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Grapevine Vein Clearing Virus: Epidemiological Patterns And Construction Of A Clone, Cory Von Keith 2018 Missouri State University - Springfield

Grapevine Vein Clearing Virus: Epidemiological Patterns And Construction Of A Clone, Cory Von Keith

MSU Graduate Theses

Grapevine vein clearing virus (GVCV) is a recently discovered virus belonging to the Badnavirus genus. Characteristic to its name, the virus is associated with a disease where symptoms manifest as pronounced vein-clearing, resulting in severe berry deformation and vine decline in susceptible grape varieties. Sustainable production of wine is dependent on healthy plants. The associated disease is mainly found in Midwest vineyards. Attempts were made in this thesis to provide evidence of causality of the virus to the associated disease and to infer the historical path and migration pattern of GVCV. Conclusions and discussions will provide grape producers with the ...


A Deep Learning Framework To Discern And Count Microscopic Nematode Eggs, Adedotun Akintayo, Gregory L. Tylka, Asheesh K. Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Arti Singh, Soumik Sarkar 2018 Iowa State University

A Deep Learning Framework To Discern And Count Microscopic Nematode Eggs, Adedotun Akintayo, Gregory L. Tylka, Asheesh K. Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Arti Singh, Soumik Sarkar

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

In order to identify and control the menace of destructive pests via microscopic image-based identification state-of-the art deep learning architecture is demonstrated on the parasitic worm, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines. Soybean yield loss is negatively correlated with the density of SCN eggs that are present in the soil. While there has been progress in automating extraction of egg-filled cysts and eggs from soil samples counting SCN eggs obtained from soil samples using computer vision techniques has proven to be an extremely difficult challenge. Here we show that a deep learning architecture developed for rare object identification in ...


Qqs Orphan Gene And Its Interactor Nf‐Yc4 Reduce Susceptibility To Pathogens And Pests, Mingsheng Qi, Wenguang Zheng, Xuefeng Zhao, Jessica D. Hohenstein, Yuba Kandel, Seth O’Conner, Yifan Wang, Chuanlong Du, Dan Nettleton, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Gregory L. Tylka, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Steven A. Whitham, Ling Li 2018 Iowa State University

Qqs Orphan Gene And Its Interactor Nf‐Yc4 Reduce Susceptibility To Pathogens And Pests, Mingsheng Qi, Wenguang Zheng, Xuefeng Zhao, Jessica D. Hohenstein, Yuba Kandel, Seth O’Conner, Yifan Wang, Chuanlong Du, Dan Nettleton, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Gregory L. Tylka, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Steven A. Whitham, Ling Li

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Enhancing the nutritional quality and disease resistance of crops without sacrificing productivity is a key issue for developing varieties that are valuable to farmers and for simultaneously improving food security and sustainability. Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana species‐specific AtQQS (Qua‐Quine Starch) orphan gene or its interactor, NF‐YC4 (Nuclear Factor Y, subunit C4), has been shown to increase levels of leaf/seed protein without affecting the growth and yield of agronomic species. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of AtQQS and NF‐YC4 in Arabidopsis and soybean enhances resistance/reduces susceptibility to viruses, bacteria, fungi, aphids, and soybean cyst ...


Characterizing Virus-Induced Gene Silencing At The Cellular Level With In Situ Multimodal Imaging, Sadie J. Burkhow, Nicole M. Stephens, Yu Mei, Maria Emilia Duenas, Daniel J. Freppon, Geng Ding, Shea C. Smith, Young-Jin Lee, Basil J. Nikolau, Steven A. Whitham, Emily A. Smith 2018 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Characterizing Virus-Induced Gene Silencing At The Cellular Level With In Situ Multimodal Imaging, Sadie J. Burkhow, Nicole M. Stephens, Yu Mei, Maria Emilia Duenas, Daniel J. Freppon, Geng Ding, Shea C. Smith, Young-Jin Lee, Basil J. Nikolau, Steven A. Whitham, Emily A. Smith

Chemistry Publications

Background: Reverse genetic strategies, such as virus-induced gene silencing, are powerful techniques to study gene function. Currently, there are few tools to study the spatial dependence of the consequences of gene silencing at the cellular level.

Results: We report the use of multimodal Raman and mass spectrometry imaging to study the cellular-level biochemical changes that occur from silencing the phytoene desaturase (pds) gene using a Foxtail mosaic virus (FoMV) vector in maize leaves. The multimodal imaging method allows the localized carotenoid distribution to be measured and reveals differences lost in the spatial average when analyzing a carotenoid extraction of the ...


Evaluation Of Bacillus Strains For Plant Growth-Promotion Potentials On Corn (Zea Mays), Wheat (Triticum Aestivum), And Soybean (Glycine Max)., Rufus John Akinrinlola 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Evaluation Of Bacillus Strains For Plant Growth-Promotion Potentials On Corn (Zea Mays), Wheat (Triticum Aestivum), And Soybean (Glycine Max)., Rufus John Akinrinlola

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can increase plant growth and yield by facilitating nutrient availability, hormone production, and inhibiting plant deleterious microorganisms. Twelve strains of bacillus (endospore-forming bacteria belonging to the genera Bacillus, Paenibacillus and Lysinibacillus) isolated from wheat rhizospheres were assessed for plant-growth promotion attributes in greenhouse and laboratory experiments. The objectives were to assess each strain’s potential to promote growth in corn, wheat, and soybean; and to determine whether the physiological traits expressed in vitro by the strains related to their effectiveness in promoting plant growth. Greenhouse experiments to assess growth-promotion potential were conducted by applying the strains ...


A Genome Wide Association Study For Fusarium Head Blight Resistance In Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat, Amanda Holder 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Genome Wide Association Study For Fusarium Head Blight Resistance In Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat, Amanda Holder

Theses and Dissertations

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease of small grains caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. FHB poses potential economic losses and health risks due to the accumulation of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) on infected seed heads. The objectives of this study are: 1) evaluate soft red winter wheat (SRWW) lines for resistance to FHB in terms of resistance to initial inoculum (incidence); resistance to spread within the head (severity); resistance to DON accumulation; and resistance to Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK), 2) determine the frequency and effect of known FHB resistance genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL), and 3 ...


Genetic And Phytopathological Studies On Charcoal Rot Resistance In Soybean [Glycine Max (L) Merr.], Marcos Paulo da Silva 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Genetic And Phytopathological Studies On Charcoal Rot Resistance In Soybean [Glycine Max (L) Merr.], Marcos Paulo Da Silva

Theses and Dissertations

Charcoal rot of soybean (Glycine max (L.), caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is a disease of economic significance in the United States. The identification and quantification of the resistance is difficult, and very little is known about the genetics and markers linked to the charcoal rot (CR) resistance genes. Current assay methods can be time consuming, and data may vary between tests. The objectives of this study were to 1) create a robust seed plate assay (SPA) for CR resistance by comparing results with cut-stem and CFUI assays; 2) correlate and compare field data disease assessments with SPA; 3) identify QTLs ...


Evaluation Of Dicamba Off-Target Movement And Subsequent Effects On Soybean Offspring, Gordon Travis Jones 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Dicamba Off-Target Movement And Subsequent Effects On Soybean Offspring, Gordon Travis Jones

Theses and Dissertations

Commercial launch of cotton with resistance to dicamba, glyphosate, and glufosinate occurred in 2015 and launch of soybean with resistance to dicamba and glyphosate occurred in early 2016. It is likely that non-dicamba-resistant soybean will be planted in close proximity to dicamba-resistant soybean and cotton. Therefore, experiments were conducted to examine the distance dicamba moves during an application using commercial application equipment, as well as the effect the drift events have upon soybean offspring. Additional experiments were designed to investigate the effect glyphosate addition to dicamba has upon soybean growth and yield as well as possible effects on offspring. Lastly ...


Dicamba Effects On Soybean (Glycine Max) Growth, Yield, And Offspring, Mark Spencer McCown 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Dicamba Effects On Soybean (Glycine Max) Growth, Yield, And Offspring, Mark Spencer Mccown

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction of a new dicamba-resistant (Xtend) trait in soybean and cotton will increase dicamba herbicide use. Consequently, concern for injury to sensitive crops from off-target movement and tank contamination will likely increase. For soybean, foliar symptoms associated with dicamba damage do not necessarily reflect yield losses; hence, experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dicamba on soybean growth, yield, and offspring. Low rates of dicamba [1/64X (8.75 g ae ha-1) and 1/256X (2.18 g ae ha-1) of a normal 1X field rate (560 g ae ha-1)] were applied at two vegetative growth stages (V4, V6 ...


Seasonal Phenology, Distribution And Treatments For Polyphagotarsonemus Latus (Banks) On Primocane-Fruiting Blackberries (Rubus L. Subgenus Rubus) In Arkansas, Jessica Anne LeFors 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Seasonal Phenology, Distribution And Treatments For Polyphagotarsonemus Latus (Banks) On Primocane-Fruiting Blackberries (Rubus L. Subgenus Rubus) In Arkansas, Jessica Anne Lefors

Theses and Dissertations

Worldwide, blackberries (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus) are an economically important crop. In 2007, Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks) (broad mites), were first reported damaging primocane-fruiting blackberries in Fayetteville, Arkansas. Since this time, broad mite damage to blackberries and yield loss has been reported in many states and countries. Despite the increasing reports of this blackberry pest, little is known about their population dynamics, and few treatments are available. Growers with broad mite populations need a pest management program to minimize yield loss. Therefore, there was a need to develop sampling techniques, describe broad mite seasonal phenology in blackberry fields, and determine efficacy ...


Assessment Of Resistance To Botrytis Cinerea In Arabidopsis Expressing Grapevine Sts Genes And Analysis Of New Grapevine Vein Clearing Virus Isolates, Li Su 2018 Missouri State University

Assessment Of Resistance To Botrytis Cinerea In Arabidopsis Expressing Grapevine Sts Genes And Analysis Of New Grapevine Vein Clearing Virus Isolates, Li Su

MSU Graduate Theses

Grapevine stilbene synthase gene (STS) family is unusually large with more than 32 members of full-length genes. Resveratrol and piceid are synthesized in VaSTS7-, VvSTS22-, VaSTS22-transgenic Arabidopsis. To study the function of these STS genes in the resistance against Botrytis cinerea in vivo, lesion sizes on these STS transgenic Arabidopsis were compared to that on non-transgenic control Col-0, at 96 hours post inoculation with B. cinerea spores at 0, 200, or 1,000 spores/μl. In each experiment there were three biological replicates. Three lesion sizes from each replicate were averaged. The experiment was repeated three times. The results ...


Exploration Of Soybean Nodule Microbiome For Plant Health Management, Serkan Tokgöz 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Exploration Of Soybean Nodule Microbiome For Plant Health Management, Serkan Tokgöz

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Root nodule is a unique environment formed in the legume roots through a highly specific symbiotic relationship between leguminous plants and nodule inducing bacteria. Over the years, Rhizobia have been thought as the only group of bacteria residing within the nodules. However, this consideration has been recently changed with the discovery of other groups of bacteria besides Rhizobia within the legume nodules. In an effort to identify beneficial bacteria for plant disease control and growth promotion, soybean nodules were studied as the source of nodule-associated bacteria. Metagenomics analysis of a single soybean nodule was conducted to determine the bacterial diversity ...


Does The Fungal Pathogen (Botryosphaeria Dothidea) Exceed The Dehydration Tolerance Of Its Chaparral Host?, Cristian M. Garcia 2018 Pepperdine University

Does The Fungal Pathogen (Botryosphaeria Dothidea) Exceed The Dehydration Tolerance Of Its Chaparral Host?, Cristian M. Garcia

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

We tested the hypothesis that an opportunistic endophytic fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea that frequently infects and causes dieback in several different species of chaparral shrubs in the Santa Monica Mountains continues to elongate and grow in host tissues at dehydration levels that exceed host survival. This was done by collecting several large branches from the field from three dominant species of co-occurring chaparral shrubs, Malosma laurina, Ceanothus spinosus, and Ceanothus megacarpus. We allowed branches to dehydrate at increasing lengths of time, from a few days to one week, in an air-conditioned laboratory, then sealed in plastic bags to allow tissuewater equilibration ...


Getting What You Want: A Compelling, Reusable, One-Page Message., Martin A. Draper, Betsy B. Draper 2018 Kansas State University

Getting What You Want: A Compelling, Reusable, One-Page Message., Martin A. Draper, Betsy B. Draper

Academic Chairpersons Conference Proceedings

Using examples from planning and evaluation, government and business models, presenters will share tactics and strategies for simple, concise communications on important issues. Participants will practice by developing a one-page position paper, briefing paper or decision memo.


Breeding For Resistance In California Strawberry To Verticillium Dahliae, Zachary Christman 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Breeding For Resistance In California Strawberry To Verticillium Dahliae, Zachary Christman

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Since 1930 the University of California, Davis, has been developing strawberry cultivars that are adapted to the agricultural industry and regional farms. Developing cultivars that require fewer inputs are of significant economic importance in agronomy. Developing a crop resistant to a disease is beneficial for horticulturists since less labor and chemicals are needed for a high yield.6

In commercial strawberry cultivars, complete resistance to V. dahlia is extremely rare. The majority of Californian strawberry cultivars are highly susceptible to it.2 Over the last 18 years of plant breeding for strawberry cultivars with a high degree of resistance and ...


Cop1, A Negative Regulator Of Photomorphogenesis, Positively Regulates Plant Disease Resistance Via Double-Stranded Rna Binding Proteins, Gah-Hyun Lim, Timothy Hoey, Shifeng Zhu, Marion Clavel, Keshun Yu, Duroy Navarre, Aardra Kachroo, Jean-Marc Deragon, Pradeep Kachroo 2018 University of Kentucky

Cop1, A Negative Regulator Of Photomorphogenesis, Positively Regulates Plant Disease Resistance Via Double-Stranded Rna Binding Proteins, Gah-Hyun Lim, Timothy Hoey, Shifeng Zhu, Marion Clavel, Keshun Yu, Duroy Navarre, Aardra Kachroo, Jean-Marc Deragon, Pradeep Kachroo

Plant Pathology Faculty Publications

The E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1 (Constitutive Photomorphogenesis 1) is a well known component of the light-mediated plant development that acts as a repressor of photomorphogenesis. Here we show that COP1 positively regulates defense against turnip crinkle virus (TCV) and avrRPM1 bacteria by contributing to stability of resistance (R) protein HRT and RPM1, respectively. HRT and RPM1 levels and thereby pathogen resistance is significantly reduced in the cop1 mutant background. Notably, the levels of at least two double-stranded RNA binding (DRB) proteins DRB1 and DRB4 are reduced in the cop1 mutant background suggesting that COP1 affects HRT stability via its effect ...


Characterization Of Botrytis Cinerea Resistance To Fungicides In California Strawberry Production, Scott D. Cosseboom 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Characterization Of Botrytis Cinerea Resistance To Fungicides In California Strawberry Production, Scott D. Cosseboom

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Gray mold of strawberry, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is a very destructive pre- and post-harvest fruit rot. Outside of California, fungicide resistance in B. cinerea has been reported to every site-specific chemical class labeled for use against gray mold. One objective of this study was to characterize the resistance of 888 isolates of B. cinerea from California strawberry fields to ten active ingredients. Isolates were collected from the same planting block in 47 fields during the early-season (0 to 8 fungicide applications) and late-season (16 to 26 fungicide applications) of 2016. Sensitivity of each isolate was determined using the following ...


