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Pedology At Four Representative Sites Of Southern Highland Zone Of Tanzania, Johnson Godlove Mtama, Balthazar Michael Msanya, Charles Lee Burras 2018 Tanzania Agricultural Research Institute: TARI

Pedology At Four Representative Sites Of Southern Highland Zone Of Tanzania, Johnson Godlove Mtama, Balthazar Michael Msanya, Charles Lee Burras

Agronomy Publications

To study the soils of Southern Highland Zone of Tanzania, four representative pedons of some landscapes were characterized. Their names and identifiers are Seatondale, Mbimba, Inyala, and Uyole, respectively TzSea 01, TzMb 02, TzIny 03, and TzUy04. The pedons were formed from the weathering of among other materials, colluvial igneous rocks, alluvium, eluvial soils, laterite, lacustrine sands and silts, andesite, pumice, aeolian deposits, and metamorphic rocks including coarse grained and strongly foliated biotite gneisses. Twenty soil samples were taken for laboratory characterization. In addition to classical horizon by horizon descriptions and laboratory analyses, 12 core samples were taken for soil-water ...


Development And Application Of The Heat Pulse Method For Soil Physical Measurements, Hailong He, Miles F. Dyck, Robert Horton, Tusheng Ren, Keith L. Bristow, Jialong Lv, Bingcheng Si 2018 Northwest A&F University

Development And Application Of The Heat Pulse Method For Soil Physical Measurements, Hailong He, Miles F. Dyck, Robert Horton, Tusheng Ren, Keith L. Bristow, Jialong Lv, Bingcheng Si

Agronomy Publications

Accurate and continuous measurements of soil thermal and hydraulic propertiesare required for environmental, Earth and planetary science, and engineering applications, but they are not practicallyobtained by steady-state methods. The heat pulse (HP) method is a transient method for determinationof soil thermal properties and a wide range of other physical properties in laboratory and field conditions. The HP method is based on the line-heat source solution of the radial heat flow equation. This literature review begins with a discussion of the evolution of the HP method and related applications, followed by the principal theories, data interpretation methods and their differences. Important ...


Spatial Response Of Near-Surface Soil Water Contents To Newly Imposed Soil Management, Aaron L. M. Daigh, Upasana Ghosh, Jodi DeJong-Hughes, Robert Horton 2018 North Dakota State University--Fargo

Spatial Response Of Near-Surface Soil Water Contents To Newly Imposed Soil Management, Aaron L. M. Daigh, Upasana Ghosh, Jodi Dejong-Hughes, Robert Horton

Agronomy Publications

Near-surface soil water content (SWC) and its spatial patterns are important for landscape hydrological responses to precipitation as well as our ability to remotely sense and model such responses. Our objective was to measure and evaluate near-surface SWC semivariograms of agricultural fields with newly imposed (i.e., <2 yr) side-by-side soil and residue management practices (i.e., reduced tillage systems and cover crops) in the midwestern United States. Range parameters were consistently smaller when cover crops were planted (20–25 m less) and tillage area and/or intensity was reduced (12–27 m less) compared with no cover crop and chisel plowing, respectively, except in a clayey Vertisol. Nugget and sill parameters did not have consistent trends across soil management practices or sites. These data, although brief and preliminary in scope, provide clear proof of concept that spatial pattern shifts can be clearly detected in newly imposed soil-management systems even though differences in SWC means are not always evident.


Perma/Culture: Imagining Alternatives In An Age Of Crisis By Molly Wallace And David Carruthers, Bryant Scott 2018 University of Miami

Perma/Culture: Imagining Alternatives In An Age Of Crisis By Molly Wallace And David Carruthers, Bryant Scott

The Goose

Review of Molly Wallace and David Carruthers' Perma/Culture: Imagining Alternatives in an Age of Crisis.


Approaches For Estimating Soil Water Retention Curves At Various Bulk Densities With The Extended Van Genuchten Model, Zhengchao Tian, Weida Gao, Dilia Kool, Tusheng Ren, Robert Horton, Joshua L. Heitman 2018 North Carolina State University

Approaches For Estimating Soil Water Retention Curves At Various Bulk Densities With The Extended Van Genuchten Model, Zhengchao Tian, Weida Gao, Dilia Kool, Tusheng Ren, Robert Horton, Joshua L. Heitman

Agronomy Publications

Soil bulk density (ρb) variations influence soil hydraulic properties, such as the water retention curve (WRC), but they are usually ignored in soil-water simulation models. We extend the van Genuchten WRC model parameters to account for ρb variations using a series of empirical expressions. WRC measurements made on eight soils with various ρb and textures are used to calibrate these ρb–related empirical equations. Accordingly, two approaches are developed to estimate WRCs of soils at various ρb. Another eight soils with a wide range of ρb and textures are used to evaluate the accuracy of the new approaches. Approach 1 ...


Summary Of Advances In The Heat-Pulse Technique: Improvements In Measuring Soil Thermal Properties, Minmin Wen, Gang Liu, Robert Horton, Yili Lu, Tusheng Ren 2018 China Agricultural University

Summary Of Advances In The Heat-Pulse Technique: Improvements In Measuring Soil Thermal Properties, Minmin Wen, Gang Liu, Robert Horton, Yili Lu, Tusheng Ren

Agronomy Publications

This essay provides a summary of “Advances in the Heat-Pulse Technique: Improvements in Measuring Soil Thermal Properties” recently appearing in Methods of Soil Analysis. Series.


Phosphorus Vs. Mycorrhiza: Mitigation Of Lead Uptake In Tomatoes, Helen Senerchia, Liz Miernicki, Andrew Margenot 2018 Community College of Philadelphia

Phosphorus Vs. Mycorrhiza: Mitigation Of Lead Uptake In Tomatoes, Helen Senerchia, Liz Miernicki, Andrew Margenot

PRECS 2018

This study seeks to understand how the mutualist relationship between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM) and Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) affects the uptake and distribution of iron (Pb) found in soil by tomatoes and how the effects of phosphorous (P) application may pose a trade-off between AM and P mitigation of bioavailability of Pb.


How Do Different Levels Of Ph Affect The Growth Of Heritage And Regular Radish Plants?, Kathleen Bradie 2018 Fort Richmond Collegiate

How Do Different Levels Of Ph Affect The Growth Of Heritage And Regular Radish Plants?, Kathleen Bradie

The International Student Science Fair 2018

The purpose of this experiment was to discover how the pH levels in water affect heritage and regular radish mass. I predicted that if the pH levels are near neutral the plants mass will increase. PH solutions of 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 were added to my regular and heritage plants over the course of several weeks. After using the pH solutions the radishes were pulled and massed to reveal the results. The results showed that the heritage pH 5 and regular pH 7 radishes grew best.


Editorial: Optimizing Miscanthus For The Sustainable Bioeconomy: From Genes To Products, Kerrie Farrar, Emily A. Heaton, Luisa M. Trindade 2018 Aberystwyth University

Editorial: Optimizing Miscanthus For The Sustainable Bioeconomy: From Genes To Products, Kerrie Farrar, Emily A. Heaton, Luisa M. Trindade

Agronomy Publications

In this Research Topic we report advances in fundamental and applied aspects of the perennial C4 bioenergy crop miscanthus (Miscanthus spp.) and its role in mitigating climate change as part of the bioeconomy. Miscanthus is a high yielding C4 perennial grass with great potential for sustainable biomass production in temperate climates, including Europe and North America as well as its native Asia. With high resource use efficiency and good biomass quality, miscanthus is a well-suited feedstock for a plethora of applications including bioenergy, biofuels and biomaterials (van der Weijde et al.).


