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Machine Learning For High-Throughput Stress Phenotyping In Plants, Arti Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Asheesh Kumar Singh, Soumik Sarkar 2017 Iowa State University

Machine Learning For High-Throughput Stress Phenotyping In Plants, Arti Singh, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Asheesh Kumar Singh, Soumik Sarkar

Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

Advances in automated and high-throughput imaging technologies have resulted in a deluge of high-resolution images and sensor data of plants. However, extracting patterns and features from this large corpus of data requires the use of machine learning (ML) tools to enable data assimilation and feature identification for stress phenotyping. Four stages of the decision cycle in plant stress phenotyping and plant breeding activities where different ML approaches can be deployed are (i) identification, (ii) classification, (iii) quantification, and (iv) prediction (ICQP). We provide here a comprehensive overview and user-friendly taxonomy of ML tools to enable the plant community to correctly ...


An End-To-End Convolutional Selective Autoencoder Approach To Soybean Cyst Nematode Eggs Detection, Adedotun Akintayo, Nigel Lee, Vikas Chawla, Mark P. Mullaney, Christopher C. Marett, Asheesh K. Singh, Arti Singh, Gregory L. Tylka, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar 2017 Iowa State University

An End-To-End Convolutional Selective Autoencoder Approach To Soybean Cyst Nematode Eggs Detection, Adedotun Akintayo, Nigel Lee, Vikas Chawla, Mark P. Mullaney, Christopher C. Marett, Asheesh K. Singh, Arti Singh, Gregory L. Tylka, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar

Baskar Ganapathysubramanian

Soybean cyst nematodes (SCNs), Heterodera glycines, are unwanted micro-organisms that reduce yields of a major source of food–soybeans. In the United States alone, approximately $1 billion is lost per annum due to cyst nematode infections on soybean plants. Experts have conceived methods of mitigating the losses through phenotyping techniques via SCN eggs density estimation, and then applying the right control measures. Currently, they rely on labor intensive and time-consuming identification of SCN eggs in soil samples processed onto microscopic frames. However, phenotyping a vast array of fields requires automated high-throughput techniques. From an automation perspective, detection of rarely occurring ...


Aflatoxin In Corn New Perspectives, D. T. Wicklow 2017 U.S.D.A.

Aflatoxin In Corn New Perspectives, D. T. Wicklow

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Preharvest contamination of com (Zea mays L.) with aflatoxin, a metabolite produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus Link: Fr., is a recurrent problem in the southeastern United States, but occasional serious outbreaks also occur in the Midwest Com Belt (21). Aflatoxins are recognized as potent hepatotoxins and carcinogens, causing mortality or reducing the productivity of farm animals (89). Aflatoxin-contaminated foodstuffs also have been associated with increased incidence of liver cancer in humans (39). In com-producing regions, the economic impact from yield loss is not very large, but A. flavus contaminates the grain with aflatoxin. Fungal toxins reduce the value of ...


Correlated Responses To Recurrent Selection For Grain Yield In Maize, M. A. B. Fakorede, J. J. Mock 2017 University of Ife

Correlated Responses To Recurrent Selection For Grain Yield In Maize, M. A. B. Fakorede, J. J. Mock

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Experiments were conducted in three field environments with the following objectives: (1) to evaluate the progress from seven cycles of reciprocal recurrent selection in Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic (BSSS(R)] and Iowa Corn Borer Synthetic #1 (BSCBl(R)] and six cycles of half-sib family selection in 'Alph' (i.e., BS12) maize (Zea mays L.) populations, (2) to compare the response of unimproved and improved maize variety hybrids to different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and plant density, and (3) to evaluate the influence of nitrogen and plant density on the morphological and physiological traits associated with recurrent selection for grain yield ...


