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Agrobacterial Diversity And Competitive Interactions Within An Infected Sunflower, Veronica Mateo 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Agrobacterial Diversity And Competitive Interactions Within An Infected Sunflower, Veronica Mateo

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Agrobacterial Diversity and Competitive Interactions Within an Infected Sunflower

Veronica E. Mateo, Kansas State University

Faculty Advisor/Mentor: Thomas Platt, Ph.D., tgplatt@ksu.edu

Co-Author(s): Emireth Monarrez, Seward County Community College; Priscila Guzman, Kansas State University; Ashlee Herken, Kansas State University; Teresa Shippy, Kansas State University

Bacterial communities are highly diverse with each being distinct in composition. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a common soilborne plant pathogen. Some A. tumefaciens strains can cause crown gall disease, in which infected plants develop a tumor. This bacterium disrupts the host plant by genetically transforming plant cells thereby manipulating the plant’s physiology ...


Using Arabidopsis Mesophyll Protoplasts To Study Unfolded Protein Response Signaling, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham 2019 Iowa State University

Using Arabidopsis Mesophyll Protoplasts To Study Unfolded Protein Response Signaling, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham

Diane Bassham

Various environmental stresses or artificial reagents can trigger unfolded protein accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) due to the folding capacity of the ER being exceeded. This is termed ER stress, and triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR). Assays for activation of the UPR in plants include Tunicamycin (Tm)- or dithiothreitol (DTT)-mediated root growth inhibition, analysis of splicing of the UPR-responsive transcription factor bZIP60 (basic Leucine Zipper Domain 60), and upregulation of relevant UPR genes. We provide here a quick and robust method to detect UPR signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts. This assay can also be applied to other ...


Snrk1 Activates Autophagy Via The Tor Signaling Pathway In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Junmarie Soto-Burgos, Diane C. Bassham 2019 Iowa State University

Snrk1 Activates Autophagy Via The Tor Signaling Pathway In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Junmarie Soto-Burgos, Diane C. Bassham

Diane Bassham

Autophagy is a degradation process in which cells break down and recycle their cytoplasmic contents when subjected to environmental stress or during cellular remodeling. The Arabidopsis thaliana SnRK1 complex is a protein kinase that senses changes in energy levels and triggers downstream responses to enable survival. Its mammalian ortholog, AMPK, and yeast ortholog, Snf-1, activate autophagy in response to low energy conditions. We therefore hypothesized that SnRK1 may play a role in the regulation of autophagy in response to nutrient or energy deficiency in Arabidopsis. To test this hypothesis, we determined the effect of overexpression or knockout of the SnRK1 ...


Tor-Dependent And -Independent Pathways Regulate Autophagy In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Yunting Pu, Xinjuan Luo, Diane C. Bassham 2019 Iowa State University

Tor-Dependent And -Independent Pathways Regulate Autophagy In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Yunting Pu, Xinjuan Luo, Diane C. Bassham

Diane Bassham

Autophagy is a critical process for recycling of cytoplasmic materials during environmental stress, senescence and cellular remodeling. It is upregulated under a wide range of abiotic stress conditions and is important for stress tolerance. Autophagy is repressed by the protein kinase target of rapamycin (TOR), which is activated in response to nutrients and in turn upregulates cell growth and translation and inhibits autophagy. Down-regulation of TOR in Arabidopsis thaliana leads to constitutive autophagy and to decreased growth, but the relationship to stress conditions is unclear. Here, we assess the extent to which TOR controls autophagy activation by abiotic stress. Overexpression ...


Tno1, A Tgn-Localized Snare-Interacting Protein, Modulates Root Skewing In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Rahul Roy, Diane C. Bassham 2019 Iowa State University

Tno1, A Tgn-Localized Snare-Interacting Protein, Modulates Root Skewing In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Rahul Roy, Diane C. Bassham

Diane Bassham

Background: The movement of plant roots within the soil is key to their ability to interact with the environment and maximize anchorage and nutrient acquisition. Directional growth of roots occurs by a combination of sensing external cues, hormonal signaling and cytoskeletal changes in the root cells. Roots growing on slanted, impenetrable growth medium display a characteristic waving and skewing, and mutants with deviations in these phenotypes assist in identifying genes required for root movement. Our study identifies a role for a trans-Golgi network-localized protein in root skewing.

Results: We found that Arabidopsis thaliana TNO1 (TGN-localized SYP41-interacting protein), a putative tethering ...


