Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Agronomy and Crop Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

10,807 Full-Text Articles 10,937 Authors 917,512 Downloads 74 Institutions

All Articles in Agronomy and Crop Sciences

Faceted Search

10,807 full-text articles. Page 1 of 216.

Untangling The Economic And Social Impediments To Producer Adoption Of Organic Wheat, Donya L. Ralph-Quarnstrom 2019 Utah State University

Untangling The Economic And Social Impediments To Producer Adoption Of Organic Wheat, Donya L. Ralph-Quarnstrom

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Consumer demand for organic products has shown double-digit growth in recent years encouraging the development of a wider range of goods (Greene, 2017). Americans with an annual household income under $30,000 actively purchase organic foods at nearly the same rate as households with over $75,000 in annual incomes, 42% versus 49% (Greene et al., 2017). Previous research observed the adoption of organic farming practices on a combination of different grains, fruits and vegetables, meat, and dairy products from across the globe. However, this is the first study to examine the adoption of organic wheat in the Western U ...


Stability Analysis Of Kernel Quality Traits In Exotic-Derived Doubled Haploid Maize Lines, Adam Vanous, Candice Gardner, Michael Blanco, Adam Martin-Schwarze, Jinyu Wang, Xianran Li, Alexander E. Lipka, Sherry Flint-Garcia, Martin Bohn, Jode Edwards, Thomas Lubberstedt 2019 Iowa State University

Stability Analysis Of Kernel Quality Traits In Exotic-Derived Doubled Haploid Maize Lines, Adam Vanous, Candice Gardner, Michael Blanco, Adam Martin-Schwarze, Jinyu Wang, Xianran Li, Alexander E. Lipka, Sherry Flint-Garcia, Martin Bohn, Jode Edwards, Thomas Lubberstedt

Agronomy Publications

Variation in kernel composition across maize (Zea mays L.) germplasm is affected by a combination of the plant’s genotype, the environment in which it is grown, and the interaction between these two elements. Adapting exotic germplasm to the US Corn Belt is highly dependent on the plant’s genotype, the environment where it is grown, and the interaction between these components. Phenotypic plasticity is ill-defined when specific exotic germplasm is moved over large latitudinal distances and for the adapted variants being created. Reduced plasticity (or stability) is desired for the adapted variants, as it allows for a more rapid ...


Economics Of Grazing Cover Crops, Edward N. Ballard 2019 University of Illinois

Economics Of Grazing Cover Crops, Edward N. Ballard

Forage Symposium at the Kentucky Cattlemen’s Convention

Feed costs represent the major cost in most livestock production systems. A completed analysis of 225 Standardized Performance Analysis (SPA) Beef Cow Records on herds in Illinois and Iowa showed that feed cost was the overriding factor determining profitability, explaining over 57 percent of the herd-to-herd variation.


2018 Long-Term Summary Of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials, Gene L. Olson, S. Ray Smith, Jimmy C. Henning, Christopher D. Teutsch 2019 University of Kentucky

2018 Long-Term Summary Of Kentucky Forage Variety Trials, Gene L. Olson, S. Ray Smith, Jimmy C. Henning, Christopher D. Teutsch

Forage Symposium at the Kentucky Cattlemen’s Convention

Forage crops occupy approximately 7 million acres in Kentucky. Forages provide a majority of the nutrition for beef, dairy, horse, goat, sheep, and wildlife in the state. In addition, forage crops play an environmentally friendly role in soil conservation, water quality, and air quality. There are over 60 forage species adapted to the climate and soil conditions of Kentucky. Only 10 to 12 of these species occupy the majority of the acreage, but within these species there is a tremendous variation in varieties.

This publication was developed to provide a user-friendly guide to choosing the best variety for producers based ...


Influence Of Nitrogen And Sprig Planting Rates On Surface Runoff Losses During 'Latitude 36' Bermudagrass Establishment, Lance A. Rice 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Influence Of Nitrogen And Sprig Planting Rates On Surface Runoff Losses During 'Latitude 36' Bermudagrass Establishment, Lance A. Rice

LSU Master's Theses

The hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon x C. transvaalensis) ‘Latitude 36’ is grown because of its quality, excellent wear tolerance and fast recuperation. Hybrid bermudagrasses are vegetatively propagated as sprigs with N applied to accelerate establishment. Since losses of soil and associated nutrients in runoff are relatively high when ground coverage is low, rapid establishment is desirable from an environmental besides aesthetic basis. However, neither the interactive effect of sprig density and N fertilization on the rate of bermudagrass expansion nor soil and nutrient loss during establishment has been carefully examined. The current work measured bermudagrass coverage, runoff volume and concentrations ...


Effects Of Harvest Time On The Aroma Of White Wines Made From Cold-Hardy Brianna And Frontenac Gris Grapes Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Madina Tursumbayeva, Matthew Clark, David Greenlee, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell, Jacek A. Koziel 2019 Iowa State University

Effects Of Harvest Time On The Aroma Of White Wines Made From Cold-Hardy Brianna And Frontenac Gris Grapes Using Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction And Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Somchai Rice, Madina Tursumbayeva, Matthew Clark, David Greenlee, Murlidhar Dharmadhikari, Anne Fennell, Jacek A. Koziel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The Midwest wine industry has shown a marked increase in growers, hectares planted, wineries, and wine production. This growth coincides with the release of cold-hardy cultivars such as Brianna and Frontenac gris, in 2001 and 2003, respectively. These white grape varieties account for one-third of the total area grown in the state of Iowa. It is generally accepted that the wine aroma profile plays a crucial role in developing a local, sustainable brand. However, the identity of Brianna/Frontenac Gris-based wine aromas and their link to the grape berry chemistry at harvest is unknown. This study aims to preliminarily characterize ...


Planting Date, Hybrid Maturity, And Weather Effects On Maize Yield And Crop Stage, M. E. Baum, S. V. Archontoulis, M. A. Licht 2019 Iowa State University

Planting Date, Hybrid Maturity, And Weather Effects On Maize Yield And Crop Stage, M. E. Baum, S. V. Archontoulis, M. A. Licht

Agronomy Publications

Unfavorable weather conditions frequently cause farmers to plant maize (Zea mays L.) outside the optimum planting timeframe. We analyzed maize yield and phenology from a multilocation, year, hybrid relative maturity, and planting date experiment performed in Iowa, USA. Our objectives were to determine the optimum combination of planting date and relative maturity to maximize maize grain yield per environment and to elucidate the risk associated with the use of “full-season hybrids” when planting occurs beyond the optimum planting date. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) attributed 70% of the variability in grain yield to planting date and only 10% to relative maturity ...


Three Sister Crops: Understanding American Indian Agricultural Practices Of Corn, Beans And Squash, Sara Colombe, Madhav P. Nepal, Larry B. Browning, Matthew L. Miller, P. Troy White 2018 Hoven High School, Hoven, South Dakota

Three Sister Crops: Understanding American Indian Agricultural Practices Of Corn, Beans And Squash, Sara Colombe, Madhav P. Nepal, Larry B. Browning, Matthew L. Miller, P. Troy White

iLEARN Teaching Resources

American Indians have practiced an inter-planting system to produce corn, beans, and squash, for generations. These crops are known as the “Three Sisters”. In this lesson developed for secondary agriscience curriculum, students will understand the past, current and future production practices of the three important crops. Students will also apply their knowledge to understand the crop selection process and relate to the changing environment.


Understanding Spatial Dynamics Of Tallgrass Prairie Dominated By Tall Fescue, Callie Griffith 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Understanding Spatial Dynamics Of Tallgrass Prairie Dominated By Tall Fescue, Callie Griffith

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

This study was conducted on restored tallgrass prairie and invaded tallgrass prairie located in the Grand River Grasslands of southern Iowa to determine differences in heterogeneity of plant structure and functional group composition at different scales. Restored tallgrass prairies were seeded with a species-rich seeding mixture and managed by burning the entire prairie, every three years. Data were collected in August 2014 and 2015 to compare heterogeneity of restoration of native plant structure and functional group composition to the heterogeneity of invaded tallgrass prairies that were managed with patch burning and conventionally grazed. Invaded tallgrass prairies were managed with patch-burning ...


Defining The Genetic Regulation Of Appressorium Formation In Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, Hazel Apiyo Buyu 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Defining The Genetic Regulation Of Appressorium Formation In Cercospora Zeae-Maydis, Hazel Apiyo Buyu

Theses and Dissertations

Cercospora zeae-maydis is one of the primary pathogens associated with gray leaf spot, one of the most damaging foliar diseases of maize in the world. Gray leaf spot can be managed to some extent by cultural practices and fungicide applications. To infect maize, C. zeae-maydis grows towards stomata and forms infectious structures, termed appressoria, over stomatal pores. Prior research on the pathogen revealed that appressorium formation is crucial for foliar infection. Although several genes involved in pathogenesis have been identified in C. zeae-maydis, the molecular regulation of appressorium formation in this pathogen is poorly understood. Specifically, how the fungus senses ...


Understanding And Predicting Nematode Damage On Soybean Using Spatially Weighted Analysis, Barry Boney 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Understanding And Predicting Nematode Damage On Soybean Using Spatially Weighted Analysis, Barry Boney

Theses and Dissertations

Aerial imagery offers great potential as a predictive scouting method and could allow growers to better understand crop performance over time. Evidence suggests that the seed treatments fluopyram and abamectin result in decreased reproduction and root galling by Meloidogyne incognita, but yield protection in fields with higher or different nematode pressure is unclear. The objective of this work was to determine the efficacy of these seed treatments compared to 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) applied site-specifically and then predict where these might best be applied to other fields. In a soybean field infested with M. incognita, apparent electrical conductivity was highly ...


Evaluation Of Rice Stink Bug, Oebalus Pugnax (F.), Damage And Monitoring Techniques In Rice, Oryza Sativa L., And Grain Sorghum, Sorghum Bicolor (L.), Aaron Joseph Cato 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Rice Stink Bug, Oebalus Pugnax (F.), Damage And Monitoring Techniques In Rice, Oryza Sativa L., And Grain Sorghum, Sorghum Bicolor (L.), Aaron Joseph Cato

Theses and Dissertations

Rice stink bug, Oebalus pugnax (F.), is a serious pest of headed rice, Oryza sativa L. and an occasional pest of heading grain sorghum in the Mid-south. Work from this dissertation focuses on resolving gaps in and knowledge of rice stink bug sampling and management, and attempts to create a basis for rice stink bug damage assessment in future studies.

Field experiments were conducted from 2016-2018 to asses variation in sweep net sampling by observing producers, researchers, extension personnel, consultants and their workers. Large levels of variation were found in sweep lengths between observed sweepers and reliability of smaller sweep ...


Influence Of Loss Of Function Of The Fatty Acid Desaturase 7 Gene On Photosynthetic Activity And Foliar Redox Status, Janithri Savindya Wickramanayake 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Influence Of Loss Of Function Of The Fatty Acid Desaturase 7 Gene On Photosynthetic Activity And Foliar Redox Status, Janithri Savindya Wickramanayake

Theses and Dissertations

Fatty Acid Desaturase7 (FAD7) is a chloroplast-localized enzyme that converts 16 and 18 carbon dienoic fatty acids to trienoic fatty acids. The suppressor of prosystemin-mediated response2 (spr2) mutant in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and the fad7-1 mutant in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) result in the loss of function of FAD7, which alter the fatty acid profiles of chloroplast membranes and enhance resistance against aphids. This research contributes toward the long-term goal of identifying factors that determine aphid resistance in FAD7 mutants. Previous data suggested constitutive differences between spr2 and WT including increased expression of genes associated with photosynthesis and differences in redox ...


Water Conservation Practices For Irrigation Of Turfgrass Lawns, Daniel Sandor 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Water Conservation Practices For Irrigation Of Turfgrass Lawns, Daniel Sandor

Theses and Dissertations

Turfgrass lawns are widely used in residential and commercial landscapes, providing many environmental, aesthetic, and recreational benefits. However, concerns and scrutiny arise with perceived maintenance requirements, particularly with regards to irrigation. It is important to manage irrigation in order to maximize water conservation without significantly reducing lawn quality. A series of field and greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate how water usage might be reduced in irrigation practices with the following proposed objectives: 1) evaluate the use of rain and soil moisture sensors in a humid transition zone environment; 2) evaluate the effects of chronic drought stress between drought-resistant and ...


Generation And Evaluation Of Modified Opaque-2 (O2) Popcorn Suggests A Route To Quality Protein Popcorn (Qpp), Ying Ren 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Generation And Evaluation Of Modified Opaque-2 (O2) Popcorn Suggests A Route To Quality Protein Popcorn (Qpp), Ying Ren

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

I have been working on a Quality Protein Popcorn breeding project where QPM conversion is carried out simultaneously for several elite popcorn germplasms. During my study in the graduate program, I led the following aspects of the Quality Protein Popcorn Breeding Project:

1. Identified suitable QPMs as opaque-2 allele donors.

2.Examined the feasibility of quick introgression of the opaque-2 allele into popcorn lines via marker-assisted selection.

3. Monitored modification by SDS-PAGE zein profiling and light box phenotypic selection to make sure multiple modifier loci for opaque-2 were incorporated each time generation advancement was carried out.

4. Carried out high ...


Grazing Strategy Effects On Utilization, Animal Performance, Aboveground Production, Species Composition, And Soil Properties On Nebraska Sandhills Meadow, Aaron Shropshire 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Grazing Strategy Effects On Utilization, Animal Performance, Aboveground Production, Species Composition, And Soil Properties On Nebraska Sandhills Meadow, Aaron Shropshire

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Ultrahigh stocking density (a.k.a., mob grazing) is proposed as a management tool that results in greater harvest efficiency, animal performance, aboveground plant production, species richness, and soil carbon content. The study objective was to determine grazing treatment, haying, or non-defoliated control effects on forage utilization, aboveground production, animal performance, and soil properties. In 2010, 25 ha of Sandhills meadow were divided into 2 replications of 3 grazing, a hay, and control treatment. Grazing treatments were a 120-pasture rotation with one grazing cycle (mob), a 4-pasture rotation with one cycle (4PR1), and a 4-pasture rotation with two cycles (4PR2 ...


Risks And Opportunities Of Gm Crops: Bt Maize Example, Andrea K. Carzoli, Siddique I. Aboobucker, Leah L. Sandall, Thomas T. Lubberstedt, Walter P. Suza 2018 Iowa State University

Risks And Opportunities Of Gm Crops: Bt Maize Example, Andrea K. Carzoli, Siddique I. Aboobucker, Leah L. Sandall, Thomas T. Lubberstedt, Walter P. Suza

Agronomy Publications

The anticipated world population growth emphasizes a need to produce more food on less land. Cutting-edge technologies, including genetic engineering, can help to develop improved crop varieties and protect natural resources. In spite of the potential for genetically-modified (GM) crops to make crop production more efficient, they remain a polarizing issue due to safety concerns. This paper provides an overview of the risk assessment process. The safety of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins is used as an example for how risk assessment is applied to GM crops. Risks associated with GM crops have proven to be low to non-existent. Developing countries ...


Systems To Attract And Feed Pollinators In Warm-Season Lawns, Michelle Wisdom 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Systems To Attract And Feed Pollinators In Warm-Season Lawns, Michelle Wisdom

Theses and Dissertations

Pollinating insects are responsible for the production of many agricultural crops and they require floral resources to fulfill their life-cycle. Ideally, pollinating insects will encounter a diversity of floral resources across their entire season of activity, and those floral resources can include both herbaceous and woody plant species. Managed turfgrass areas have been identified as potential locations for creating pollinator-friendly habitats. In the transition zone, where both warm- and cool-season turfgrass species are present, the persistence of herbaceous plants in warm-season turfgrasses such as bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) and buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides), may be affected not only by the competitive nature ...


Physiological Characterization Of The Soynam Parental Lines Under Field Conditions, Akshita Mishra 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Physiological Characterization Of The Soynam Parental Lines Under Field Conditions, Akshita Mishra

Theses and Dissertations

The narrow genetic pool of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in North America can limit its future yield gains. Among the worldwide germplasm collection of 45,000 unique landraces, only 80 contribute 99% to the collective parentage of North American soybean cultivars. Among these 80 landraces, just 17 contribute to 86% of the collective parentage of the modern cultivars. The Soybean Nested Association Mapping population (SoyNAM) was therefore developed with the objective of diversifying the soybean gene pool. Forty diverse soybean genotypes from maturity groups (MG) 1 through 5 were crossed with a common MG 3 parent to develop 40 ...


Weed Control And Management For Vegetable Soybeans In Arkansas, Seth Bernard Abugho 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Weed Control And Management For Vegetable Soybeans In Arkansas, Seth Bernard Abugho

Theses and Dissertations

Vegetable soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], known as edamame, needs weed management tools. Releasing locally adapted edamame soybean varieties and registering herbicides are necessary for successful production and expanding the edamame industry. This research aimed to 1) identify herbicides labeled for grain soybean for potential use on edamame; 2) evaluate differential tolerance of edamame soybean varieties to selected grain soybean herbicides; and 3) identify a feasible edamame-based crop rotation system. For objective 1, 26 herbicide treatments were tested on AVS-4002 edamame including preplant (PPL), preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) herbicides labeled for grain soybean. Preplant herbicides caused 9 to 28 ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress