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An End-To-End Convolutional Selective Autoencoder Approach To Soybean Cyst Nematode Eggs Detection, Adedotun Akintayo, Nigel Lee, Vikas Chawla, Mark P. Mullaney, Christopher C. Marett, Asheesh K. Singh, Arti Singh, Gregory L. Tylka, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar 2017 Iowa State University

An End-To-End Convolutional Selective Autoencoder Approach To Soybean Cyst Nematode Eggs Detection, Adedotun Akintayo, Nigel Lee, Vikas Chawla, Mark P. Mullaney, Christopher C. Marett, Asheesh K. Singh, Arti Singh, Gregory L. Tylka, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar

Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

Soybean cyst nematodes (SCNs), Heterodera glycines, are unwanted micro-organisms that reduce yields of a major source of food–soybeans. In the United States alone, approximately $1 billion is lost per annum due to cyst nematode infections on soybean plants. Experts have conceived methods of mitigating the losses through phenotyping techniques via SCN eggs density estimation, and then applying the right control measures. Currently, they rely on labor intensive and time-consuming identification of SCN eggs in soil samples processed onto microscopic frames. However, phenotyping a vast array of fields requires automated high-throughput techniques. From an automation perspective, detection of rarely occurring ...


Effectiveness Of Foliar Fungicides By Timing On Northern Leaf Blight On Hybrid Corn In Northern Iowa, Alison Robertson, Matt Schnabel 2017 Iowa State University

Effectiveness Of Foliar Fungicides By Timing On Northern Leaf Blight On Hybrid Corn In Northern Iowa, Alison Robertson, Matt Schnabel

Alison Robertson

Fungicide use on hybrid corn continues to be of interest to many farmers in Iowa. The number of fungicides registered for use on corn continues to increase, especially with the introduction of various generics. The objectives of this project were to assess the effect of timing of application of fungicides on disease, evaluate the yield response of hybrid corn to foliar fungicide application, and discern differences, if any, between fungicide products.


Effects Of Commercial Seed Treatments On Soybean Emergence And Yield, Alison Robertson, Mauricio Serrano, Myron Rees 2017 Iowa State University

Effects Of Commercial Seed Treatments On Soybean Emergence And Yield, Alison Robertson, Mauricio Serrano, Myron Rees

Alison Robertson

Soybean seed costs have increased more than 50 percent within the past decade. To protect seed from early season insects and diseases, seed often are treated with pesticides. The goal of this trial was to provide information on the effect of commercial seed treatments on stand count, disease incidence and severity, and yield of soybean. The Iowa Soybean Association provided funding for this trial.


Effectiveness Of Foliar Fungicides By Timing On Northern Leaf Blight On Hybrid Corn In Northeast Iowa, Alison Robertson, Ken Pecinovsky 2017 Iowa State University

Effectiveness Of Foliar Fungicides By Timing On Northern Leaf Blight On Hybrid Corn In Northeast Iowa, Alison Robertson, Ken Pecinovsky

Alison Robertson

Fungicide use on hybrid corn continues to be of interest to many farmers in Iowa. The number of fungicides registered for use on corn continues to increase, especially with the introduction of various generics. The objectives of this project were to assess the effect of timing of application of fungicides on disease, evaluate the yield response of hybrid corn to foliar fungicide application, and discern differences, if any, between fungicide products.


Effectiveness Of Foliar Fungicides By Timingon Northern Leaf Blight On Hybrid Corn In Northern Iowa, Alison Robertson, Matt Schnabel 2017 Iowa State University

Effectiveness Of Foliar Fungicides By Timingon Northern Leaf Blight On Hybrid Corn In Northern Iowa, Alison Robertson, Matt Schnabel

Alison Robertson

Fungicide use on hybrid corn continues to be of interest to many farmers in Iowa. The number of fungicides registered for use on corn continues to increase, especially with the introduction of various generics. The objectives of this project were to 1) assess the effect of timing of application of fungicides on disease, 2) evaluate the yield response of hybrid corn to foliar fungicide application, and 3) discern differences, if any, between fungicide products.