Cellular Dynamics: Cellular Systems In The Time Domain, Dan Szymanski, Diane Bassham, Teun Munnik, Wataru Sakamoto 2019 Iowa State University

Cellular Dynamics: Cellular Systems In The Time Domain, Dan Szymanski, Diane Bassham, Teun Munnik, Wataru Sakamoto

Diane Bassham

Plant cells are the fundamental building blocks of growth and development. For each cell type, the size, shape, and mechanical properties of the cell wall are customized for particular physiological functions (Szymanski and Cosgrove, 2009; Winship et al., 2011). The morphogenesis of highly polarized cell types such as trichoblasts and pollen tubes is internally programmed and occurs largely in the absence of a neighbor. Most cell types differentiate in the context of a tissue. Therefore, their growth and shape change can operate at larger spatial scales to influence tissue- and organ-level processes. Because plant cells grow symplastically and are mechanically ...


A Functional Unfolded Protein Response Is Required For Normal Vegetative Development, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham, Stephen H. Howell 2019 Iowa State University

A Functional Unfolded Protein Response Is Required For Normal Vegetative Development, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham, Stephen H. Howell

Diane Bassham

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in plants in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress and plays an important role in mitigating stress damage. Multiple factors act in the UPR, including the membrane-associated transcription factor, BASIC LEUCINE ZIPPER 17 (bZIP17), and the membrane-associated RNA splicing factor, INOSITOL REQUIRING ENZYME1 (IRE1). We have analyzed an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ire1a ire1b bzip17 triple mutant, with defects in stress signaling, and found that the mutant is also impaired in vegetative plant growth under conditions without externally applied stress. This raised the possibility that the UPR functions in plant development in the same manner ...


Autophagy In Crop Plants: What's New Beyond Arabidopsis?, Jie Tang, Diane C. Bassham 2019 Iowa State University

Autophagy In Crop Plants: What's New Beyond Arabidopsis?, Jie Tang, Diane C. Bassham

Diane Bassham

Autophagy is a major degradation and recycling pathway in plants. It functions to maintain cellular homeostasis and is induced by environmental cues and developmental stimuli. Over the past decade, the study of autophagy has expanded from model plants to crop species. Many features of the core machinery and physiological functions of autophagy are conserved among diverse organisms. However, several novel functions and regulators of autophagy have been characterized in individual plant species. In light of its critical role in development and stress responses, a better understanding of autophagy in crop plants may eventually lead to beneficial agricultural applications. Here, we ...


Selective Autophagy Of Bes1 Mediated By Dsk2 Balances Plant Growth And Survival, Trevor M. Nolan, Benjamin Brennan, Mengran Yang, Jiani Chen, Mingcai Zhang, Zhaohu Li, Xuelu Wang, Diane C. Bassham, Justin Walley, Yanhai Yin 2019 Iowa State University

Selective Autophagy Of Bes1 Mediated By Dsk2 Balances Plant Growth And Survival, Trevor M. Nolan, Benjamin Brennan, Mengran Yang, Jiani Chen, Mingcai Zhang, Zhaohu Li, Xuelu Wang, Diane C. Bassham, Justin Walley, Yanhai Yin

Diane Bassham

Plants encounter a variety of stresses and must fine-tune their growth and stress-response programs to best suit their environment. BES1 functions as a master regulator in the brassinosteroid (BR) pathway that promotes plant growth. Here, we show that BES1 interacts with the ubiquitin receptor protein DSK2 and is targeted to the autophagy pathway during stress via the interaction of DSK2 with ATG8, a ubiquitin-like protein directing autophagosome formation and cargo recruitment. Additionally, DSK2 is phosphorylated by the GSK3-like kinase BIN2, a negative regulator in the BR pathway. BIN2 phosphorylation of DSK2 flanking its ATG8 interacting motifs (AIMs) promotes DSK2-ATG8 interaction ...


Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy Imaging Of Microtubule Arrays In Intact Arabidopsis Thaliana Seedling, Bin Dong, Xiaochen Yang, Shaobin Zhu, Diane C. Bassham, Ning Fang 2019 Iowa State University

Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy Imaging Of Microtubule Arrays In Intact Arabidopsis Thaliana Seedling, Bin Dong, Xiaochen Yang, Shaobin Zhu, Diane C. Bassham, Ning Fang

Diane Bassham

Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has generated tremendous success in revealing detailed subcellular structures in animal cells. However, its application to plant cell biology remains extremely limited due to numerous technical challenges, including the generally high fluorescence background of plant cells and the presence of the cell wall. In the current study, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) imaging of intact Arabidopsis thaliana seedling roots with a spatial resolution of 20–40 nm was demonstrated. Using the super-resolution images, the spatial organization of cortical microtubules in different parts of a whole Arabidopsis root tip was analyzed quantitatively, and the results show the dramatic ...


A Functional Unfolded Protein Response Is Required For Normal Vegetative Development, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham, Stephen H. Howell 2019 Iowa State University

A Functional Unfolded Protein Response Is Required For Normal Vegetative Development, Yan Bao, Diane C. Bassham, Stephen H. Howell

Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications

The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in plants in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress and plays an important role in mitigating stress damage. Multiple factors act in the UPR, including the membrane-associated transcription factor, BASIC LEUCINE ZIPPER 17 (bZIP17), and the membrane-associated RNA splicing factor, INOSITOL REQUIRING ENZYME1 (IRE1). We have analyzed an Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ire1a ire1b bzip17 triple mutant, with defects in stress signaling, and found that the mutant is also impaired in vegetative plant growth under conditions without externally applied stress. This raised the possibility that the UPR functions in plant development in the same manner ...


Strategies To Overcome Antagonism Of Quizalofop-P-Ethyl When Applied In Mixture With Other Herbicides, Lucas C. Webster 2019 Louisiana State University

Strategies To Overcome Antagonism Of Quizalofop-P-Ethyl When Applied In Mixture With Other Herbicides, Lucas C. Webster

LSU Master's Theses

A field study was conducted in 2017 and 2018 at the LSU Agricultural Center H. Rouse Caffey Rice Research Station (RRS) near Crowley, LA. to evaluate the influence of different adjuvants in overcoming the antagonism of quizalofop when mixed with bispyribac in Louisiana rice production. The antagonism of quizalofop mixed with bispyribac plus HCOC at 14 DAIT was overcome with a neutral interaction observed at 28 DAIT for barnyardgrass control with an observed control of 91%, compared with an expected control of 97%. The addition of COC, SNS or HCOC into a mixture of quizalofop plus bispyribac provided synergistic or ...


A Stimulatory Role For Cytokinin In The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Of Pea, Dane M. Goh, Marco Cosme, Anna B. Kislala, Samantha Mulholland, Zakaria M.F. Said, Lukáš Spíchal, R.J. Neil Emery, Stéphane Declerck, Frédérique C. Guinel 2019 Wilfrid Laurier University

A Stimulatory Role For Cytokinin In The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis Of Pea, Dane M. Goh, Marco Cosme, Anna B. Kislala, Samantha Mulholland, Zakaria M.F. Said, Lukáš Spíchal, R.J. Neil Emery, Stéphane Declerck, Frédérique C. Guinel

Biology Faculty Publications

The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis between terrestrial plants and AM fungi is regulated by plant hormones. For most of these, a role has been clearly assigned in this mutualistic interaction; however, there are still contradictory reports for cytokinin (CK). Here, pea plants, the wild type (WT) cv. Sparkle and its mutant E151 (Pssym15), were inoculated with the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. E151 has previously been characterized as possessing high CK levels in non-mycorrhizal (myc-) roots and exhibiting high number of fungal structures in mycorrhizal (myc+) roots. Myc- and myc+ plants were treated 7, 9, and 11 days after inoculation (DAI ...


Development Of An Innovative And Sustainable One-Step Method For Rapid Plant Dna Isolation For Targeted Pcr Using Magnetic Ionic Liquids, Arianna Marengo, Cecilia Cagliero, Barbara Sgorbini, Jared L. Anderson, Miranda N. Emaus, Carlo Bicchi, Cinzia M. Bertea, Patrizia Rubiolo 2019 Università di Torino

Development Of An Innovative And Sustainable One-Step Method For Rapid Plant Dna Isolation For Targeted Pcr Using Magnetic Ionic Liquids, Arianna Marengo, Cecilia Cagliero, Barbara Sgorbini, Jared L. Anderson, Miranda N. Emaus, Carlo Bicchi, Cinzia M. Bertea, Patrizia Rubiolo

Chemistry Publications

Background

Nowadays, there is an increasing demand for fast and reliable plant biomolecular analyses. Conventional methods for the isolation of nucleic acids are time-consuming and require multiple and often non-automatable steps to remove cellular interferences, with consequence that sample preparation is the major bottleneck in the bioanalytical workflow. New opportunities have been created by the use of magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) thanks to their affinity for nucleic acids.

Results

In the present study, a MIL-based magnet-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (maDLLME) method was optimized for the extraction of genomic DNA from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh leaves. MILs containing different metal ...


Using Drones For Precision Agriculture, Jiyul Chang, Madhav P. Nepal 2019 South Dakota State University

Using Drones For Precision Agriculture, Jiyul Chang, Madhav P. Nepal

iLEARN Teaching Resources

In this teaching module, students will learn what Precision Agriculture is and how to apply drone into Precision Agriculture practices. To use data (images) taken by drone, students will learn the basic theory of Remote Sensing. Using images, students learn how to make NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) maps and how to apply drone (remote sensing technique) in agriculture.


Quantitative Proteome Analysis Of Alfalfa In Drought Stress Under The Influence Of Mir156, Alpa Puri 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Quantitative Proteome Analysis Of Alfalfa In Drought Stress Under The Influence Of Mir156, Alpa Puri

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Medicago sativa is one of the most produced perennial forage crops in Canada. Drought stress is a major form of abiotic stress affecting the productivity and annual yield of alfalfa. A small noncoding RNA, miR156 has a role in abiotic stress tolerance, while regulating downstream SPL genes. In this study, whole leaf proteome and amino acid concentrations of miR156OE (A8) genotype of alfalfa under drought stress were quantified. In results, 3,000 proteins groups were identified using MaxQuant when searched against Medicago truncatula protein sequence database. Gene ontology analysis showed enriched proteins were involved in biological and molecular processes such ...


Seasonal Origins Of Soil Water Used By Trees, Scott T. Allen, James W. Kirchner, Sabine Braun, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Gregory R. Goldsmith 2019 ETH Zurich

Seasonal Origins Of Soil Water Used By Trees, Scott T. Allen, James W. Kirchner, Sabine Braun, Rolf T. W. Siegwolf, Gregory R. Goldsmith

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Rain recharges soil water storages and either percolates downward into aquifers and streams or is returned to the atmosphere through evapotranspiration. Although it is commonly assumed that summer rainfall recharges plant-available water during the growing season, the seasonal origins of water used by plants have not been systematically explored. We characterize the seasonal origins of waters in soils and trees by comparing their midsummer isotopic signatures (δ2H) to seasonal isotopic cycles in precipitation, using a new seasonal origin index. Across 182 Swiss forest sites, xylem water isotopic signatures show that summer rain was not the predominant water source for ...


Medicago Sativa Has Reduced Biomass And Nodulation When Grown With Soil Microbiomes Conditioned To High Phosphorus Inputs, Laura M. Kaminsky, Grant L. Thompson, Ryan V. Trexler, Terrence H. Bell, Jenny Kao-Kniffin 2019 Cornell University

Medicago Sativa Has Reduced Biomass And Nodulation When Grown With Soil Microbiomes Conditioned To High Phosphorus Inputs, Laura M. Kaminsky, Grant L. Thompson, Ryan V. Trexler, Terrence H. Bell, Jenny Kao-Kniffin

Grant Thompson

Agricultural over-fertilization may adversely impact plant−microbial interactions affecting crop yield. It is unclear if soil microbiomes respond quickly to changes in fertilizer inputs once conditioned to specific nutrient regimes. We conducted a growth chamber study assessing the compositional and functional resilience of root-associated microbiomes of Medicago sativa to nutrient regime changes, and consequences for plant growth. Plants were grown with a common starting soil microbiome under four nutrient treatments: control (no fertilizer), organic phosphorus (compost added), low inorganic P (low triple superphosphate, TSP) and high inorganic P (high TSP). After several conditioning generations, in which microbiomes from rhizospheres of ...


Refernment: An R Package For Annotating Rna Editing In Plastid Genomes, Tanner A. Robison, Paul G. Wolf 2019 Utah State University

Refernment: An R Package For Annotating Rna Editing In Plastid Genomes, Tanner A. Robison, Paul G. Wolf

Biology Faculty Publications

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: In the absence of cDNA, the annotation of RNA editing in plastomes must be done manually, representing a significant time cost to those studying the organellar genomes of ferns and hornworts.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We developed an R package to automatically annotate apparent nonsense mutations in plastid genomes. The software successfully annotates such sites and results in no false positives for data with no sequencing or assembly errors.

CONCLUSIONS: Compared to manual annotation, ReFernment offers greater speed and accuracy for annotating RNA editing sites. This software should be especially useful for researchers generating large numbers of ...


Relationships Between Wildfire Burn Severity, Cavity-Nesting Bird Assemblages, And Habitat In An Eastern Ponderosa Pine Forest, Emma C. Keele, Victoria M. Donovan, Caleb P. Roberts, Sarah M. Nodskov, Carissa L. Wonkka, Craig R. Allen, Larkin A. Powell, David A. Wedin, David G. Angeler, Dirac Twidwell 2019 University of Nebraska at Kearney

Relationships Between Wildfire Burn Severity, Cavity-Nesting Bird Assemblages, And Habitat In An Eastern Ponderosa Pine Forest, Emma C. Keele, Victoria M. Donovan, Caleb P. Roberts, Sarah M. Nodskov, Carissa L. Wonkka, Craig R. Allen, Larkin A. Powell, David A. Wedin, David G. Angeler, Dirac Twidwell

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Historically, eastern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests were described as sparse patches of old-growth trees maintained by frequent, low-severity fires; however, in recent decades, there have been a number of large mixed-severity wildfires throughout the range of these forests. Wildlife responses to severe fire disturbance in eastern ponderosa pine forests are not well understood. Our study investigates how cavity-nesting bird species in an eastern ponderosa pine forest are impacted by burn severity. The objectives of our study were to: (1) identify the community composition of cavity-nesting birds in a 27 y old burn of mixed severity, (2) assess how habitat ...


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