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Summaries Of Arkansas Cotton Research 2019, Fred Bourland 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Summaries Of Arkansas Cotton Research 2019, Fred Bourland

Research Series

Statewide, temperatures and precipitation were mostly above average (https://www.weather.gov/lzk/cli2019atxt.htm). The 2019 season was the wettest since 2015, and the 7th wettest on record. The wettest month was May, and the driest month was September. By average temperature, the coldest month was January, and the warmest month was August. Considering departures from normal, the most significant warmth occurred in September, which was 7.0 degrees above average. Many fields were muddy or underwater, given a lot of rain early in the year, and extensive river flooding (including the historic Arkansas River flood). It was far ...


Floral Traits And Carbon Dynamics Of Cucumber In Response To Climate Change, Sarah Josina McDonald 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Floral Traits And Carbon Dynamics Of Cucumber In Response To Climate Change, Sarah Josina Mcdonald

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pollination by animals is an important ecosystem service that contributes to the reproduction of many angiosperms. Climate change may alter this mutualism by affecting floral traits that are important to pollinators. Using Cucumis sativus, I tested the effects of experimentally elevated temperature and CO2 concentration on flowering onset, flower number, flower size, and floral rewards. Additionally, to better understand plant carbon balance and investment in reproduction, I measured biomass partitioning and leaf carbon fluxes of plants under their growth conditions. Carbon dynamics were similar across treatments, and plants grown under high [CO2] and temperature showed similar biomass production ...


Influence Of Cover Crop Management Practices On Rainfed Corn Production In Semi-Arid Western Nebraska, Alexandre Tonon Rosa 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Influence Of Cover Crop Management Practices On Rainfed Corn Production In Semi-Arid Western Nebraska, Alexandre Tonon Rosa

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

With the increased cover crop (CC) popularity, producers of semi-arid regions of western Nebraska are questioning whether they could successfully incorporate CC into their rainfed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-corn (Zea mays L.)-fallow rotations. The major concern is that CCs may deplete soil water affecting the subsequent crop. Therefore, three studies were established under rainfed conditions of western Nebraska to access the effects of CCs on soil water, soil compaction, nutrient cycling, weed demographics, residue coverage, and subsequent corn yield. The first study evaluated the influence of CC planting and termination times prior to corn establishment. Late termination ...


Effects Of Char On Nitrogen Management In Agricultural Soils Of Semi-Arid Western Nebraska, Dinesh Panday 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Effects Of Char On Nitrogen Management In Agricultural Soils Of Semi-Arid Western Nebraska, Dinesh Panday

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Soils in western Nebraska are characterized by low soil organic C due to semi-arid environment in the region and further aggravated by disruption of soil aggregates and rapid C decomposition from intensive tillage, erosion, and frequent droughts. Proper management of soil C may improve soil properties, reduce N losses, and subsequently improve crop yields in this low C soil and low moisture condition. This dissertation focuses on C-rich coal char (henceforth “char”) as a potential strategy to overcome the existing problem of low C in semi-arid region. Char is an industrial by-product, resulting from inefficient coal burning during sugar beet ...


Effects Of Tank Contamination And Impact Of Drift-Reducing Agents On Weed Control In Response To Dicamba Applications, Milos Zaric 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Effects Of Tank Contamination And Impact Of Drift-Reducing Agents On Weed Control In Response To Dicamba Applications, Milos Zaric

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Availability of dicamba-tolerant (DT) crops from 2017 provided farmers with additional herbicides for weed control management in row crops. However, the technology alike this one has concerns regarding dicamba off-target movement (OTM) causing undesirable effects on sensitive vegetation. Even though dicamba has high water solubility OTM that has often been overlooked when it comes to unintended crop exposure is dicamba tank contamination. Considering the complexity of spraying equipment soybean response may be expected even when small amounts of residues are left in the spray equipment. Typically, the same field spray equipment is used to perform herbicide application through growing season ...


Recurrent Formation, Low Levels Of Ecological Differentiation, And Secondary Dispersal Facilitate The Establishment And Persistence Of Autopolyploids In Eriophyllum Lanatum, Nicolas Alexander Diaz 2020 Portland State University

Recurrent Formation, Low Levels Of Ecological Differentiation, And Secondary Dispersal Facilitate The Establishment And Persistence Of Autopolyploids In Eriophyllum Lanatum, Nicolas Alexander Diaz

Dissertations and Theses

The high rates of polyploidization events in angiosperms is a well-documented driver of diversification and speciation. The consequences of polyploidy--from gene expression up to ecology--and the processes facilitating the persistence of polyploidy in its early establishment in populations are poorly understood. In this thesis, I examined the role of recurrent formation, ecological differentiation, and secondary dispersal via biotic vectors in the maintenance and persistence of an intervarietal polyploid contact zone of Eriophyllum lanatum in Southern Oregon. Sampling 35 total populations, I used a whole chloroplast capture and flow cytometry to determine the diversity and distribution of chloroplast haplotypes and estimate ...


Floodplain Forest Regeneration Dynamics In The Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, Whitney Anne Kroschel 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Floodplain Forest Regeneration Dynamics In The Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, Whitney Anne Kroschel

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Floodplain forest species diversity is driven, in part, by variation in disturbance regime. Flood patterns create heterogeneity in microsite quality from small differences in elevation across a floodplain which, in turn, influence flood timing and duration. Differences in species’ regeneration niches in relation to hydrologic patterns can account for long-term coexistence of various species. In the past century floodplain forests have exhibited a wide range of changes in stand development and species composition as a result of altered hydrology in rivers and floodplains. I evaluated the role of regeneration in floodplain forest systems of the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley ...


Optimal Allocation Of Two Resources In Annual Plants, David McMorris 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Optimal Allocation Of Two Resources In Annual Plants, David Mcmorris

Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research Papers in Mathematics

The fitness of an annual plant can be thought of as how much fruit is produced by the end of its growing season. Under the assumption that annual plants grow to maximize fitness, we can use techniques from optimal control theory to understand this process. We introduce two models for resource allocation in annual plants which extend classical work by Iwasa and Roughgarden to a case where both carbohydrates and mineral nutrients are allocated to shoots, roots, and fruits in annual plants. In each case, we use optimal control theory to determine the optimal resource allocation strategy for the plant ...


Evaluating Opportunities For Integrated Crop Livestock Systems In Eastern Nebraska, Elizabeth Kay Christenson 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Evaluating Opportunities For Integrated Crop Livestock Systems In Eastern Nebraska, Elizabeth Kay Christenson

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Current agricultural systems focused on production of few commodities are facing production, economic, and environmental challenges. To address these challenges, Integrated Crop Livestock Systems (ICLS) have emerged through three primary methods 1) perennial grasslands for grazing and/or hay production, 2) crop residue grazing, and 3) cover crop grazing. To evaluate potential of ICLS mitigating current challenges, a field scale model ICLS was developed in 2015. The ICLS includes 4-ha each of ‘Newell’ smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis L.), ‘Liberty’ switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), and ‘Shawnee’ switchgrass. The ICLS also included 8-ha of continuous corn (Zea mays L.). In 2016, only ...


Effects Of Pyric Herbivory On Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus Spp) Habitat, Heath D. Starns, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, Robert D. Elmore, Dirac Twidwell, Eric T. Thacker, Torre J. Hovick, Barney Luttbeg 2020 Oklahoma State University

Effects Of Pyric Herbivory On Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus Spp) Habitat, Heath D. Starns, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, Robert D. Elmore, Dirac Twidwell, Eric T. Thacker, Torre J. Hovick, Barney Luttbeg

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

The reduction and simplification of grasslands has led to the decline of numerous species of grassland fauna, particularly grassland-obligate birds. Prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus spp.) are an example of obligate grassland birds that have declined throughout most of their distribution and are species of conservation concern. Pyric herbivory has been suggested as a land management strategy for enhancing prairie-chicken habitat and stabilizing declining population trends. We assessed differences in vegetation structure created by pyric herbivory compared to fire-only treatments to determine whether pyric herbivory increased habitat heterogeneity for prairie-chickens, spatially or temporally. Our study was performed at four sites in the southern ...


Weed Control Efficacy Of Bio-Based Sprayable Mulch Films In Specialty Crop Systems, Eliott Gloeb 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Weed Control Efficacy Of Bio-Based Sprayable Mulch Films In Specialty Crop Systems, Eliott Gloeb

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

A sprayable bio-based mulch film (biofilm) could present a more sustainable weed management tool for specialty crop producers than conventional plastic mulch films while also offering flexibility in application patterns and timing. From 2017 to 2019, six greenhouse trials and four field trials were conducted at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to study the effects of biofilm application on weed suppression and crop yields. Multiple application rates (0.81 L/m2 - 9.78 L/m2) and application times (prior to weed emergence and post weed emergence) were tested. Corn starch, glycerol, keratin hydrolysate, corn gluten meal, corn zein, and ...


Production And Selection Of Quality Protein Popcorn Hybrids Using A Novel Ranking System And Combining Ability Estimates, Leandra Parsons, Ying Ren, Abou Yobi, Preston Hurst, Ruthie Angelovici, Oscar Rodriguez, David R. Holding 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Production And Selection Of Quality Protein Popcorn Hybrids Using A Novel Ranking System And Combining Ability Estimates, Leandra Parsons, Ying Ren, Abou Yobi, Preston Hurst, Ruthie Angelovici, Oscar Rodriguez, David R. Holding

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Popcorn varieties are agronomically sub-optimal and genetically limited compared to other maize subspecies. To increase genetic diversity and improve popcorn agronomics, dent germplasm has been introduced to popcorn with limited success and generally, major loss of popping. Between 2013 and 2018, 12 Quality Protein Popcorn (QPP) inbreds containing Quality Protein Maize (QPM) and popcorn germplasm were produced that maintained popping while carrying the opaque-2 allele conferring elevated kernel lysine. This is an opportune trait in the growing market for healthier snacks and a model for mining QPM traits into popcorn. We crossed QPP inbreds to explore the effects of heterosis ...


Genomic Prediction Enhanced Sparse Testing For Multi-Environment Trials, Diego Jarquin, Reka Howard, José Crossa, Yoseph Beyene, Manje Gowda, Johannes W.R. Martini, Giovanny Covarrubias Pazaran, Juan Burgueño, Angela Pacheco, Martin Grondona, Valentin Wimmer, Boddupalli M. Prasanna 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Genomic Prediction Enhanced Sparse Testing For Multi-Environment Trials, Diego Jarquin, Reka Howard, José Crossa, Yoseph Beyene, Manje Gowda, Johannes W.R. Martini, Giovanny Covarrubias Pazaran, Juan Burgueño, Angela Pacheco, Martin Grondona, Valentin Wimmer, Boddupalli M. Prasanna

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

“Sparse testing” refers to reduced multi-environment breeding trials in which not all genotypes of interest are grown in each environment. Using genomic-enabled prediction and a model embracing genotype · environment interaction (GE), the non-observed genotype-in-environment combinations can be predicted. Consequently, the overall costs can be reduced and the testing capacities can be increased. The accuracy of predicting the unobserved data depends on different factors including (1) how many genotypes overlap between environments, (2) in how many environments each genotype is grown, and (3) which prediction method is used. In this research, we studied the predictive ability obtained when using a fixed ...


Investigating The Role Of Carbon Stress In The Mortality Of Tamarack Seedlings Under A Warming Environment, Bridget K. Murphy 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Investigating The Role Of Carbon Stress In The Mortality Of Tamarack Seedlings Under A Warming Environment, Bridget K. Murphy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Climate warming is increasing the frequency of climate-induced tree mortality events. While drought combined with heat is considered the primary cause of this tree mortality, little is known about whether high temperatures alone can induce mortality, or whether rising CO2 will increase survival. I grew tamarack in two experiments combining warming (0-8 ˚C above ambient) and CO2 (400-750 ppm) to investigate whether high growth temperatures led to carbon limitations and mortality. Using glasshouses, +8 ˚C warming with ambient CO2 (8TAC) led to 40% mortality despite thermal acclimation of respiration. Dying 8TAC seedlings had lower needle carbon concentrations ...


Characterizing Variation In Nitrogen Use Efficiency In Wheat Genotypes Using Proximal Canopy Sensing For Sustainable Wheat Production, Mohammed A. Naser, Raj Khosla, Louis Longchamps, Subash Dahal 2020 Al-Muthanna University & University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterizing Variation In Nitrogen Use Efficiency In Wheat Genotypes Using Proximal Canopy Sensing For Sustainable Wheat Production, Mohammed A. Naser, Raj Khosla, Louis Longchamps, Subash Dahal

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Global nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) for cereal production is marginal and is estimated to be about 33%. Remote sensing tools have tremendous potential for improving NUE in crops through efficient nitrogen management as well as the identification of high-NUE genotypes. The objectives of this study were (i) to identify and quantify the variation in NUE across 24 winter wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.) and (ii) to determine if the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) could characterize the variability in NUE across wheat genotypes. This study was conducted in 2010 and 2011 in the semi-arid climate of Northeastern Colorado across dryland ...


Metabolomic Profiling Of Nicotiana Spp. Nectars Indicate That Pollinator Feeding Preference Is A Stronger Determinant Than Plant Phylogenetics In Shaping Nectar Diversity, Fredy A. Silva, Elizabeth C. Chatt, Siti-Nabilla Mahalim, Adel Guirgis, Xingche Guo, Dan S. Nettleton, Basil J. Nikolau, Robert W. Thornburg 2020 Iowa State University

Metabolomic Profiling Of Nicotiana Spp. Nectars Indicate That Pollinator Feeding Preference Is A Stronger Determinant Than Plant Phylogenetics In Shaping Nectar Diversity, Fredy A. Silva, Elizabeth C. Chatt, Siti-Nabilla Mahalim, Adel Guirgis, Xingche Guo, Dan S. Nettleton, Basil J. Nikolau, Robert W. Thornburg

Statistics Publications

Floral nectar is a rich secretion produced by the nectary gland and is offered as reward to attract pollinators leading to improved seed set. Nectars are composed of a complex mixture of sugars, amino acids, proteins, vitamins, lipids, organic and inorganic acids. This composition is influenced by several factors, including floral morphology, mechanism of nectar secretion, time of flowering, and visitation by pollinators. The objective of this study was to determine the contributions of flowering time, plant phylogeny, and pollinator selection on nectar composition in Nicotiana. The main classes of nectar metabolites (sugars and amino acids) were quantified using gas ...


Effects Of Flower Color On Pollination And Seed Production In Lupinus Perennis, Amanda Morris 2020 Bowling Green State University

Effects Of Flower Color On Pollination And Seed Production In Lupinus Perennis, Amanda Morris

Honors Projects

We examined how flower color morphs (blue vs white) in Lupinus perennis affect the probability of a flower setting fruit, average mass of a seed produced, and average number of seeds per pod.


Assessing Approaches For Stratifying Producer Fields Based On Biophysical Attributes For Regional Yield-Gap Analysis, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Patricio Grassini, Juan I. Rattalino Edreira, José F. Andrade, Peter M. Kyveryga, Shawn P. Conley 2020 Agstat Consulting, Athens, Greece

Assessing Approaches For Stratifying Producer Fields Based On Biophysical Attributes For Regional Yield-Gap Analysis, Spyridon Mourtzinis, Patricio Grassini, Juan I. Rattalino Edreira, José F. Andrade, Peter M. Kyveryga, Shawn P. Conley

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Large databases containing producer field-level yield and management records can be used to identify causes of yield gaps. A relevant question is how to account for the diverse biophysical background (i.e., climate and soil) across fields and years, which can confound the effect of a given management practice on yield. Here we evaluated two approaches to group producer fields based on biophysical attributes: (i) a technology extrapolation domain spatial framework (‘TEDs’) that delineates regions with similar (long-term average) annual weather and soil water storage capacity and (ii) clusters based on field-specific soil properties and weather during each crop phase ...


Wayne E. Sabbe Arkansas Soil Fertility Studies 2019, Nathan A. Slaton 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Wayne E. Sabbe Arkansas Soil Fertility Studies 2019, Nathan A. Slaton

Research Series

Rapid technological changes in crop management and production require that the research efforts be presented in an expeditious manner. The contributions of soil fertility and fertilizers are major production factors in all Arkansas crops. The studies described within will allow producers to compare their practices with the university’s research efforts. Additionally, soil-test data and fertilizer sales are presented to allow comparisons among years, crops, and other areas within Arkansas.


Effects Of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Levels On Tobacco Mosaic Virus And Root-Knot Nematodes In Genetically Resistant And Susceptible Tomato Plants, Angie Nicholas 2020 Stephen F. Austin State University

Effects Of Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Levels On Tobacco Mosaic Virus And Root-Knot Nematodes In Genetically Resistant And Susceptible Tomato Plants, Angie Nicholas

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) may affect plant/pathogen interactions. This study focused on the effects of elevated CO2 on Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) and Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) infection in genetically resistant versus susceptible tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum). Both resistant and susceptible tomatoes were grown in chambers with either ambient CO2 or CO2 elevated to 750 ppm and infected with M. arenaria or TMV. Measurements were taken at regular intervals to determine the effects of the pathogens on the plants. Resistant plants infected with M. arenaria maintained resistance while susceptible plants remained susceptible at both CO ...


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