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An Investigation Of The Plant Growth Promoting Abilities Of Pseudomonas Fluorescens Uw4 Under Toxic Metal Stress, Joshua J. Frank 2016 The University of Western Ontario

An Investigation Of The Plant Growth Promoting Abilities Of Pseudomonas Fluorescens Uw4 Under Toxic Metal Stress, Joshua J. Frank

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

I investigated plant-microbe-metal interactions under metal stress. In theory, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) promote plant growth by reducing stress ethylene and synthesizing indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The putative PGPR Pseudomonas fluorescens UW4 and a mutant strain that lacked an enzyme critical to the reduction of plant ethylene were studied to determine if they could promote Arabidopsis thaliana growth under cadmium and copper stress conditions. Both strains of P. fluorescens UW4 adhered to roots and synthesized IAA, and the wild-type lowered metal stress-induced ethylene in Arabidopsis, but neither strain enhanced plant growth. Wildtype P. fluorescens UW4 and its mutant had no ...


Transcriptome Response Of Cassava Leaves Under Natural Shade, Zehong Ding, Yang Zhang, Yi Xiao, Fangfang Liu, Minghui Wang, Xinguang Zhu, Peng Liu, Qi Sun, Wenquan Wang, Ming Peng, Tom Brutnell, Pinghua Li 2016 Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences (CATAS), Haikou, Hainan

Transcriptome Response Of Cassava Leaves Under Natural Shade, Zehong Ding, Yang Zhang, Yi Xiao, Fangfang Liu, Minghui Wang, Xinguang Zhu, Peng Liu, Qi Sun, Wenquan Wang, Ming Peng, Tom Brutnell, Pinghua Li

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Cassava is an important staple crop in tropical and sub-tropical areas. As a common farming practice, cassava is usually cultivated intercropping with other crops and subjected to various degrees of shading, which causes reduced productivity. Herein, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on a series of developmental cassava leaves under both full sunlight and natural shade conditions. Gene expression profiles of these two conditions exhibited similar developmental transitions, e.g. genes related to cell wall and basic cellular metabolism were highly expressed in immature leaves, genes involved in lipid metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis were highly expressed during the transition stages ...


Evaluation Of The Water Stress-Inducible Promoter Wsi18 In The Model Monocot Brachypodium Distachyon, Patrick D. Langille 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Evaluation Of The Water Stress-Inducible Promoter Wsi18 In The Model Monocot Brachypodium Distachyon, Patrick D. Langille

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Water deficit-inducible promoters that function in multiple species are valuable components for engineering stress-tolerant crops. Wsi18 is a water deficit-inducible promoter native to Oryza sativa. In this study, Brachypodium distachyon (B. distachyon) was used to determine if Wsi18 retained its water deficit-inducible characteristics in another monocot. Transgenic B. distachyon plants, in which the Wsi18 promoter drove the expression of the uidA reporter gene, were developed and exposed to osmotic stress generated by mannitol, salt stress conditions, and the water deficit-signaling phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA). GUS histochemical assays demonstrated increased uidA expression in the leaves and stem of mannitol, NaCl, and ...


In Vitro Motility Of Actin Filaments Powered By Plant Myosins Xi, Cesar A. Quintana-Cataño, Christopher J. Staiger, Weiwei Zhang 2016 Universidad de Los Andes - Colombia

In Vitro Motility Of Actin Filaments Powered By Plant Myosins Xi, Cesar A. Quintana-Cataño, Christopher J. Staiger, Weiwei Zhang

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The actomyosin network is thought to support fundamental processes of plant development and cell expansion such as polarized elongation of root hairs and the diffuse growth of epidermal and mesophyll cells. Inhibition of myosins via pharmacological treatments represents one of the key approaches for understanding of their roles in different cellular processes. However, the use of the standard plant myosin inhibitor, 2,3-butanedionemonoxime (BDM), is questioned as it requires a high concentration and may not be as specific as desired. By testing drugs that inhibit animal and yeast myosins V, the Staiger laboratory previously found pentabromopseudilin (PBP) as a potential ...


Do Novel Weapons That Degrade Mycorrhizal Mutualisms Explain Invasive Species Success?, Philip L. Pinzone Mr. 2016 Buffalo State College

Do Novel Weapons That Degrade Mycorrhizal Mutualisms Explain Invasive Species Success?, Philip L. Pinzone Mr.

Biology Theses

Invasive plants often dominate novel habitats where they did not co-evolve with local species. Several hypotheses suggest mechanisms that explain increased exotic plant success, including 'novel weapons' and 'degraded mutualisms'. Japanese knotweed (Fallopia japonica) and European buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica) are widespread plant invaders in North America that can dominate ecosystems. The goal of this study is to test whether these impacts are more consistent with novel weapons or degraded mutualism hypotheses. I examine tree seedling recruitment, (germination and initial survival) growth, (biomass) and mycorrhizal invasion (AMF content) as a function of F. japonica and R. cathartica root exudates. Given that ...


Computational Analyses Of Mrna Ribosome Loading In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Joseph Benjamin Ernest 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Computational Analyses Of Mrna Ribosome Loading In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Joseph Benjamin Ernest

Doctoral Dissertations

Translation of mRNA into protein is a critical step in gene expression, but the principles guiding its regulation at the genome level are not completely understood. Translation can be quantified at a genome scale by measuring the ribosome loading of mRNA—the extent to which mRNA is associated with ribosomes. In this dissertation, I present investigations into how genome-wide ribosome loading is controlled in Arabidopsis thaliana. In chapter 1, I give an overview of regulation of ribosome loading and translation. In chapter 2, I present research demonstrating for the first time that genome-wide ribosome loading in plants is partially controlled ...


Habitat Temperature And Precipitation Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Ecotypes Determine The Response Of Foliar Vasculature, Photosynthesis, And Transpiration To Growth Temperature, William W. Adams III, Jared J. Stewart, Christopher M. Cohu, Onno Muller, Barbara Demmig-Adams 2016 University of Colorado Boulder

Habitat Temperature And Precipitation Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Ecotypes Determine The Response Of Foliar Vasculature, Photosynthesis, And Transpiration To Growth Temperature, William W. Adams Iii, Jared J. Stewart, Christopher M. Cohu, Onno Muller, Barbara Demmig-Adams

Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Faculty Contributions

Acclimatory adjustments of foliar vascular architecture, photosynthetic capacity, and transpiration rate in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes (Italian, Polish [Col-0], Swedish) were characterized in the context of habitat of origin. Temperatures of the habitat of origin decreased linearly with increasing habitat latitude, but habitat precipitation was greatest in Italy, lowest in Poland, and intermediate in Sweden. Plants of the three ecotypes raised under three different growth temperature regimes (low, moderate, and high) exhibited highest photosynthetic capacities, greatest leaf thickness, highest chlorophyll a/b ratio and levels of β-carotene, and greatest levels of wall ingrowths in phloem transfer cells, and, in the Col-0 ...


Combinatory Effect Of Changing Co2, Temperature, And Long-Term Growth Temperature On Isoprene Emissions, Michael Cole 2016 DePaul University

Combinatory Effect Of Changing Co2, Temperature, And Long-Term Growth Temperature On Isoprene Emissions, Michael Cole

DePaul Discoveries

Isoprene, the most abundant hydrocarbon in the atmosphere, plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. Its reactions with NOx lead to the formation of ozone in the lower troposphere, which is harmful to plants and detrimental to human health. As air temperatures and CO2 concentrations increase with climate change, it is uncertain how isoprene emissions from plants will respond. We hypothesized that isoprene emissions will increase with the combination of increasing temperature and CO­2 concentrations. We predict that oaks grown at a higher temperature will exhibit an increase in isoprene emissions with combined short-term increases in temperature ...


The Correlation Between Basal Isoprene Emissions And Climate Of The Native Range Across Oak Species, Mary J. Babiez 2016 DePaul University

The Correlation Between Basal Isoprene Emissions And Climate Of The Native Range Across Oak Species, Mary J. Babiez

DePaul Discoveries

Isoprene is a biogenic volatile organic compound that is emitted by various plant species and plays an important role in the chemistry of the atmosphere. When it reacts with pollutants in the air, such as nitrogen oxides, the precursor to ozone (O3) is formed. In this experiment, we measured leaf emissions from 20 different oak species at the Morton Arboretum (Lisle, Illinois). The aim was to better understand differences in isoprene emissions across oak species. Since emissions have been found to protect leaves against brief periods of heat stress, we hypothesized that oaks native to areas with greater variations ...


Endless Symbioses Most Intricate, W. John Hayden 2016 University of Richmond

Endless Symbioses Most Intricate, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

Orchids, such as our Wildflower of the Year for 2016, Downy Rattlesnake Plantain (Goodyera pubescens) (Fig. 1), exemplify the interconnectedness of life on Earth. As would be the case for many kinds of plants, pollination comes readily to mind as a prominent example of mutualistic symbiosis. Downy Rattlesnake Plantain is pollinated by bumblebees and other native bees. The bees gain nectar and the orchid gets an efficient means to move pollen from one flower to another; each organism gains benefit from the interaction, the very definition of mutualism. Pollination by bees is widespread among the orchids, but there can be ...


Trimethylated Lysine 4 At Histone 3 Shows The Same Circadian Rhythm At Promoters Of Diversely-Expressed Genes In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Robyn M. Wilson 2016 Western Kentucky University

Trimethylated Lysine 4 At Histone 3 Shows The Same Circadian Rhythm At Promoters Of Diversely-Expressed Genes In Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii, Robyn M. Wilson

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Circadian clocks are biochemical mechanisms that allow eukaryotic and some prokaryotic organisms to coordinate their physiology with daily environmental changes. It enables organisms to increase their fitness by taking advantage of beneficial environmental conditions while also avoiding or restricting certain sensitive processes during harsh conditions. Similarly, post-translational histone modifications allow eukaryotic organisms to regulate gene expression in response to environmental or developmental factors. Some post-translational modifications of histones are associated with active transcription while others are associated with repressed transcription depending upon the location, type and degree of modification. Trimethylation of lysine 4 on the N-terminal tail of histone H3 ...


Evolutionary Ecology Of Weeds, 1st & 2nd Editions, Jack Dekker 2016 Retired: Iowa State University-University of Guelph-Michigan State University

Evolutionary Ecology Of Weeds, 1st & 2nd Editions, Jack Dekker

Jack Dekker

2nd Edition, July 2016.  Evolutionary Ecology of Weeds is the story of WHAT, WHY and HOW some plant species invade and occupy habitats ripe for exploitation.  The nature of weeds is the evolution of adaptive traits for seizing and exploiting locally available opportunity.  Weeds are the consequence of human disturbance which creates opportunity spacetime, leaving unused resources eager for invasion by weeds.  The nature of weeds is the story of us, humans.  We created highly successful wild-crop-weed complexes that resist control.  We created them by channeling natural selection, the driver of biological change.  Plants invade by dispersing, colonizing, reproducing and ...


Rna-Seq Based Analysis Of Population Structure Within The Maize Inbred B73, Zhikai Liang, James C. Schnable 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Rna-Seq Based Analysis Of Population Structure Within The Maize Inbred B73, Zhikai Liang, James C. Schnable

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

Recent reports have shown than many identically named genetic lines used in research around the world actually contain large amounts of uncharacterized genetic variation as a result of cross contamination of stocks, unintentional crossing, residual heterozygosity within original stocks, or de novo mutation. 27 public, large scale, RNA-seq datasets from 20 independent research groups around the world were used to assess variation within the maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) inbred B73, a four decade old variety which served as the reference genotype for the original maize genome sequencing project and is widely used in genetic, genomic, and phenotypic research. Several ...


A Preliminary Study Of The Vegetation Of Vernal Pools Of Acadia National Park, Mount Desert Island, B Ciccotelli, T B. Harris, B Connery, N Rajakaruna 2016 College of the Atlantic

A Preliminary Study Of The Vegetation Of Vernal Pools Of Acadia National Park, Mount Desert Island, B Ciccotelli, T B. Harris, B Connery, N Rajakaruna

Nishanta Rajakaruna

We conducted a preliminary floristic study of six vernal pools in Acadia National Park on Mount Desert Island, Maine. Plant species were recorded on three sampling dates from April to October, 2008. Sixty-five vascular plant species from 26 families were recorded. Of these, 27 are considered occasional or uncommon in Acadia National Park. Thirteen species are new reports for vernal pools in the northeastern United States. This represents the first published study of the vernal pool flora of Acadia National Park


Mapping Morels: Predicting The Locations Of Morchella Species Through Environmental Factors Using The Gis System, Emily M. Stanevicius 2016 Augustana College - Rock Island

Mapping Morels: Predicting The Locations Of Morchella Species Through Environmental Factors Using The Gis System, Emily M. Stanevicius

Celebration of Learning

Morel mushrooms, Morechella esculenta and M. deliciosa, are known delicacies across the globe, ranging from exquisite dishes in French cuisine to Eastern palates such as Japanese Matsutake. According to literature, true morels diverged as their own genus about 129 million years, again which has led to the development of more than 177 species and have been part of the human diet since their beginning. However, the elusiveness of morels has contributed to the mushrooms infamy for rarity, and has even been known to sell for more than $40 per pound. This project seeks to aid in the search for morels ...


The Effects Of Two Levels Of Salinity On Wisconsin Fast Plants, Megan M. Janssen, Emily Geison, Tiffany Bertoni, Matthew Zimmerman 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

The Effects Of Two Levels Of Salinity On Wisconsin Fast Plants, Megan M. Janssen, Emily Geison, Tiffany Bertoni, Matthew Zimmerman

Celebration of Learning

Wisconsin Fast Plant (Brassica rapa, Brassicaceae) seeds were planted in three, six-celled planting containers filled with potting soil and put beneath a continuous grow-lux light. One week after sprouting, one container (E1) was put into a separate tray filled with 0.5% NaCl solution, another container (E2) was put into a separate tray filled with 1.0% NaCl solution, and the third container was left in regular tap water. At seven-day intervals thereafter, the height of all plants was recorded, and the numbers of leaves and flowers were recorded. By week four of recording data, the average height (mm) of ...


Effect Of Different Miracle-Gro Concentrations On The Growth Of Wisconsin Fast Plants, Eric D. Shershen, Nicholas M. Orslini, David Channon, Marvin Agyeben 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Effect Of Different Miracle-Gro Concentrations On The Growth Of Wisconsin Fast Plants, Eric D. Shershen, Nicholas M. Orslini, David Channon, Marvin Agyeben

Celebration of Learning

The Wisconsin Fast Plant, Brassica rapa (Brassicaceae) seeds were planted in three, six-celled containers and were filled with standard potting soil under continuous grow-lux lighting. After the first week of plant growth, E1and E2 were placed in a separate trays and given 1.0 and 1.5x the recommended amount of Miracle-Gro formula, respectively. The control was left in tap water and all were kept in 1 cm of solution. Every seven days the plants’ heights were recorded, and the total number of flowers were counted. By the fourth week, the average height of the control plants was 105.7 ...


Role Of Fatty Acid Omega-Hydroxylase 1 And Abscisic Acid In Potato Tuber Suberin Formation, Meg Haggitt 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Role Of Fatty Acid Omega-Hydroxylase 1 And Abscisic Acid In Potato Tuber Suberin Formation, Meg Haggitt

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Suberin is a complex biopolymer composed of two distinct but covalently-linked domains. The first domain is composed of polymerized phenolic monomers, whereas the second domain is predominately fatty acid derivatives esterified with glycerol. Deposited in specialized cells during development or in response to abiotic stress, suberin functions as a barrier to water loss and pathogen attack. In potato, more than 65% of suberin monomers undergo ω-hydroxylation, representing a major class of fatty acids in the final biopolymer. The ω-hydroxylation reaction is catalyzed by Cytochrome P450 (CYP) proteins, of which few have been characterized to date. In 2009, CYP86A33 from potato ...


A Brief History Of Corn: Looking Back To Move Forward, Jon Derek Pruitt 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Brief History Of Corn: Looking Back To Move Forward, Jon Derek Pruitt

Doctoral Documents from Doctor of Plant Health Program

Maize was domesticated from teosinte in Mexico some 7,000 to 10,000 years ago and quickly spread through the Americas. It has become one of the most important crops at a local and global level. Two types, Northern Flint corn and Southern Dent corns provided the basis of the genetic background of modern maize hybrids. The development of hybrids, first double-cross and later single-cross hybrids, along with a transition to high input farming provided huge yield increases, which have continued to improve with improving technology.

Increase in maize production also caused a rise in Western corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera ...


Identification Of N-Acylethanolamine Hydrolyzing Enzyme In Solanum Lycopersicum, Derek A. Stuffle 2016 East Tennessee State Universtiy

Identification Of N-Acylethanolamine Hydrolyzing Enzyme In Solanum Lycopersicum, Derek A. Stuffle

Undergraduate Honors Theses

N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are fatty acid derivatives that occur naturally in plant and animal systems. In mammals, they regulate physiological functions, including neurotransmission, immune responses, vasodilation, embryo development and implantation, feeding behavior, and cell proliferation. NAEs are metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), which belongs to the amidase signature family. It is hypothesized that putative FAAH functions as the catalyst in the metabolism of N-acylethanolamine in tomato plants. To test the hypothesis, FAAH protein homologs were identified in tomato via in silico analysis. Among the six homologs identified, FAAH1 and FAAH2 were selected for further validation. This study ...


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