Mac3a And Mac3b, Two Core Subunits Of The Mos4-Associated Complex, Positively Influence Mirna Biogenesis, Shengjun Li, Kan Liu, Bangjun Zhou, Mu Li, Shuxin Zhang, Lirong Zeng, Chi Zhang, Bin Yu 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mac3a And Mac3b, Two Core Subunits Of The Mos4-Associated Complex, Positively Influence Mirna Biogenesis, Shengjun Li, Kan Liu, Bangjun Zhou, Mu Li, Shuxin Zhang, Lirong Zeng, Chi Zhang, Bin Yu

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

MAC3A and MAC3B are conserved U-box containing proteins in eukaryotes. They are subunits of the MOS4-associated complex (MAC) that plays essential roles in plant immunity and development in Arabidopsis. However, their functional mechanisms remain elusive. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana MAC3A and MAC3B act redundantly in microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis. Lack of both MAC3A and MAC3B in the mac3b mac3b double mutant reduces the accumulation of miRNAs, causing elevated transcript levels of miRNA targets. mac3a mac3b also decreases the levels of primary miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs). However, MAC3A and MAC3B do not affect the promoter activity of genes encoding miRNAs (MIR ...


Analysis Of Extreme Phenotype Bulk Copy Number Variation (Xp-Cnv) Identified The Association Of Rp1 With Resistance To Goss's Wilt Of Maize, Ying Hu, Jie Ren, Zhao Peng, Arnoldo A. Umana, Ha Le, Tatiana Danilova, Junjie Fu, Haiyan Wang, Alison Robertson, Scot H. Hulbert, Frank F. White, Sanzhen Liu 2018 Kansas State University

Analysis Of Extreme Phenotype Bulk Copy Number Variation (Xp-Cnv) Identified The Association Of Rp1 With Resistance To Goss's Wilt Of Maize, Ying Hu, Jie Ren, Zhao Peng, Arnoldo A. Umana, Ha Le, Tatiana Danilova, Junjie Fu, Haiyan Wang, Alison Robertson, Scot H. Hulbert, Frank F. White, Sanzhen Liu

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Goss's wilt (GW) of maize is caused by the Gram-positive bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Cmn) and has spread in recent years throughout the Great Plains, posing a threat to production. The genetic basis of plant resistance is unknown. Here, a simple method for quantifying disease symptoms was developed and used to select cohorts of highly resistant and highly susceptible lines known as extreme phenotypes (XP). Copy number variation (CNV) analyses using whole genome sequences of bulked XP revealed 141 genes containing CNV between the two XP groups. The CNV genes include the previously identified common rust resistant locus ...


Mining Halophytes For Plant Growth-Promoting Halotolerant Bacteria To Enhance The Salinity Tolerance Of Non-Halophytic Crops, Hassan Etesami, Gwyn A. Beattie 2018 University of Tehran

Mining Halophytes For Plant Growth-Promoting Halotolerant Bacteria To Enhance The Salinity Tolerance Of Non-Halophytic Crops, Hassan Etesami, Gwyn A. Beattie

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. Interest is increasing in the application of PGPRs (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) to ameliorate stresses such as salinity stress in crop production. The identification of salt-tolerant, or halophilic, PGPRs has the potential to promote saline soil-based agriculture. Halophytes are a useful reservoir of halotolerant bacteria with plant growth-promoting capabilities. Here, we review recent studies on the use of halophilic PGPRs to stimulate plant growth and increase the tolerance of non-halophytic crops to salinity. These studies illustrate that halophilic PGPRs from the rhizosphere of ...


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