2015 Evaluation Of Commercial Seed Treatments On Soybean At Three Locations In Iowa, Alison E. Robertson, Mauricio Serrano, Stith N. Wiggs 2017 Iowa State University

2015 Evaluation Of Commercial Seed Treatments On Soybean At Three Locations In Iowa, Alison E. Robertson, Mauricio Serrano, Stith N. Wiggs

Alison Robertson

In 2015, 13 currently available commercial seed treatments were evaluated at three locations in Iowa. Seed treatments that reduce the risk of seedling diseases, soybean cyst nematode (SCN) and sudden death syndrome (SDS) were included in the trial. The goal of the trials is to provide information of the effect of commercial seed treatments on stand count, disease incidence and severity, and yield of soybean. Funding is provided by Iowa Soybean Association.


Effectiveness Of Foliar Fungicides By Timing On Northern Leaf Blight On Hybrid Corn In Northeast Iowa, Alison Robertson, Ken Pecinovsky 2017 Iowa State University

Effectiveness Of Foliar Fungicides By Timing On Northern Leaf Blight On Hybrid Corn In Northeast Iowa, Alison Robertson, Ken Pecinovsky

Alison Robertson

Fungicide use on hybrid corn continues to be of interest to many farmers in Iowa. The number of fungicides registered for use on corn continues to increase, especially with the introduction of various generics. The objectives of this project were to 1) assess the effect of timing of application of fungicides on disease, 2) evaluate the yield response of hybrid corn to foliar fungicide application, and 3) discern differences, if any, between fungicide products.


Effectiveness Of Foliar Fungicides By Timing On Northern Leaf Blight And Common Rust On Hybrid Corn, Alison Robertson, Chad Huffman, Josh Sievers 2017 Iowa State University

Effectiveness Of Foliar Fungicides By Timing On Northern Leaf Blight And Common Rust On Hybrid Corn, Alison Robertson, Chad Huffman, Josh Sievers

Alison Robertson

Fungicide use on hybrid corn continues to be of interest to many farmers in Iowa. The number of fungicides registered for use on corn continues to increase, especially with the introduction of various generics. The objectives of this project were to assess the effect of timing of application of fungicides on disease, evaluate the yield response of hybrid corn to foliar fungicide application, and discern differences, if any, between fungicide products.


Effect Of Foliar Fungicides On Standability Of Corn, Alison Robertson, Dan Schaben 2017 Iowa State University

Effect Of Foliar Fungicides On Standability Of Corn, Alison Robertson, Dan Schaben

Alison Robertson

Fungicide use on hybrid corn continues to be of interest to many farmers in Iowa. Fungicides keep crops greener even after black layer development. Many farmers have reported corn stands better when a fungicide is applied. Consequently, some farmers apply a fungicide, even in the absence of disease, to assist with harvest. There are no published data to support this observation, therefore the objective of this trial was to determine if a fungicide application at VT reduced stalk lodging at harvest.


Effectiveness Of Foliar Fungicides By Timing On Northern Leaf Blight And Common Rust On Hybrid Corn, Alison Robertson, Chad Huffman, Josh Sievers 2017 Iowa State University

Effectiveness Of Foliar Fungicides By Timing On Northern Leaf Blight And Common Rust On Hybrid Corn, Alison Robertson, Chad Huffman, Josh Sievers

Alison Robertson

Fungicide use on hybrid corn continues to be of interest to many farmers in Iowa. The number of fungicides registered for use on corn continues to increase, especially with the introduction of various generics. The objectives of this project were to 1) assess the effect of timing of application of fungicides on disease, 2) evaluate the yield response of hybrid corn to foliar fungicide application, and 3) discern differences, if any, between fungicide products.


Phenotypic And Genotypic Diversity Of Eastern Leatherwood In Five Populations That Span Its Geographic Distribution, Bryan J. Peterson, William R. Graves, Jyotsna Sharma 2017 Iowa State University

Phenotypic And Genotypic Diversity Of Eastern Leatherwood In Five Populations That Span Its Geographic Distribution, Bryan J. Peterson, William R. Graves, Jyotsna Sharma

William R Graves

Knowledge of variation among populations is important for making decisions about conservation of rare, threatened or endangered taxa. We investigated variation within and among five populations ofDirca palustris L. an understory shrub with a sporadic distribution and life-history traits that led us to predict strong phenotypic and genetic differentiation characteristic of historically limited gene flow. Populations sampled in Florida, Alabama, Illinois, Wisconsin and North Dakota spanned the geographic distribution of the species. Phenotypic traits differed among populations, and many traits correlated with latitude and environmental characteristics of the five sites. Principal components (PC) analysis showed that the first three PCs ...


Photosynthesis And Shoot Health Of Five Birch And Four Alder Taxa After Drought And Flooding, William R. Graves, Mark A. Kroggel, Mark P. Widrlechner 2017 Iowa State University

Photosynthesis And Shoot Health Of Five Birch And Four Alder Taxa After Drought And Flooding, William R. Graves, Mark A. Kroggel, Mark P. Widrlechner

William R Graves

Selection of under-used taxa of birches (Betula L.) and alders (Alnus Miller) for use in managed landscapes can be guided by information on their responses to moisture extremes in the root zone. Our objective was to compare the photosynthesis, leaf surface area, and subjective health ratings of eight relatively obscure birches and alders when treated with drought and flooding in a greenhouse. We also treated ‘Whitespire Sr.’ birch (Betula populifolia) to demonstrate responses of a cultivar common in the nursery trade. Plants used as controls were irrigated daily, whereas pots of flooded plants were immersed. All water was withheld from ...


Alnus Maritima: A Rare Woody Species From The New World, James A. Schrader, William R. Graves 2017 Iowa State University

Alnus Maritima: A Rare Woody Species From The New World, James A. Schrader, William R. Graves

William R Graves

Although first introduced into cultivation in the 1870's and praised for its ornamental character, Alnus maritima (Marsh.) Muhl. ex Nutt. (seaside alder) remains a rare woody species with unrealised potential. The ornamental promise of A. maritima was first recognised by Thomas Meehan, an Englishman who emigrated to the United States (Philadelphia, Pa). In 1848 after serving for two years at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Mr. Meehan was best known as the publisher of Meehan's Monthly (1891- 1902) and as the author of The American Handbook of Ornamental Trees (1853) and The Native Flowers and Ferns of the ...


Confirmation That Dirca Spp. (Thymelaeaeae) Reproduce From Rhizomes, William R. Graves 2017 Iowa State University

Confirmation That Dirca Spp. (Thymelaeaeae) Reproduce From Rhizomes, William R. Graves

William R Graves

There are three North American species of deciduous shrubs in the genus Dirca L. Dirca palustris L. occurs in the eastern United States and in southeastern Canada (Vogelmann 1953). Although its distribution is broad, D. palustris typically is obscure locally and is restricted to moist soils as an understory species along wooded slopes (Kurz 1997). Dirca occidentalis Gray also occurs on slopes (McMinn and Forderhase 1935), but its distribution is narrowly restricted to six counties of California near the San Francisco Bay. Within this area, D. occidentalis inhabits cool niches with frequent fog and relatively uniform soil moisture (Johnson 1994 ...


Lymantria Dispar Iflavirus 1 (Ldiv1), A New Model To Study Iflaviral Persistence In Lepidopterans, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Elizabeth N. Krueger, Robert L. Harrison, Amy L. Toth, W. Allen Miller, Bryony C. Bonning 2017 Iowa State University

Lymantria Dispar Iflavirus 1 (Ldiv1), A New Model To Study Iflaviral Persistence In Lepidopterans, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Elizabeth N. Krueger, Robert L. Harrison, Amy L. Toth, W. Allen Miller, Bryony C. Bonning

W. Allen Miller

The cell line IPLB-LD-652Y, derived from the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.), is routinely used to study interactions between viruses and insect hosts. Here we report the full genome sequence and biological characteristics of a small RNA virus, designated Lymantria dispar iflavirus 1 (LdIV1), that was discovered to persistently infect IPLB-LD-652Y. LdIV1 belongs to the genus Iflavirus. LdIV1 formed icosahedral particles of approx. 30 nm in diameter and contained a 10 044 nt polyadenylated, positive-sense RNA genome encoding a predicted polyprotein of 2980 aa. LdIV1 was induced by a viral suppressor of RNA silencing, suggesting that acute infection is restricted ...


Conclusive Evidence Of Replication Of A Plant Virus In Honeybees Is Lacking, W. Allen Miller, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Bryony C. Bonning, Adam G. Dolezal, Amy L. Toth 2017 Iowa State University

Conclusive Evidence Of Replication Of A Plant Virus In Honeybees Is Lacking, W. Allen Miller, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Bryony C. Bonning, Adam G. Dolezal, Amy L. Toth

W. Allen Miller

The recent article by Li et al. (1) lacks adequate evidence to support the authors’ assertion that a plant virus propagates or replicates in honeybees. Instead, it is possible that tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) virions associate with the honeybee and parasitic Varroa mites in the absence of TRSV replication.


Effects Of Light And Soil Moisture On Forest Tree Seedling Establishment, G. E. Gatherum, A. L. McComb, W. E. Loomis 2017 Iowa State University of Science & Technology

Effects Of Light And Soil Moisture On Forest Tree Seedling Establishment, G. E. Gatherum, A. L. Mccomb, W. E. Loomis

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The present studies were designed to aid in the solution of forest tree seedling establishment problems common to stand conversion practices in Iowa. The primary objectives were: (1) to determine the minimum treatment needed to insure successful survival and growth; (2) to study the relationships of light and soil moisture in plant competition resulting from stand conversion; and (3) to evaluate five species of conifers - European larch, Scotch pine, eastern white pine, Norway spruce and red pine - for adaptability to region, site and underplanting.

Field studies were made at the Brayton Forest in northeastern Iowa and consisted of ( 1 ) practical ...


A Comparison Of Methods And Blowers For The Purity Analysis Of Kentucky Bluegrass Seed, L. E. Everson 2017 Iowa State College

A Comparison Of Methods And Blowers For The Purity Analysis Of Kentucky Bluegrass Seed, L. E. Everson

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Three methods for conducting purity analysis of Kentucky bluegrass seed were compared. They were: (1) hand method-preliminary separation made with a blower and the final differentiation of questionable florets by hand, (2) standard method-separation with a blower using the same pure seed criteria as for the hand method and (3) climax method-separation with a blower at a level which gives the maximum pure live seed percentage.

Three blowers (the Ottawa, Erickson and Ames) were included in the study. Four laboratories cooperated in the investigation. Variations within laboratories were compared; variations between laboratories were not considered.


Biosynthesis, Elicitation And Roles Of Monocot Terpenoid Phytoalexins, Eric A. Schmelz, Alisa Huffaker, James W. Sims, Shawn A. Christensen, Xuan Lu, Kuzunori Okada, Reuben J. Peters 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Biosynthesis, Elicitation And Roles Of Monocot Terpenoid Phytoalexins, Eric A. Schmelz, Alisa Huffaker, James W. Sims, Shawn A. Christensen, Xuan Lu, Kuzunori Okada, Reuben J. Peters

Reuben J. Peters

A long-standing goal in plant research is to optimize the protective function of biochemical agents that impede pest and pathogen attack. Nearly 40 years ago, pathogen-inducible diterpenoid production was described in rice, and these compounds were shown to function as antimicrobial phytoalexins. Using rice and maize as examples, we discuss recent advances in the discovery, biosynthesis, elicitation and functional characterization of monocot terpenoid phytoalexins. The recent expansion of known terpenoid phytoalexins now includes not only the labdane-related diterpenoid superfamily but also casbane-type diterpenoids and β-macrocarpene-derived sequiterpenoids. Biochemical approaches have been used to pair pathway precursors and end products with cognate ...


Integration Of Natural Seed Treatments In Organic And Open-Pollinated Corn Systems, A. Susana Goggi, Kathleen Delate, Linda M. Pollak, Kendall R. Lamkey 2017 Iowa State University

Integration Of Natural Seed Treatments In Organic And Open-Pollinated Corn Systems, A. Susana Goggi, Kathleen Delate, Linda M. Pollak, Kendall R. Lamkey

Kendall R Lamkey

Essential oils from the aromatic plants, such as thyme, oregano, cinnamon, clove, and savory, were used to effectively control several common seed and soil pathogens in the laboratory, and could be used as seed treatments in corn. Results from field experiments showed some oils protected the seeds from pathogens but not others. Before these natural products can be widely adopted, however, issues of volatility of the oils at ambient temperature and appropriate application rate must be addressed.


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