Comparison Of Meadow-Kill Treatments On A Corn-Oats-Meadow-Meadow Rotation In Northwestern Iowa, R. P. Mowers, W. A. Fuller, W. D. Shrader 2017 Iowa State University of Science & Technology

Comparison Of Meadow-Kill Treatments On A Corn-Oats-Meadow-Meadow Rotation In Northwestern Iowa, R. P. Mowers, W. A. Fuller, W. D. Shrader

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

An experiment was conducted at the Moody Research Center (formerly Moody Experimental Farm) in northwestern Iowa to examine the effects of meadow-kill on crop yields and on soil moisture in the spring. The experiment utilized a corn-oats-meadow-meadow rotation with meadow-kill treatments applied to the second-year meadow at various times of the growing season. Twenty years (1958-1977) of data were used for the analyses presented in this bulletin.

Three treatments were used in the experiment. In the first, the control treatment, the second-year meadow was harvested two or three times. The plots were plowed the following spring before corn was planted ...


Function And Biodegradation In Soil Of Bioplastic Horticultural Containers Made Of Pla-Biorestm Composites, James Schrader, Kenneth McCabe, William Graves, David Grewell 2017 Iowa State University

Function And Biodegradation In Soil Of Bioplastic Horticultural Containers Made Of Pla-Biorestm Composites, James Schrader, Kenneth Mccabe, William Graves, David Grewell

William R Graves

Container-crops horticultural industries rely almost exclusively on petroleum-based plastic containers for modern production systems. Containers made of these materials fulfill all of the functions required during crop production, and perform better than containers made of clay, peat, and other natural materials, but the source of the plastic materials (fossil carbon), their lack of biodegradability, and their end-of-life disposal (97% end up in landfills) are major obstacles to sustainability. Although function and efficiency are among the most important aspects in determining the best materials for horticultural containers, there is no need for containers to persist in the environment for decades when ...


Chemical Composition Of Sewage Sludges In Iowa, M. A. Tabatabai, W. T. Frankenberger Jr. 2017 Iowa State University of Science & Technology

Chemical Composition Of Sewage Sludges In Iowa, M. A. Tabatabai, W. T. Frankenberger Jr.

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Knowledge of the chemical composition of sewage sludges produced by wastewater treatment plants in Iowa is essential for future attempts to recycle this material on agricultural land. Sewage sludges produced by treatment plants in 44 Iowa communities, ranging in population from < 1,000 to >50,000, were analyzed for 30 constituents to survey the quality of the sludges and to assess the potential of this material as a source of plant nutrients for crop production in this region. Results showed that, expressed on an oven-dry basis, the median values of organic C, and total N, P, K, and S were 31, 2.6 ...


Selection Procedures In The Development Of Maize Inbred Lines And The Effects Of Plant Densities On The Relationships Between Inbred Traits And Hybrid Yields, W. A. Russell, Veronica Machado 2017 Iowa State University of Science & Technology

Selection Procedures In The Development Of Maize Inbred Lines And The Effects Of Plant Densities On The Relationships Between Inbred Traits And Hybrid Yields, W. A. Russell, Veronica Machado

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The purpose of this research was to use five selection procedures to develop inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.):

(1) to compare the selected lines for performance per se and in testcrosses at various plant densities, thereby evaluating the selection procedures; and

(2) to determine the effects of plant densities on the relationships among plant, ear, and grain traits of the inbred lines and between these traits and hybrid yield performance.

The source population was an Iowa Synthetic, BS1. Five groups of lines were obtained: Group 1, selected visually at a density of 59,000 plants/ha in rows ...


Range And Forage Research Needs For Red Meat Production In The North Central Region, S. A. Ewing, Herman J. Gorz 2017 Iowa State University of Science & Technology

Range And Forage Research Needs For Red Meat Production In The North Central Region, S. A. Ewing, Herman J. Gorz

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The 12 contiguous states of the North Central Region constitute one of the most productive agricultural areas in the world. Before the region was settled, vegetation consisted primarily of forest in the east, grasses in the west, and an intermingling of grass and forest in the central portions. Although the region contains a high proportion of productive soils, there are great differences within the region in soils, as well as in climate, vegetation, and geology. The short-grass soils in the western areas are higher in pH, lighter in color, and thinner than the tail-grass soils in the central and west-central ...


Missouri River History, Floodplain Construction, And Soil Formation In Southwestern Iowa, R. V. Ruhe, T. E. Fenton, L. L. Ledesma 2017 Indiana University

Missouri River History, Floodplain Construction, And Soil Formation In Southwestern Iowa, R. V. Ruhe, T. E. Fenton, L. L. Ledesma

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The Platte River has influenced the Missouri River below the mouth of the Platte by contributing sizable suspended and coarser-textured bed loads. Consequently, the Missouri River has been and is a braided stream in a reach about 43 miles long below the mouth of the Platte. In this reach the channel is wider, is less sinuous, has greater low-water slope profile, and contains numerous bars and islands. The Otoe Bend area, in this reach of the Missouri River near the southwestern corner of Iowa, has inherited these channel characteristics.

By use of historic maps and aerial photographs, the lateral shifting ...


Available-Sulfur Status Of Some Representative Iowa Soils, John P. Widdowson, John J. Hanway 2017 Soil Bureau, Department of Scientific and Industrial Research

Available-Sulfur Status Of Some Representative Iowa Soils, John P. Widdowson, John J. Hanway

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Greenhouse experiments with ryegrass were conducted to evaluate and characterize plant availability of native and added sulfur in samples of Iowa soils. Fourteen surface soil (0-6 inches) and five subsoil (18-24 inches) samples from different sites in Iowa and two surface soil samples from S-deficient out-of-state sites were studied. Laboratory analyses were made to characterize the soil samples and to evaluate the results of different extractants as indexes of the S-supplying abilities of the soils. Plant uptake of S from the soil samples with no added S during a 202-day cropping period (five harvests) varied from 1 to 39 mg ...


Analysis Of Crop-Rotation Experiments, With Application To The Iowa Carrington-Clyde Rotation-Fertility Experiments, G. E. Battese, W. A. Fuller, W. D. Shrader 2017 Iowa State University of Science & Technology

Analysis Of Crop-Rotation Experiments, With Application To The Iowa Carrington-Clyde Rotation-Fertility Experiments, G. E. Battese, W. A. Fuller, W. D. Shrader

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

This report presents a model by which several crop rotations are compared, and optimal fertilization and rotation practices determined. The model is developed with specific applicability to the rotation- fertility experiments at the Carrington-Clyde Experimental Farm near Independence, Iowa. The substitutability of legume meadow and chemical nitrogen fertilizer and the effect of carry-over of applied nitrogen from crop to crop are incorporated into the analysis. The split-plot nature of the rotation- fertility trials is noted, and a transformation of the yield data is employed to create nearly uncorrelated observations. Response functions are estimated for each crop in each rotation. Optimal ...


Response In Yield And Leaf Composition Of Soybean Varieties To Phosphorus, Potassium, And Calcium Carbonate Materials, C. J. deMooy, John Pesek 2017 Iowa State University of Science & Technology

Response In Yield And Leaf Composition Of Soybean Varieties To Phosphorus, Potassium, And Calcium Carbonate Materials, C. J. Demooy, John Pesek

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Yield responses of soybeans [Glycine Max (L.) Merrill] to phosphorus and potassium fertilizers have the reputation of being small and inconsistent unless the soil tests low to very low with respect to these elements. Consequently, soybean fertilization is commonly left to the residual effect of fertilization of other crops in the rotation such as corn. Field experiments were conducted with the general objective to investigate means whereby the magnitude and consistency of soybean responses to fertilization may be improved.

Differential responses exist in corn. Jones (18) concluded that some inbred lines have a lower K requirement than others and also ...


Plant Availability Of Added Phosphorus In Different Iowa Soils, Oetit Koswara, John J. Hanway 2017 Iowa State University of Science & Technology

Plant Availability Of Added Phosphorus In Different Iowa Soils, Oetit Koswara, John J. Hanway

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Laboratory and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the availability of fertilizer P in 20 samples of different soils representing 10 of the principal soil associations in Iowa.

Ryegrass plants recovered an average of approximately 50 percent of the added fertilizer P during a 385-day cropping period in the greenhouse. It appeared that continued cropping would have resulted in very little additional recovery of the added P. Differences in recovery of the added P from the different soils were relatively small, despite differences in rate of fertilizer addition or differences in soil pH, CaCO3 content, level of available soil ...


Advance Of Irrigation Water On The Soil Surface In Relation To Soil Infiltration Rate: A Mathematical And Laboratory Model Study, Mohamed Asseed, Don Kirkham 2017 Purdue University

Advance Of Irrigation Water On The Soil Surface In Relation To Soil Infiltration Rate: A Mathematical And Laboratory Model Study, Mohamed Asseed, Don Kirkham

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

Mathematical equations describing the horizontal advance of an irrigation stream on a soil surface are derived and discussed for different types of infiltration equations corresponding to different known field conditions. Complex variable theory is applied to transform certain complicated forms of infiltration equation solutions to algebraic forms. An irrigation model having a visible Plexiglas photographic front was constructed and operated to test the theory and obtain data not covered by the theory. Glass beads or soil aggregates constitute the porous medium; water is used as the seepage fluid. Potassium dichromate dye is injected into the porous medium to trace the ...


Riparian Buffer Systems -- The Basics, Thomas M. Isenhart, Michael J. Tidman 2017 Iowa State University

Riparian Buffer Systems -- The Basics, Thomas M. Isenhart, Michael J. Tidman

Thomas M. Isenhart

If you have a stream running through your farm, you may be interested in learning about a conservation technique that has gained the respect of many Iowa landowners and conservation professionals. It is called a riparian buffer system and involves planting trees, shrubs, and native grasses along streams to prevent sediment and chemicals from entering creeks and rivers.


Interrelationships Of Plant Population, Soil Moisture And Soil Fertility In Determining Corn Yields On Colo Clay Loam At Ames, Iowa, C. E. Beer, W. D. Shrader, R. K. Schwanke 2017 Iowa State University of Science & Technology

Interrelationships Of Plant Population, Soil Moisture And Soil Fertility In Determining Corn Yields On Colo Clay Loam At Ames, Iowa, C. E. Beer, W. D. Shrader, R. K. Schwanke

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

This investigation included a 6-year study of the effects of irrigation, stand and fertility treatments on com yields on a clay loam soil near Ames, Iowa. The data obtained from 1956 to 1961 indicated that variations in yields were caused by all three variables. Significant yield differences caused by irrigation treatments were greatest in 1956, 1959 and 1960. The highest mean irrigated yields averaged over stand and fertility treatments usually correlated best with the irrigation treatment where the soil moisture was maintained at or above 60 percent of the available moisture content (AMC). The greatest yield response to irrigation occurred ...


Fertilizer Production Functions In Relation To Weather, Location, Soil And Crop Variables, John T. Pesek Jr., Earl O. Heady, Eduardo Venezian 2017 Iowa State University of Science & Technology

Fertilizer Production Functions In Relation To Weather, Location, Soil And Crop Variables, John T. Pesek Jr., Earl O. Heady, Eduardo Venezian

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

This study is based on several long-term experiments of crop fertilization at three Iowa locations: Howard County, with Clyde and Cresco soils; Hancock County, with acid and calcareous Webster soils; and Wayne County, with Seymour soil. The trials at these widely separated experimental farms included corn and oats fertilized in a 3-year rotation of corn-oats-meadow. The periods of the trials were: Clyde and Cresco soils, 1945-1960; Webster soils, 1954-1960; