient Gene Expression In Soybean (Glycine Max) Using Bean Pod Mottle Virus Infectious Clones, Steven A. Whitham, Lori M. Lincoln, R. V. Chowda-Reddy, Jaime D. Dittman, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Michelle A. Graham 2018 Iowa State University

Virus-Induced Gene Silencing And Transient Gene Expression In Soybean (Glycine Max) Using Bean Pod Mottle Virus Infectious Clones, Steven A. Whitham, Lori M. Lincoln, R. V. Chowda-Reddy, Jaime D. Dittman, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Michelle A. Graham

Steven Whitham

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a powerful and rapid approach for determining the functions of plant genes. The basis of VIGS is that a viral genome is engineered so that it can carry fragments of plant genes, typically in the 200 to 300 base pair size range. The recombinant viruses are used to infect experimental plants, and wherever the virus invades, the target gene or genes will be silenced. VIGS is thus transient, and in the span of a few weeks, it is possible to design VIGS constructs and then generate loss-of-function phenotypes through RNA silencing of the target genes ...


Soybean Functional Genomics: Bridging The Genotype-To-Phenotype Gap, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Michelle A. Graham, Steven A. Whitham 2018 United States Department of Agriculture

Soybean Functional Genomics: Bridging The Genotype-To-Phenotype Gap, Jamie A. O'Rourke, Michelle A. Graham, Steven A. Whitham

Steven Whitham

Technological advances coupled with the economic importance of soybean have led to increased efforts to understand gene function and associate genes with phenotypes of agronomic and fundamental interest. Functional genomics approaches aim to develop sufficient understanding needed to bridge the genotype-to-phenotype gap. In general terms, functional genomics approaches begin by using highly parallelized methods to analyze genomes, transcriptomes, proteomes, and metabolomes to generate hypotheses about genes that control phenotypes. Candidate genes are then tested for their contributions to phenotypes through various methods such as RNA silencing, genetic mutation, or overexpression. In this chapter, we review the current approaches, tools, and ...


Dynamic Transcriptome Profiling Of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (Bcmv) Infection In Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.), Kathleen Martin, Jugpreet Singh, John H. Hill, Steven A. Whitham, Steven B. Cannon 2018 Kansas State University

Dynamic Transcriptome Profiling Of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (Bcmv) Infection In Common Bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L.), Kathleen Martin, Jugpreet Singh, John H. Hill, Steven A. Whitham, Steven B. Cannon

Steven Whitham

Background

Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. The molecular responses in Phaseolus to BCMV infection have not yet been well characterized.

Results

We report the transcriptional responses of a widely susceptible variety of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivar ‘Stringless green refugee’) to two BCMV strains, in a time-course experiment. We also report the genome sequence of a previously unreported BCMV strain. The interaction with ...


A Viral Protease Relocalizes In The Presence Of The Vector To Promote Vector Performance, Aurélie Bak, Andrea L. Cheung, Chunling Yang, Steven A. Whitham, Clare L. Casteel 2018 University of California, Davis

A Viral Protease Relocalizes In The Presence Of The Vector To Promote Vector Performance, Aurélie Bak, Andrea L. Cheung, Chunling Yang, Steven A. Whitham, Clare L. Casteel

Steven Whitham

Vector-borne pathogens influence host characteristics relevant to host–vector contact, increasing pathogen transmission and survival. Previously, we demonstrated that infection with Turnip mosaic virus, a member of one of the largest families of plant-infecting viruses, increases vector attraction and reproduction on infected hosts. These changes were due to a single viral protein, NIa-Pro. Here we show that NIa-Pro responds to the presence of the aphid vector during infection by relocalizing to the vacuole. Remarkably, vacuolar localization is required for NIa-Pro’s ability to enhance aphid reproduction on host plants, vacuole localization disappears when aphids are removed, and this phenomenon occurs ...


Characterization Of Neofabraea Actinidiae And N. Brasiliensis As Causal Agents Of Apple Bull’S-Eye Rot In Southern Brazil, Amauri Bogo, Carla C. Comparin, Rosa M. Valdebenito Sanhueza, Patricia Ritschel, Ricardo T. Casa, Fábio N. Silva, Sydney E. Everhart 2018 Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina

Characterization Of Neofabraea Actinidiae And N. Brasiliensis As Causal Agents Of Apple Bull’S-Eye Rot In Southern Brazil, Amauri Bogo, Carla C. Comparin, Rosa M. Valdebenito Sanhueza, Patricia Ritschel, Ricardo T. Casa, Fábio N. Silva, Sydney E. Everhart

Papers in Plant Pathology

The causal agents of apple bull’s-eye rot in southern Brazil have recently been described as Neofabraea actinidiae and N. brasiliensis. Isolates of both species were evaluated for response of mycelial growth index (MGI) to different temperatures, enzyme production, mycelial growth inhibition and effective concentrations (EC50 and EC100) of the fungicides triflumizole, pyrimethanil and thiophanate methyl, as well as aggressiveness on fruits of ‘Fuji’ hybrid and ‘Pink Lady’. There was significantly lower mycelium growth in N. brasiliensis compared with N. actinidiae at all temperatures tested. Neither species grew at 3 and 32°C. There were minor differences in ...


Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism And Plant-Fungal Interactions, Lauren M. Segal, Richard A. Wilson 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism And Plant-Fungal Interactions, Lauren M. Segal, Richard A. Wilson

Papers in Plant Pathology

Fungal interactions with plants can involve specific morphogenetic developments to access host cells, the suppression of plant defenses, and the establishment of a feeding lifestyle that nourishes the colonizer often—but not always—at the expense of the host. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism is central to the infection process, and the stage-specific production and/or neutralization of ROS is critical to the success of the colonization process. ROS metabolism during infection is dynamic—sometimes seemingly contradictory—and involves endogenous and exogenous sources. Yet, intriguingly, molecular decision-making involved in the spatio-temporal control of ROS metabolism is largely unknown. When also ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress