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Using Drones For Precision Agriculture, Jiyul Chang, Madhav P. Nepal 2019 South Dakota State University

Using Drones For Precision Agriculture, Jiyul Chang, Madhav P. Nepal

iLEARN Teaching Resources

In this teaching module, students will learn what Precision Agriculture is and how to apply drone into Precision Agriculture practices. To use data (images) taken by drone, students will learn the basic theory of Remote Sensing. Using images, students learn how to make NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) maps and how to apply drone (remote sensing technique) in agriculture.


A Theoretical Model Of Underground Dipole Antennas For Communications In Internet Of Underground Things, Abdul Salam, Mehmet C. Vuran, Xin Dong, Christos Argyropoulos, Suat Irmak 2019 Purdue University

A Theoretical Model Of Underground Dipole Antennas For Communications In Internet Of Underground Things, Abdul Salam, Mehmet C. Vuran, Xin Dong, Christos Argyropoulos, Suat Irmak

Faculty Publications

The realization of Internet of Underground Things (IOUT) relies on the establishment of reliable communication links, where the antenna becomes a major design component due to the significant impacts of soil. In this paper, a theoretical model is developed to capture the impacts of change of soil moisture on the return loss, resonant frequency, and bandwidth of a buried dipole antenna. Experiments are conducted in silty clay loam, sandy, and silt loam soil, to characterize the effects of soil, in an indoor testbed and field testbeds. It is shown that at subsurface burial depths (0.1-0.4m), change in soil ...


Managing Wet And Cold Soils, Mahdi Al-Kaisi 2019 Iowa State University

Managing Wet And Cold Soils, Mahdi Al-Kaisi

Integrated Crop Management News

The amount of snow we received and potential spring rain events can be challenging to an early start to the growing season. Approaching field operations for N applications, tillage, weed control, etc. need to be weighed against potential soil compaction and successful seed germination. Two of the greatest concerns during spring is excess soil moisture and cold soil temperature and their impacts on seed germination, especially in areas with poorly drained soils as in northern and central Iowa. Areas with poorly drained soils can be managed with less tillage to ensure suitable soil conditions for plant growth. Tillage systems that ...


Toxin Levels In 2018 Corn, Charles R. Hurburgh, Erin Bowers, Alison Robertson, Jason Ross 2019 Iowa State University

Toxin Levels In 2018 Corn, Charles R. Hurburgh, Erin Bowers, Alison Robertson, Jason Ross

Integrated Crop Management News

The two bu/acre Iowa corn yield reduction (from the previous 2018 report) shown in the February 9 crop report demonstrated the impact of late-season wet weather. Corn quality and potential food safety issues are also determined late in the growing season. According to data recently completed by the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship (IDALS), levels of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (also known as vomitoxin) and zearalenone are elevated in this year’s Iowa corn crop. Vomitoxin primarily affects digestion in swine, while zearalenone has negative effects on reproduction in most monogastric animals. Dogs, cats, and gilts are most ...


Will The Insects Survive This Winter?, Erin W. Hodgson 2019 Iowa State University

Will The Insects Survive This Winter?, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

It is not easy for insects to survive Iowa winters. Some literally can’t - they freeze to death (corn earworm, black cutworm) or migrate to warmer climates (potato leafhopper). Insects are unlike mammals and birds because they must generate their own heat (called ectotherms). Insects die when they are exposed to temperatures below the melting point of their body fluids, termed the lower lethal temperature. Over time, insects have developed several strategies to survive cold temperatures and none of them involve wearing fleece. Many insects have adapted to cold temperatures by entering diapause, which is like hibernation. Diapause is a ...


Evaluation Of Foliar Fungicides On Soybeans In 2018, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Stith Wiggs 2019 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Foliar Fungicides On Soybeans In 2018, Daren S. Mueller, Yuba Kandel, Stith Wiggs

Integrated Crop Management News

Soybean foliar fungicides were evaluated for foliar disease management and yield response across seven Iowa State University research and demonstration farms in 2018. These included the Northwest Research and Demonstration Farm(Sutherland), Northern Research and Demonstration Farm (Kanawha), Northeast Research and Demonstration Farm(Nashua), Central Iowa Research Farms (Ames), Armstrong Memorial Research and Demonstration Farm (Lewis), McNay Memorial Research and Demonstration Farm (Chariton), and Southeast Research and Demonstration Farm(Crawfordsville).


Summary Of Foliar Fungicide Applications On Corn In Iowa In 2018, Alison E. Robertson 2019 Iowa State University

Summary Of Foliar Fungicide Applications On Corn In Iowa In 2018, Alison E. Robertson

Integrated Crop Management News

In 2018, we tested various foliar fungicides on corn at six locations in Iowa: ISU Northwest Research and Demonstration Farm (NWRF), Sutherland; Northeast Research and Demonstration Farm (NERF), Nashua; Northern Research and Demonstration Farm (NRF), Kanawha; Southwest Research and Demonstration Farm (SWRF), Lewis; Southeast Research and Demonstration Farm (SERF), Crawfordsville; and the Ag engineering and Agronomy Farm near Boone.


Arkansas Soybean Performance Tests 2018, R. D. Bond, J. A. Still, J. F. Carlin 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Arkansas Soybean Performance Tests 2018, R. D. Bond, J. A. Still, J. F. Carlin

Research Series

Soybean variety and strain performance tests are conducted each year in Arkansas by the University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture’s Arkansas Crop Variety Improvement Program. The tests provide information to companies developing varieties and/or marketing seed within the State, and aid the Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service in formulating variety recommendations for soybean producers.


Achieving Full-Season Waterhemp Control In Soybean, Robert G. Hartzler, Meaghan Anderson 2019 Iowa State University

Achieving Full-Season Waterhemp Control In Soybean, Robert G. Hartzler, Meaghan Anderson

Integrated Crop Management News

Although there are many ways weeds escape control in crop fields, one of the leading causes of waterhemp control failures is emergence of plants following postemergence herbicide (POST) treatments. Waterhemp requires more than twice as many growing degree days to reach 50% emergence as giant foxtail or velvetleaf (Figure 1), resulting in much of the population emerging after mid-June.


2018 Insecticide Evaluation For Soybean Aphid, Erin W. Hodgson 2019 Iowa State University

2018 Insecticide Evaluation For Soybean Aphid, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Plots were established at two locations in 2018 (ISU Northwest Research Farm and ISU Northeast Research Farm). Syngenta NK S24-K2 brand soybean was used at both locations. Seven insecticidal groups/subgroups were evaluated in 2018. Seed did not have a pesticidal seed treatment unless specifically stated. At both locations, soybean aphid peaked in August (four perplant at Northeast Research Farm and 22 perplant at Northwest Research Farm). The economic threshold was not reached at either location in 2018; however, all plots were sprayed mid-August.


Understanding Greenhouse Gases, Julie M. Mueller, Laura Edwards, Madhav P. Nepal, Larry B. Browning, Matthew L. Miller, P. Troy White 2019 Garretson Public School, Garretson, South Dakota

Understanding Greenhouse Gases, Julie M. Mueller, Laura Edwards, Madhav P. Nepal, Larry B. Browning, Matthew L. Miller, P. Troy White

iLEARN Teaching Resources

Students will conduct hands-on experiments to see how greenhouse gases interact with the Earth’s atmosphere and how greenhouse gases affect temperature. This lesson introduces National Geographic’s Geo-Inquiry Process, where students will identify a Geo-inquiry question, collect data, and create a project around the answer to their question. Students will then present their findings to their peers and evaluate their Geo-Inquiry process.


2018 Scn-Resistant Variety Trial Results Show Yield Effects And Scn Buildup, Greg Tylka 2019 Iowa State University

2018 Scn-Resistant Variety Trial Results Show Yield Effects And Scn Buildup, Greg Tylka

Integrated Crop Management News

Iowa State University annually evaluates the agronomic performance and nematode control of hundreds of soybean varieties that are resistant to the soybean cyst nematode (SCN). A limited number of SCN-susceptible soybean varieties are included in the research to serve as a reference point for comparison. The work is supported by the soybean checkoff through the Iowa Soybean Association. The experiments are conducted in each of Iowa’s nine crop reporting districts.


Planting Date, Hybrid Maturity, And Weather Effects On Maize Yield And Crop Stage, M. E. Baum, S. V. Archontoulis, M. A. Licht 2019 Iowa State University

Planting Date, Hybrid Maturity, And Weather Effects On Maize Yield And Crop Stage, M. E. Baum, S. V. Archontoulis, M. A. Licht

Agronomy Publications

Unfavorable weather conditions frequently cause farmers to plant maize (Zea mays L.) outside the optimum planting timeframe. We analyzed maize yield and phenology from a multilocation, year, hybrid relative maturity, and planting date experiment performed in Iowa, USA. Our objectives were to determine the optimum combination of planting date and relative maturity to maximize maize grain yield per environment and to elucidate the risk associated with the use of “full-season hybrids” when planting occurs beyond the optimum planting date. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) attributed 70% of the variability in grain yield to planting date and only 10% to relative maturity ...


Development Of Chlorophyll-Meter-Index-Based Dynamic Models For Evaluation Of High-Yield Japonica Rice Production In Yangtze River Reaches, Ke Zhang, Xiaojun Liu, Syed Tahir Ata-Ul-Karim, Songyang Li, Brian Krienke, Songyang Li, Qiang Cao, Yan Zhu, Weixing Cao, Yongchao Tian 2019 Ministry of Agriculture

Development Of Chlorophyll-Meter-Index-Based Dynamic Models For Evaluation Of High-Yield Japonica Rice Production In Yangtze River Reaches, Ke Zhang, Xiaojun Liu, Syed Tahir Ata-Ul-Karim, Songyang Li, Brian Krienke, Songyang Li, Qiang Cao, Yan Zhu, Weixing Cao, Yongchao Tian

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Accurate estimation of the nitrogen (N) spatial distribution of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is imperative when it is sought to maintain regional and global carbon balances. We systematically evaluated the normalized differences of the soil and plant analysis development (SPAD) index (the normalized difference SPAD indexes, NDSIs) between the upper (the first and second leaves from the top), and lower (the third and fourth leaves from the top) leaves of Japonica rice. Four multi-location, multi-N rate (0–390 kg ha-1) field experiments were conducted using seven Japonica rice cultivars (9915, 27123, Wuxiangjing14, Wunyunjing19, Wunyunjing24, Liangyou9, and Yongyou8). Growth analyses ...


Fire Legacies In Eastern Ponderosa Pine Forests, Caleb P. Roberts, Victoria M. Donovan, Carissa L. Wonkka, Larkin A. Powell, Craig R. Allen, David G. Angeler, David A. Wedin, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Fire Legacies In Eastern Ponderosa Pine Forests, Caleb P. Roberts, Victoria M. Donovan, Carissa L. Wonkka, Larkin A. Powell, Craig R. Allen, David G. Angeler, David A. Wedin, Dirac L. Twidwell Jr

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Disturbance legacies structure communities and ecological memory, but due to increasing changes in disturbance regimes, it is becoming more difficult to characterize disturbance legacies or determine how long they persist. We sought to quantify the characteristics and persistence of material legacies (e.g., biotic residuals of disturbance) that arise from variation in fire severity in an eastern ponderosa pine forest in North America. We compared forest stand structure and understory woody plant and bird community composition and species richness across unburned, low‐, moderate‐, and high‐severity burn patches in a 27‐year‐old mixed‐severity wildfire that had received minimal ...


The Genome Of Broomcorn Millet, Changsong Zou, Leiting Li, Daisuke Miki, Delin Li, Qiming Tang, Lihong Xiao, Santosh Rajput, Ping Deng, Li Peng, Wei Jia, Ru Huang, Meiling Zhang, Yidan Sun, Jiamin Hu, Xing Fu, Patrick S. Schnable, Yuxiao Chang, Feng Li, Hui Zhang, Baili Feng, Xinguang Zhu, Renyi Liu, James C. Schnable, Jian-Kang Zhu, Heng Zhang 2019 Chinese Academy of Sciences

The Genome Of Broomcorn Millet, Changsong Zou, Leiting Li, Daisuke Miki, Delin Li, Qiming Tang, Lihong Xiao, Santosh Rajput, Ping Deng, Li Peng, Wei Jia, Ru Huang, Meiling Zhang, Yidan Sun, Jiamin Hu, Xing Fu, Patrick S. Schnable, Yuxiao Chang, Feng Li, Hui Zhang, Baili Feng, Xinguang Zhu, Renyi Liu, James C. Schnable, Jian-Kang Zhu, Heng Zhang

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum L.) is the most water-efficient cereal and one of the earliest domesticated plants. Here we report its high-quality, chromosome-scale genome assembly using a combination of short-read sequencing, single-molecule real-time sequencing, Hi-C, and a high-density genetic map. Phylogenetic analyses reveal two sets of homologous chromosomes that may have merged ~5.6 million years ago, both of which exhibit strong synteny with other grass species. Broomcorn millet contains 55,930 proteincoding genes and 339 microRNA genes. We find Paniceae-specific expansion in several subfamilies of the BTB (broad complex/tramtrack/bric-a-brac) subunit of ubiquitin E3 ligases, suggesting enhanced regulation ...


Assessing Variation In Us Soybean Seed Composition (Protein And Oil), Yared Assefa, Larry C. Purcell, Montse Salmeron, Seth Naeve, Shaun N. Casteel, Peter Kovacs, Sotirios Archontoulis, Mark Licht, Fred Below, Herman Kandel, Laura E. Lindsey, John Gaska, Shawn Conley, Charles Shapiro, John M. Orlowski, Bobby R. Golden, Gurpreet Kaur, Maninderpal Singh, Kurt Thelen, Randall Laurenz, Dan Davidson, Igancio A. Ciampitti 2019 Kansas State University

Assessing Variation In Us Soybean Seed Composition (Protein And Oil), Yared Assefa, Larry C. Purcell, Montse Salmeron, Seth Naeve, Shaun N. Casteel, Peter Kovacs, Sotirios Archontoulis, Mark Licht, Fred Below, Herman Kandel, Laura E. Lindsey, John Gaska, Shawn Conley, Charles Shapiro, John M. Orlowski, Bobby R. Golden, Gurpreet Kaur, Maninderpal Singh, Kurt Thelen, Randall Laurenz, Dan Davidson, Igancio A. Ciampitti

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed composition and yield are a function of genetics (G), environment (E), and management (M) practices, but contribution of each factor to seed composition and yield are not well understood. The goal of this synthesis-analysis was to identify the main effects of G, E, and M factors on seed composition (protein and oil concentration) and yield. The entire dataset (13,574 data points) consisted of 21 studies conducted across the United States (US) between 2002 and 2017 with varying treatments and all reporting seed yield and composition. Environment (E), defined as site-year, was the dominant ...


Engineering Linear, Branched-Chain Triterpene Metabolism In Monocots, Chase Kempinski, Zuodong Jiang, Garrett Zinck, Shirley J. Sato, Zhengxiang Ge, Thomas E. Clemente, Joseph Chappell 2019 University of Kentucky

Engineering Linear, Branched-Chain Triterpene Metabolism In Monocots, Chase Kempinski, Zuodong Jiang, Garrett Zinck, Shirley J. Sato, Zhengxiang Ge, Thomas E. Clemente, Joseph Chappell

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Triterpenes are thirty-carbon compounds derived from the universal five-carbon prenyl precursors isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). Normally, triterpenes are synthesized via the mevalonate (MVA) pathway operating in the cytoplasm of eukaryotes where DMAPP is condensed with two IPPs to yield farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), catalyzed by FPP synthase (FPS). Squalene synthase (SQS) condenses two molecules of FPP to generate the symmetrical product squalene, the first committed precursor to sterols and most other triterpenes. In the green algae Botryococcus braunii, two FPP molecules can also be condensed in an asymmetric manner yielding the more highly branched triterpene, botryococcene. Botryococcene is ...


Relationships Between Wildfire Burn Severity, Cavity-Nesting Bird Assemblages, And Habitat In An Eastern Ponderosa Pine Forest, Emma C. Keele, Victoria M. Donovan, Caleb P. Roberts, Sarah M. Nodskov, Carissa L. Wonkka, Craig R. Allen, Larkin A. Powell, David A. Wedin, David G. Angeler, Dirac Twidwell 2019 University of Nebraska at Kearney

Relationships Between Wildfire Burn Severity, Cavity-Nesting Bird Assemblages, And Habitat In An Eastern Ponderosa Pine Forest, Emma C. Keele, Victoria M. Donovan, Caleb P. Roberts, Sarah M. Nodskov, Carissa L. Wonkka, Craig R. Allen, Larkin A. Powell, David A. Wedin, David G. Angeler, Dirac Twidwell

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Historically, eastern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests were described as sparse patches of old-growth trees maintained by frequent, low-severity fires; however, in recent decades, there have been a number of large mixed-severity wildfires throughout the range of these forests. Wildlife responses to severe fire disturbance in eastern ponderosa pine forests are not well understood. Our study investigates how cavity-nesting bird species in an eastern ponderosa pine forest are impacted by burn severity. The objectives of our study were to: (1) identify the community composition of cavity-nesting birds in a 27 y old burn of mixed severity, (2) assess how habitat ...


Apple Disease Forecasting Models: When Climate Changes The Rules, Elizabeth W. Garofalo 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Apple Disease Forecasting Models: When Climate Changes The Rules, Elizabeth W. Garofalo

Masters Theses

With a changing global climate, plant pathologists must understand the impact aberrant weather events may have on the development of plant diseases. Fungal plant infections are largely dependent on temperature and precipitation, climate parameters that are predicted to change more in this century. Venturia inaequalis causes apple scab, one of the most destructive apple diseases of temperate growing regions. Temperature and precipitation drive apple scab infections and forecast models, which guide growers in efficient, effective fungicide applications. In some recent years in the Northeast, these models have failed to accurately predict when ascospores of this fungus are available to cause ...


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