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Decision Support Software For Palmer Amaranth Weed Control, Karen Renee Lindsay 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Decision Support Software For Palmer Amaranth Weed Control, Karen Renee Lindsay

Theses and Dissertations

Herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth [Amaranthus palmeri (S.) Wats.] has been identified as one of the most troublesome weeds, specifically for corn (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] producers in the southern United States. The use of herbicide technology remains the most widely used method of weed control, despite the evolution of herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth. Therefore, a need currently exists for research and extension education to encourage the adoption of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to address the problem of herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth in the southern United States. By equipping crop producers, educators, and weed management ...


Value Of Cover Crops In Suppressing Weeds And Protecting Cotton Yields And Likelihood Of Residual Herbicide Carryover To Cover Crops, Matheus Gabriel Palhano 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Value Of Cover Crops In Suppressing Weeds And Protecting Cotton Yields And Likelihood Of Residual Herbicide Carryover To Cover Crops, Matheus Gabriel Palhano

Theses and Dissertations

Weed-resistance management has become a topic of concern for modern agriculture. Cost related to herbicide usage has increased greatly due to evolution and proliferation of resistant weeds. Therefore, experiments were conducted to investigate the potential for using cover crops to suppress problematic weeds in cotton as well as chemical options for cover crop dessication, and sensitivity of cover crops to residual herbicides were evaluated. No differences were observed for cereal rye biomass production and consequently weed suppression between broadcast and drilled planting methods. Total amount of cover crop biomass was vital to effectively suppress weeds. Hence, of the cover crops ...


The Extent To Which Weeds Modify The Transpiration Of Cereals, A. L. Bakker, H. H. Plagge 2017 Iowa State College

The Extent To Which Weeds Modify The Transpiration Of Cereals, A. L. Bakker, H. H. Plagge

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

This work on transpiration involved a study of the competition and the comparison of the growth of wheat, of wheat with mustard, of oats alone and oats with mustard. To determine the growth and development taking place in the various cultures, measurements were made at frequent intervals of the increases in leaf area and of the amount of water lost. The data clearly show that weeds require a large amount of water.

Comparing the pure and mixed cultures leaves no doubt but that a weed like mustard impairs the crop. The effect is evidenced in the fact that a culture ...


Effects Of Growing-Season Prescribed Burning On Vigor Of Sericea Lespedeza In The Kansas Flint Hills: Ii. Plant-Species Composition, J. A. Alexander, W. H. Fick, J. Lemmon, G. A. Gatson, G. W. Preedy, K C. Olson 2017 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Effects Of Growing-Season Prescribed Burning On Vigor Of Sericea Lespedeza In The Kansas Flint Hills: Ii. Plant-Species Composition, J. A. Alexander, W. H. Fick, J. Lemmon, G. A. Gatson, G. W. Preedy, K C. Olson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Fire has, for centuries, been a key force for sustainability of native ecosystems in the Kansas Flint Hills. Prior to the arrival of European settlers, prescribed and wild fires occurred at less than 3-year intervals in the tallgrass prairie region. As a result, native tallgrass plant communities adapted to fire at regular intervals and plant-species composition became stable on a geologic time scale.
Currently, prescribed fire is used in the Kansas Flint Hills as a treatment for control of woody-stemmed invasive species such as eastern red cedar, honey locust, and roughleaf dogwood. These fires are generally applied in March and ...


Effects Of Growing-Season Prescribed Burning On Vigor Of Sericea Lespedeza In The Kansas Flint Hills: I. Suppression Of Seed Production And Canopy Dominance, J. A. Alexander, W. H. Fick, J. Lemmon, G. A. Gatson, G. W. Preedy, K C. Olson 2017 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Effects Of Growing-Season Prescribed Burning On Vigor Of Sericea Lespedeza In The Kansas Flint Hills: I. Suppression Of Seed Production And Canopy Dominance, J. A. Alexander, W. H. Fick, J. Lemmon, G. A. Gatson, G. W. Preedy, K C. Olson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata) is a highly fecund noxious weed in Kansas and surrounding states. Individual plants are capable of producing greater than 1,000 seeds annually. Vigorous seed production allows sericea lespedeza to rapidly infiltrate native and cultivated grasslands; seed can be transported great distances via farm machinery and the alimentary canal of wild and domestic herbivores. In Kansas alone, sericea lespedeza infests more than 700 square miles of pasture, primarily in the Flint Hills region. The resulting damage to native habitats for wildlife and pasture quality for domestic herbivores has been devastating.
The predominant grazing management practice in ...


Invasion Dynamics Of The Exotic Liana Euonymus Fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz. (Wintercreeper), Todd J. Rounsaville 2017 University of Kentucky

Invasion Dynamics Of The Exotic Liana Euonymus Fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz. (Wintercreeper), Todd J. Rounsaville

Theses and Dissertations--Biology

Elevated atmospheric CO2 has been implicated as a driver of increased liana abundance worldwide. Known as disturbance creators and beneficiaries, lianas possess the potential to significantly influence forest ecosystems. I investigated the early-invasion dynamics of Euonymus fortunei (wintercreeper), an evergreen liana that is invading forests in eastern North America, disrupting native plant communities and ecosystem functions.

Wintercreeper is widely cultivated as an ornamental groundcover, frequently invading natural areas via asexual stem growth. Invasion of remote natural areas is dependent upon seed transport and may occur less frequently. I examined the mechanisms of seed dormancy by conducting a ‘move-along’ experiment ...


Evaluation Of Select Herbicides On Non-Bearing Crops, Diane Cochran, Kenny McCabe 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Select Herbicides On Non-Bearing Crops, Diane Cochran, Kenny Mccabe

Farm Progress Reports

This study was conducted as part of the IR-4 Project to investigate herbicide phytotoxicity on two growth stages of northern pecan (Carya illinoensis), Spanish chestnut (Castanea sativa), Montmorency cherry (Prunus Montmorency), and black chokeberry (Photinia melanocarpa).


Evaluation Of New Sweet Corn Herbicides, Vince Lawson 2017 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of New Sweet Corn Herbicides, Vince Lawson

Farm Progress Reports

Current weed control recommendations rely heavily on the use of multiple herbicide groups for broad spectrum weed control and preventing development of herbicide resistant weeds. Sweet corn growers, as compared with other specialty crop growers, are fortunate in this regard as they have a fairly diverse and growing list of herbicides from which to choose. Recently, the herbicides Acuron and Acuron Flexi from Syngenta, Anthem and Anthem Maxx from FMC, and Revulon Q from Dupont were approved for use in sweet corn. Ingredients in these products represent five different herbicide groups (HG). The purpose of this trial was to evaluate ...


Two-Pass Herbicide Programs For Weed Control In Corn, Micheal Owen, Damian Franzenburg, James Lee, Iththiphonh Macvilay 2017 Iowa State University

Two-Pass Herbicide Programs For Weed Control In Corn, Micheal Owen, Damian Franzenburg, James Lee, Iththiphonh Macvilay

Farm Progress Reports

The purpose of this study was to evaluate various herbicides applied preemergence and postemergence in corn for crop injury and weed control.


Characterization Of Ground Nozzles For Pesticide Applications, Ryan Henry 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Characterization Of Ground Nozzles For Pesticide Applications, Ryan Henry

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Pesticide applications are a common component of crop production systems in the United States (US). For row crop systems (e.g. corn, soybean, or wheat), pesticides are applied by ground, aerial, or chemigation methods. The exact method of pesticide delivery is not universally regulated/ prescribed in the US, and the equipment and application technique are largely defined by the individual applicator. A wide variety of choices and decisions must be made by applicators to result in a successful pesticide application. Examples of these choices include proper active ingredient(s), carrier volume and equipment (e.g. nozzle type, spacing, and operating ...


Utilizing Cover Crops To Improve Sustainability Of Conventional Weed Management Programs, Garret Brown Montgomery 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Utilizing Cover Crops To Improve Sustainability Of Conventional Weed Management Programs, Garret Brown Montgomery

Doctoral Dissertations

Research was conducted from the fall of 2014 to the fall of 2016 to evaluate the optimal utilization of cover crops for weed control in no-till environments. Studies included a corn (Zea mays L.) termination timing study to evaluation different termination intervals of cereal rye (Cereal rye L.), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.), and a combination of cereal rye and hairy vetch cover crops on corn growth and development, an evaluation of a roller crimper for cover crop termination prior to corn study, an evaluation of a roller crimper for cover crop termination prior to soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr ...


Plant Community Associations Of Two Invasive Thistles, Emily S.J. Rauschert, Katriona Shea, Sarah Goslee 2016 Cleveland State University

Plant Community Associations Of Two Invasive Thistles, Emily S.J. Rauschert, Katriona Shea, Sarah Goslee

Emily Rauschert

In order to combat the growing problems associated with biological invasions, many researchers have focused on identifying which communities are most vulnerable to invasion by exotic species. However, once established, invasive species can significantly change the composition of the communities that they invade. The first step to disentangling the direction of causality is to discern whether a relationship with other vegetation exists at all. Carduus nutans and C. acanthoides are similar invasive thistles, which have caused substantial economic damage worldwide. We assessed the associations between the thistles and the standing flora in four sites in central Pennsylvania in which they ...


Japanese Stiltgrass: An Invasive Plant On The Move, Emily S.J. Rauschert, Andrea N. Nord 2016 Cleveland State University

Japanese Stiltgrass: An Invasive Plant On The Move, Emily S.J. Rauschert, Andrea N. Nord

Emily Rauschert

No abstract provided.


Slow Spread Of The Aggressive Invader, Microstegium Vimineum (Japanese Stiltgrass), Emily S.J. Rauschert, David A. Mortensen, Ottar N. Bjørnstad, Andrea N. Nord, Nora Peskin 2016 Cleveland State University

Slow Spread Of The Aggressive Invader, Microstegium Vimineum (Japanese Stiltgrass), Emily S.J. Rauschert, David A. Mortensen, Ottar N. Bjørnstad, Andrea N. Nord, Nora Peskin

Emily Rauschert

Microstegium vimineum (Japanese stiltgrass) is a non-native weed whose rapid invasion threatens native diversity and regeneration in forests. Using data from a 4 year experiment tracking new invasions in different habitats, we developed a spatial model of patch growth, using maximum likelihood techniques to estimate dispersal and population growth parameters. The patches expanded surprisingly slowly: in the final year, the majority of new seedlings were still within 1 m of the original patch. The influence of habitat was not as strong as anticipated, although patches created in roadside and wet meadow habitats tended to expand more rapidly and had greater ...


Invasional Interference Due To Similar Inter- And Intraspecific Competition Between Invaders May Affect Management, Emily S.J. Rauschert, Katriona Shea 2016 Cleveland State University

Invasional Interference Due To Similar Inter- And Intraspecific Competition Between Invaders May Affect Management, Emily S.J. Rauschert, Katriona Shea

Emily Rauschert

As the number of biological invasions increases, the potential for invader– invader interactions also rises. The effect of multiple invaders can be superadditive (invasional meltdown), additive, or subadditive (invasional interference); which of these situations occurs has critical implications for prioritization of management efforts. Carduus nutans and C. acanthoides, two congeneric invasive weeds, have a striking, segregated distribution in central Pennsylvania, USA. Possible hypotheses for this pattern include invasion history and chance, direct competition, or negative interactions mediated by other species, such as shared pollinators. To explore the role of resource competition in generating this pattern, we conducted three related experiments ...


Coexistence Patterns Of Two Invasive Thistle Species, Carduus Nutans And C. Acanthoides, At Three Spatial Scales, Emily S.J. Rauschert, Katriona Shea, Ottar N. Bjørnstad 2016 Cleveland State University

Coexistence Patterns Of Two Invasive Thistle Species, Carduus Nutans And C. Acanthoides, At Three Spatial Scales, Emily S.J. Rauschert, Katriona Shea, Ottar N. Bjørnstad

Emily Rauschert

To better understand the competitive processes involved in invasion by congeners, we examine coexistence patterns of two invasive species, Carduus nutans and C. acanthoides, at three spatial scales. A roadside survey of 5 × 5 km blocks in a previously identified overlap zone provided information about the regional scale. At smaller scales, we surveyed four fields of natural co-occurrence, quantifying the spatial patterns at the field scale by randomly placed 1 × 1 m quadrats and at the smallest scale by detailing plant position within the quadrats. The patterns observed are strikingly different at the different scales. At the regional scale, there ...


Influence Of Microsite Disturbance On The Establishment Of Two Congeneric Invasive Thistles, Emily S.J. Rauschert, Katriona Shea 2016 Cleveland State University

Influence Of Microsite Disturbance On The Establishment Of Two Congeneric Invasive Thistles, Emily S.J. Rauschert, Katriona Shea

Emily Rauschert

The successful establishment of invasive species has been shown to depend on aspects of the invaded community, such as gap characteristics. Biotic resistance may be particularly critical for stopping invaders at early life history stages, but new species can often invade following disturbances, which may create microsites with very different characteristics than are usually present. We examine the response of two invasive thistle species, Carduus nutans L. and C. acanthoides L., to three different microsite characteristics: disturbance type, size, and water availability. The two species initially responded differently to the type of disturbance: C. acanthoides had higher emergence and survival ...


Fallow Weed Control With Postemergence Applications Of Agh15004, Ag14039, Roundup Powermax, And Atrazine, R. Currie, P. Geier 2016 Kansas State University

Fallow Weed Control With Postemergence Applications Of Agh15004, Ag14039, Roundup Powermax, And Atrazine, R. Currie, P. Geier

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

All treatments except AGH15004 at 1.5 pt/a plus Roundup PowerMax (glyphosate) and nonionic surfactant provided more than 95% kochia control at 14 days after treatment (DAT). By 28 DAT, only those treatments containing atrazine provided greater than 95% kochia control. However, kochia control at 42 DAT was greater than 90% with all treatments except Roundup PowerMax plus nonionic surfactant.


Preemergence Weed Control With Fultime Nxt And Competitive Standards In Grain Sorghum, R. Currie, P. Geier 2016 Kansas State University

Preemergence Weed Control With Fultime Nxt And Competitive Standards In Grain Sorghum, R. Currie, P. Geier

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

At 71 days after treatment, FulTime NXT (acetochlor + atrazine) at 2.5 or 3.0 qt/a and Lumax EZ (S-metolachlor + atrazine + mesotrione) at 2.0 qt/a were the only treatments to control Palmer amaranth at 90% or more. All treatments provided similar velvetleaf control. Green foxtail control was 75 to 83% with all rates of FulTime NXT or Lumax EZ. Sorghum receiving FulTime NXT at 2.5 or 3.0 qt/a or Lumax EZ yielded significantly more than the control treatments.


Efficacy Of Anthem Maxx, Solstice, Cadet, Roundup Powermax, And Competitive Standards In Irrigated Corn, R. Currie, P. Geier 2016 Kansas State University

Efficacy Of Anthem Maxx, Solstice, Cadet, Roundup Powermax, And Competitive Standards In Irrigated Corn, R. Currie, P. Geier

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Control of Palmer amaranth and green foxtail was generally best when herbicides were applied as sequential treatments of preemergence (PRE) followed by late postemergence (LPOST) or as postemergence (POST) alone. Velvetleaf and puncturevine control was 95 and 93% or more, respectively, regardless of herbicide or application timing. Corn receiving herbicide treatments yielded 42 to 72 bu/a more grain than non-treated corn.


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