Field Pea Response To Seeding Rate, Depth, And Inoculant In West-Central Nebraska, Strahinja V. Stepanovic, Charles Burr, Julie A. Peterson, Daran Rudnick, Cody F Creech, Rodrigo Werle 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Field Pea Response To Seeding Rate, Depth, And Inoculant In West-Central Nebraska, Strahinja V. Stepanovic, Charles Burr, Julie A. Peterson, Daran Rudnick, Cody F Creech, Rodrigo Werle

West Central Research and Extension Center, North Platte

Increased market demand and larger adoption of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) in semiarid west-central Nebraska has provided opportunities to replace summer fallow and diversify crop rotations. As a relatively new crop, its response to different seeding practices has not been evaluated in this eco-region. Field pea grain yield response to seeding depth (25, 50, and 75 mm), inoculation with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae (yes and no rhizobia inoculant), and seeding rates (35, 50, 65, 75, 90, 105, and 120 plants m–2) was investigated in 2015 and 2016 at five sites in Perkins County, NE. There were no differences ...


A Deep Learning Framework To Discern And Count Microscopic Nematode Eggs, Adedotun Akintayo, Gregory L. Tylka, Asheesh K. Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Arti Singh, Soumik Sarkar 2018 Iowa State University

A Deep Learning Framework To Discern And Count Microscopic Nematode Eggs, Adedotun Akintayo, Gregory L. Tylka, Asheesh K. Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Arti Singh, Soumik Sarkar

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

In order to identify and control the menace of destructive pests via microscopic image-based identification state-of-the art deep learning architecture is demonstrated on the parasitic worm, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines. Soybean yield loss is negatively correlated with the density of SCN eggs that are present in the soil. While there has been progress in automating extraction of egg-filled cysts and eggs from soil samples counting SCN eggs obtained from soil samples using computer vision techniques has proven to be an extremely difficult challenge. Here we show that a deep learning architecture developed for rare object identification in ...


Qqs Orphan Gene And Its Interactor Nf‐Yc4 Reduce Susceptibility To Pathogens And Pests, Mingsheng Qi, Wenguang Zheng, Xuefeng Zhao, Jessica D. Hohenstein, Yuba Kandel, Seth O’Conner, Yifan Wang, Chuanlong Du, Dan Nettleton, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Gregory L. Tylka, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Steven A. Whitham, Ling Li 2018 Iowa State University

Qqs Orphan Gene And Its Interactor Nf‐Yc4 Reduce Susceptibility To Pathogens And Pests, Mingsheng Qi, Wenguang Zheng, Xuefeng Zhao, Jessica D. Hohenstein, Yuba Kandel, Seth O’Conner, Yifan Wang, Chuanlong Du, Dan Nettleton, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Gregory L. Tylka, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Steven A. Whitham, Ling Li

Plant Pathology and Microbiology Publications

Enhancing the nutritional quality and disease resistance of crops without sacrificing productivity is a key issue for developing varieties that are valuable to farmers and for simultaneously improving food security and sustainability. Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana species‐specific AtQQS (Qua‐Quine Starch) orphan gene or its interactor, NF‐YC4 (Nuclear Factor Y, subunit C4), has been shown to increase levels of leaf/seed protein without affecting the growth and yield of agronomic species. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of AtQQS and NF‐YC4 in Arabidopsis and soybean enhances resistance/reduces susceptibility to viruses, bacteria, fungi, aphids, and soybean cyst ...


Soil Science In Precision Agriculture Lesson Plan, Carson Ellis Cronkright 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Soil Science In Precision Agriculture Lesson Plan, Carson Ellis Cronkright

Agricultural Education and Communication

Due to the increasing demands for the American agricultural industry to provide exceptional products at an increasing rate of production, as well as implement the practice of sustainable farming, it is imperative that more modern concepts be taught at a younger age (Ray, 2013). In order to inform students of advancements and the future of agriculture in the United States, curriculum and lesson plans should reflect this movement in industry in order to provide relevant information and maintain the highest quality of education possible. This project will provide a constructed lesson plan as one example of adopting more progressive methods ...


Sandy Peas: Can Pisum Sativum Survive In Sandy Soil, Emily Gillett 2018 Western Oregon University

Sandy Peas: Can Pisum Sativum Survive In Sandy Soil, Emily Gillett

Academic Excellence Showcase Proceedings

As the world population continues to grow, we continue to expand the agricultural lands. Not every soil available is the most nutrient dense or ideally irrigated. It’s estimated that environmental stressors are increasingly contributing to the loss of crops (Macedo, A. F., 2011). Crops are needing to be grown in harsher environments than the ideal farmlands. Knowing what stressors a species can deal with and what will definitely destroy it can help farmers get more successful harvests in imperfect conditions. This experiment aims to test the resilience of pea plants (Pisum sativum) in sandy soil. If plants need nutrients ...


Physiological Effects Of Disrupted Circadian Cycles In Geranium Oreganum, Chelsea Bitner 2018 Western Oregon University

Physiological Effects Of Disrupted Circadian Cycles In Geranium Oreganum, Chelsea Bitner

Academic Excellence Showcase Proceedings

No abstract provided.


The Affects Of Root Space Restriction On Helianthus Annuus, Mekayla Malarkey 2018 Western Oregon University

The Affects Of Root Space Restriction On Helianthus Annuus, Mekayla Malarkey

Academic Excellence Showcase Proceedings

The plant root system functions in water/mineral absorption, food storage and anchoring for the plant’s shoot systems. When a plant is experiencing root restriction, it becomes more stressed. In this study, I aimed to investigate the relationship between root restriction and the physiological effects on Helianthus annuus; I hypothesized that H. annuus will experience reduced physiological function. Control plants (n=5) were grown in 7-Liter pots and root restricted plants (n=5) were grown in 9 cm pots. After four weeks of treatment with ample water and nutrients, a series of physiological and anatomical tests were performed. The ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


Impact Of Ultrasonication On Physicochemical Properties And Digestibility Of Sorghum Starch, Zhihong Wang 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Impact Of Ultrasonication On Physicochemical Properties And Digestibility Of Sorghum Starch, Zhihong Wang

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Sorghum, a highly nutritious grain, is usually not considered as a main staple in many families because it is not as easy to be digested as other grains such as rice or maize. But recent studies of ultrasonication shed a light on potential utilization of this world’s fifth important cereal other than being raw material source of biofuel or liquor. This experiment was meant to compare the differences between unsonicated and sonicated sorghum starch in terms of their physical chemical properties and digestion ability. Despite their similarities in shapes under microscopes and their thermal properties, but sonicated sorghum starch ...


The Use Of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum) Suspension Cells For Rapid Screening Of Chloroplast Transformation Vectors, Lindsey Shover 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Use Of Potato (Solanum Tuberosum) Suspension Cells For Rapid Screening Of Chloroplast Transformation Vectors, Lindsey Shover

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Chloroplast genetic engineering is unique in that it allows for high levels of gene expression while providing a means of natural bio-confinement. Although the chloroplast genome sequence of over 800 plant species is known, the elements that naturally regulate chloroplast gene expression are poorly understood. Recently, our lab has developed a 264 part modular cloning kit that contains known chloroplast regulatory elements. This kit can be used for the construction of novel chloroplast transformation cassettes; however, functional testing of these cassettes is currently hindered by standard chloroplast transformation technologies. Therefore, the aim of this experiment was to develop a rapid ...


Effect Of Pinching And Spacing On The Growth And Development Of Sunflowers (Helianthus Annuus) In East Texas, Bilawal Irshad Cheema 2018 Stephen F. Austin State University

Effect Of Pinching And Spacing On The Growth And Development Of Sunflowers (Helianthus Annuus) In East Texas, Bilawal Irshad Cheema

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Helianthus annuus cultivars were grown in East Texas to evaluate the effect of pinching and spacing on their growth and development. The first experiment was conducted twice (Trial 1A, 28 April 2017 and Trial 1B, 3 August 2017) to evaluate the effect of pinching at nodes 1, 2, 3, and 4 on sunflower cultivars ‘Superior Gold’, ‘Pro Cut Gold’, ‘Sun Bright Supreme’, ‘Vincent’s Choice’, and ‘Sunrich Lemon’. For trial 1A, all the non-pinched treatments for the five cultivars produced marketable stem lengths, stem diameters, flower diameters, and disk diameters. For the cultivar ‘Superior Gold’ all the treatments produced marketable ...


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