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Nonpolar Residues In The Presumptive Pore‐Lining Helix Of Mechanosensitive Channel Msl10 Influence Channel Behavior And Establish A Nonconducting Function, Grigory Maksaev, Jennette K. Shoots, Simran Ohri, Elizabeth S. Haswell 2018 Washington University in St Louis

Nonpolar Residues In The Presumptive Pore‐Lining Helix Of Mechanosensitive Channel Msl10 Influence Channel Behavior And Establish A Nonconducting Function, Grigory Maksaev, Jennette K. Shoots, Simran Ohri, Elizabeth S. Haswell

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels provide a universal mechanism for sensing and responding to increased membrane tension. MscS‐like (MSL) 10 is a relatively well‐studied MS ion channel from Arabidopsis thaliana that is implicated in cell death signaling. The relationship between the amino acid sequence of MSL10 and its conductance, gating tension, and opening and closing kinetics remains unstudied. Here, we identify several nonpolar residues in the presumptive pore‐lining transmembrane helix of MSL10 (TM6) that contribute to these basic channel properties. F553 and I554 are essential for wild type channel conductance and the stability of the open state. G556 ...


Arabidopsis Thaliana Ei-5: Minor Vein Architecture Adjustment Compensates For Low Vein Density In Support Of Photosynthesis, Jared J. Stewart, Stephanie K. Polutchko, Barbara Demmig-Adams, William W. Adams III 2018 University of Colorado Boulder

Arabidopsis Thaliana Ei-5: Minor Vein Architecture Adjustment Compensates For Low Vein Density In Support Of Photosynthesis, Jared J. Stewart, Stephanie K. Polutchko, Barbara Demmig-Adams, William W. Adams Iii

University Libraries Open Access Fund Supported Publications

An Arabidopsis thaliana accession with naturally low vein density, Eifel-5 (Ei-5), was compared to Columbia-0 (Col-0) with respect to rosette growth, foliar vein architecture, photosynthesis, and transpiration. In addition to having to a lower vein density, Ei-5 grew more slowly, with significantly lower rates of rosette expansion, but had similar capacities for photosynthetic oxygen evolution on a leaf area basis compared to Col-0. The individual foliar minor veins were larger in Ei-5, with a greater number of vascular cells per vein, compared to Col-0. This compensation for low vein density resulted in similar values for the product of vein density ...


Generation Of Nonlinear-Differential-Equations System From A Model Of Boolean Relationships In Arabidopsis Salt Stress Network, Renee Dale 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Generation Of Nonlinear-Differential-Equations System From A Model Of Boolean Relationships In Arabidopsis Salt Stress Network, Renee Dale

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Factors Affecting The Regrowth Of Ilex Glabra In A Routinely Burned Longleaf Forest, Jaybus Price 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Factors Affecting The Regrowth Of Ilex Glabra In A Routinely Burned Longleaf Forest, Jaybus Price

Master's Theses

This study examines the effects of historical management by use of prescribed fire on Ilex glabra stems/m2 and factors affecting the regrowth of I. glabra after a prescribed burn to gain beneficial knowledge for management purposes. Environmental factors and morphological parameters of I. glabra were sampled before and after a prescribed burn of the Longleaf Trace Nature Preserve in September 2016. The study site is located in Lamar County, Mississippi, just west of Hattiesburg, MS. Stem densities of I. glabra were collected once before the prescribed burn and twice after the prescribed burn at 2 month and 9 ...


Investigation Of The Role Of Gene Clusters In Terpene Biosynthesis In Sorghum Bicolor, Rebecca Hay 2018 University of Missouri, St. Louis

Investigation Of The Role Of Gene Clusters In Terpene Biosynthesis In Sorghum Bicolor, Rebecca Hay

Theses

The staple crop Sorghum bicolor shows potential as a source of secondary metabolite-based biofuels due to its diverse phenotype and chemical profile. S. bicolor produces a variety of high-energy metabolites, including terpenes which are a potential renewable source of fuel additives. Information on the biosynthetic and genetic pathways by which S. bicolor terpenes are produced is limited and these pathways must be better understood before they can be engineered for human applications. Recent work on plant biosynthetic pathways has shown that terpenes can be modified by the products of clustered genes. Identification of biosynthetic gene clusters may accelerate the elucidation ...


Non-Target-Site Based Tolerance To Herbicides In Amaranthus Palmeri, Reiofeli Algodon Salas-Perez 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Non-Target-Site Based Tolerance To Herbicides In Amaranthus Palmeri, Reiofeli Algodon Salas-Perez

Theses and Dissertations

Palmer amaranth, one of the most aggressive and damaging broadleaf weeds in the USA, has evolved resistance to multiple herbicide modes of action. The overall objective of this research was to elucidate the mechanisms by which Palmer amaranth adapt to herbicide selection stress. This research aimed (1) to evaluate the efficacy of fomesafen, glufosinate, glyphosate and trifloxysulfuron to Amaranthus populations; (2) identify candidate genes for endowing tolerance to glufosinate; (3) investigate the involvement of non-target-site resistance (NTSR) mechanism in an ALS-resistant population; and (4) to examine the molecular basis of resistance to PPO inhibitors in Palmer amaranth populations from Arkansas ...


The Role Of Ferric Reduction Oxidases In Plant Anti-Herbivore Defense., Virginia C. Nunamaker 2018 University of Louisville

The Role Of Ferric Reduction Oxidases In Plant Anti-Herbivore Defense., Virginia C. Nunamaker

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Iron is an essential element required for plants to carry out metabolic functions such as photosynthesis, heme biosynthesis, and chlorophyll biosynthesis. Within Arabidopsis thaliana, eight ferric reduction oxidase (FRO) genes function in iron uptake and homeostasis with tissue specific expression. However, little else is known regarding the biological role of FROs. Recent studies identify the FRO gene family as particularly responsive to the green leaf plant derived volatile (GLV) cis-3-hexenyl acetate (z3HAC). Since z3HAC acts as a wound signal and cues unaffected parts of the plant to prime defenses prior to herbivory, an increase in FRO activity in response to ...


Comparative Study Of Photosynthesis Rates Between Native Red Maple And Invasive Norway Maple In The Eastern Deciduous Forest, Evan M. Bourtis, Lindsey R. Heckman 2018 St. John Fisher College

Comparative Study Of Photosynthesis Rates Between Native Red Maple And Invasive Norway Maple In The Eastern Deciduous Forest, Evan M. Bourtis, Lindsey R. Heckman

The Review: A Journal of Undergraduate Student Research

Invasive species, such as the Norway Maple, are often able to outcompete native species, such as the Red Maple by performing more efficiently in the environment compared to the native species. In this study, we examined if the Norway maple was able to outcompete the Red Maple in the Eastern Deciduous Forest because the Norway Maple had a higher rate of photosynthesis. The study found that the Norway Maple leaves had a slightly higher rate of carbon dioxide consumption than Red Maple leaves and that the Red Maple leaves had a higher rate of oxygen production compared to the Norway ...


Roles Of Phospholipases And Ribosomal S6 Kinase In Lipid Remodeling And Growth In Arabidopsis Response To Phosphate Deprivation, Yuan Su 2018 University of Missouri, St. Louis

Roles Of Phospholipases And Ribosomal S6 Kinase In Lipid Remodeling And Growth In Arabidopsis Response To Phosphate Deprivation, Yuan Su

Dissertations

Phosphate (Pi) is one of three macronutrients for plants, which is vital for plant growth and development. Understanding the mechanism by which plants respond and adapt to Pi deficiency not only unveils functions of genes and pathways involved, but also provides potential tools to manipulate crops to better stand Pi stress in low Pi-containing lands. One of the significant metabolic changes in plants under Pi starvation is the membrane lipid remodeling that converts Pi-containing lipids such as phospholipids to Pi-free lipids, such as glycolipids. To elucidate the metabolism and regulation of lipid remodeling, this dissertation characterizes the role of two ...


Constitutive Expression Of Thioglucoside Glucohydrolase 1 (Tgg1) Decreases Intercellular Trafficking In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Alessandro Francesco Sarno 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Constitutive Expression Of Thioglucoside Glucohydrolase 1 (Tgg1) Decreases Intercellular Trafficking In Arabidopsis Thaliana, Alessandro Francesco Sarno

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Plasmodesmata (PD) are pores that traverse plant cell walls, providing a route for intercellular trafficking of essential metabolites, nutrients, and signaling molecules between adjacent plant cells, thereby aiding communication. The increased size exclusion limit 2 (ise2) mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana has an increased abundance of branched PD, as well as a greater flux of intercellular trafficking. A search for proteins that interact with ISE2 identified THIOGLUCOSIDE GLUCOHYDROLASE 2 (a myrosinase). A. thaliana also encodes a second, closely-related myrosinase, TGG1. Myrosinases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glucosinolates, a type of secondary metabolite that are amino acid derivatives. The breakdown ...


2nd Place: Identifying The Effectiveness Of Plant Extracts For Treating Biofilms Of Escherichia Coli And Myxococcus Xanthus, Micah Burton 2018 Harrisburg University of Science and Technology

2nd Place: Identifying The Effectiveness Of Plant Extracts For Treating Biofilms Of Escherichia Coli And Myxococcus Xanthus, Micah Burton

Harrisburg University Research Symposium

Antibiotic resistance is a topic that is of growing concern in the field of medicine. Antibiotics act as growth blockers or act as toxins, killing the organism they affect. These biological weapons generate selective pressure leading to the current antibiotic crisis. This selective pressure causes resistant organisms to begin to emerge and over generations antibiotic resistance can develop and be spread among a bacterial population.

One of the key factors contributing to antibiotic resistance in bacteria is the ability for some bacteria to form and shield themselves within biofilms. Biofilms are masses of bacteria protected by a polysaccharide/ extracellular DNA ...


Evaluating Effects Of Gene Mutation And Light Intensity On Arabidopsis Thaliana Development, CarolAnne Bekus 2018 Lynchburg College

Evaluating Effects Of Gene Mutation And Light Intensity On Arabidopsis Thaliana Development, Carolanne Bekus

Student Scholar Showcase

The completion of sequencing Arabidopsis thaliana’s genome has led to the next crucial challenge of determining gene function in these plants. A. thaliana is a model organism often compared to commercial crops. The discovery of gene function within these plants will aid in giving insight on how gene function can affect commercial crop production. Presented here is an analysis comparing wild-type Columbia (Col-O), to single gene mutants when knocking-out transcriptional factors VPI/ABI3-like 1 (val1) and basic region/leucine zipper motif (bZIP). These single gene mutations may affect several traits that in turn can result in morphological changes and ...


Kelch F-Box Protein Positively Influences Arabidopsis Seed Germination By Targeting Phytochrome-Interacting Factor1, Manoj Majee, Santosh Kumar, Praveen Kumar Kathare, Shuiqin Wu, Derek Gingerich, Nihar R. Nayak, Louai Salaita, Randy Dinkins, Kathleen Martin, Michael Goodin, Lynnette M A Dirk, Taylor D. Lloyd, Ling Zhu, Joseph Chappell, Arthur G. Hunt, Richard D. Vierstra, Enamul Huq, A Bruce Downie 2018 Washington University in St Louis

Kelch F-Box Protein Positively Influences Arabidopsis Seed Germination By Targeting Phytochrome-Interacting Factor1, Manoj Majee, Santosh Kumar, Praveen Kumar Kathare, Shuiqin Wu, Derek Gingerich, Nihar R. Nayak, Louai Salaita, Randy Dinkins, Kathleen Martin, Michael Goodin, Lynnette M A Dirk, Taylor D. Lloyd, Ling Zhu, Joseph Chappell, Arthur G. Hunt, Richard D. Vierstra, Enamul Huq, A Bruce Downie

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Seeds employ sensory systems that assess various environmental cues over time to maximize the successful transition from embryo to seedling. Here we show that the Arabidopsis F-BOX protein COLD TEMPERATURE-GERMINATING (CTG)-10, identified by activation tagging, is a positive regulator of this process. When overexpressed (OE), CTG10 hastens aspects of seed germination. CTG10 is expressed predominantly in the hypocotyl, and the protein is localized to the nucleus. CTG10 interacts with PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 1 (PIF1) and helps regulate its abundance in planta. CTG10-OE accelerates the loss of PIF1 in light, increasing germination efficiency, while PIF1-OE lines fail to complete germination in ...


Responses Of Marigold Cultivars To Saline Water Irrigation, Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Christina Perez, H. Brent Pemberton, James Altland 2018 Utah State University

Responses Of Marigold Cultivars To Saline Water Irrigation, Youping Sun, Genhua Niu, Christina Perez, H. Brent Pemberton, James Altland

Plants, Soils, and Climate Faculty Publications

Marigolds (Tagetes sp.) are ornamental plants with fine-textured, dark green foliage, and yellow, orange, or bicolored flowers. The relative salt tolerance of eight marigolds [‘Discovery Orange’, ‘Discovery Yellow’, ‘Taishan Gold’, ‘Taishan Orange’, and ‘Taishan Yellow’ African marigold (Tagetes erecta); ‘Hot Pak Gold’, ‘Hot Pak Orange’, and ‘Hot Pak Yellow’ French marigold (Tagetes patula)] was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. Plants were irrigated weekly with nutrient solution at an electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.2 dS·m−1 (control) or saline solutions at an EC of 3.0 or 6.0 dS·m−1 (EC 3 or EC 6). Marigold plants ...


Determining Growth Characteristics And Control Programs For Nealley's Sprangletop (Leptochloa Nealleyi Vasey), Trace Buck 2018 Louisiana State University

Determining Growth Characteristics And Control Programs For Nealley's Sprangletop (Leptochloa Nealleyi Vasey), Trace Buck

LSU Master's Theses

ABSTRACT

Research was conducted at the LSU AgCenter Dean Lee Research and Extension center near Alexandria, La in 2016 and 2017 to evaluate the growth characteristics and control of Nealley’s sprangletop. Nealley’s sprangletop is a relatively new weed with little research available to understand its growth habit and effective control strategies.

Nealley’s sprangletop undergoes a more drastic height increase of 212 to 742 mm, 4 to 6 WAE than Amazon sprangletop 377 to 612 mm in the same time frame. Averaged across harvest interval tiller and leaf number of Nealley’s sprangletop was approximately 50 and 40 ...


Does The Fungal Pathogen (Botryosphaeria Dothidea) Exceed The Dehydration Tolerance Of Its Chaparral Host?, Cristian M. Garcia 2018 Pepperdine University

Does The Fungal Pathogen (Botryosphaeria Dothidea) Exceed The Dehydration Tolerance Of Its Chaparral Host?, Cristian M. Garcia

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

We tested the hypothesis that an opportunistic endophytic fungus Botryosphaeria dothidea that frequently infects and causes dieback in several different species of chaparral shrubs in the Santa Monica Mountains continues to elongate and grow in host tissues at dehydration levels that exceed host survival. This was done by collecting several large branches from the field from three dominant species of co-occurring chaparral shrubs, Malosma laurina, Ceanothus spinosus, and Ceanothus megacarpus. We allowed branches to dehydrate at increasing lengths of time, from a few days to one week, in an air-conditioned laboratory, then sealed in plastic bags to allow tissuewater equilibration ...


Testing For The Presence Of Botryosphaeria Dothidea In Branches Of Ceanothus Spinosus Undergoing Dieback, Katarina Carter 2018 Pepperdine University

Testing For The Presence Of Botryosphaeria Dothidea In Branches Of Ceanothus Spinosus Undergoing Dieback, Katarina Carter

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Botryosphaeria dothidea is an opportunistic pathogen found in some of the cavitated branches of the chaparral vegetation in the Santa Monica Mountains. In this study, we focused on investigating the presence of Botryosphaeria dothidea in Ceanothus spinosus located on Pepperdine University’s campus. We wanted to test this hypothesis because we had observed a large amount of dieback in the Ceanothus spinosus population and wanted to identify a possible contributor. Because of the large number of cavitated branches in the Ceanothus spinosus we tested, we hypothesized that they contained fungus. To test this, we took twenty samples of twenty different ...


Genetic Diversity And Distinctness Of Wild Nebraska Hops And Hop Cultivars (Humulus Lupulus L.), Megan Franklin 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Genetic Diversity And Distinctness Of Wild Nebraska Hops And Hop Cultivars (Humulus Lupulus L.), Megan Franklin

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Background Commercial hop (Humulus lupulus) cultivars that are being grown in the Midwest are not performing as successfully as when they are grown in the Pacific Northwest, the region to which they are adapted. To increase adaptation to the Midwest environment, one strategy is to draw from the genetic pool of wild native Midwest hops, which have developed genes that allow them to grow successfully in this environment. Wild hop plants that are genetically distinct from commercial cultivars are likely to have more adaptations, such as pest/disease resistance and drought tolerance, which can be bred into commercial lines. The ...


Crowdsourcing Image Analysis For Plant Phenomics To Generate Ground Truth Data For Machine Learning, Zachary D. Siegel, Naihui Zhou, Scott Zarecor, Nigel Lee, Darwin A. Campbell, Carson M. Andorf, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Iddo Friedberg, Jonathan W. Kelly 2018 Iowa State University

Crowdsourcing Image Analysis For Plant Phenomics To Generate Ground Truth Data For Machine Learning, Zachary D. Siegel, Naihui Zhou, Scott Zarecor, Nigel Lee, Darwin A. Campbell, Carson M. Andorf, Dan Nettleton, Carolyn J. Lawrence-Dill, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Iddo Friedberg, Jonathan W. Kelly

Mechanical Engineering Publications

The accuracy of machine learning tasks is critically dependent on high quality ground truth data. Therefore, in many cases, producing good ground truth data typically involves trained professionals; however, this can be costly in time, effort, and money. Here we explore the use of crowdsourcing to generate a large number of training data points of good quality. We explore an image analysis task involving the segmentation of corn tassels from images taken in a field setting. We explore the accuracy, speed and other quality metrics when this task is performed by students for academic credit, Amazon MTurk workers, and Master ...


Mac3a And Mac3b, Two Core Subunits Of The Mos4-Associated Complex, Positively Influence Mirna Biogenesis, Shengjun Li, Kan Liu, Bangjun Zhou, Mu Li, Shuxin Zhang, Lirong Zeng, Chi Zhang, Bin Yu 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mac3a And Mac3b, Two Core Subunits Of The Mos4-Associated Complex, Positively Influence Mirna Biogenesis, Shengjun Li, Kan Liu, Bangjun Zhou, Mu Li, Shuxin Zhang, Lirong Zeng, Chi Zhang, Bin Yu

Faculty Publications from the Center for Plant Science Innovation

MAC3A and MAC3B are conserved U-box containing proteins in eukaryotes. They are subunits of the MOS4-associated complex (MAC) that plays essential roles in plant immunity and development in Arabidopsis. However, their functional mechanisms remain elusive. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana MAC3A and MAC3B act redundantly in microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis. Lack of both MAC3A and MAC3B in the mac3b mac3b double mutant reduces the accumulation of miRNAs, causing elevated transcript levels of miRNA targets. mac3a mac3b also decreases the levels of primary miRNA transcripts (pri-miRNAs). However, MAC3A and MAC3B do not affect the promoter activity of genes encoding miRNAs (MIR ...


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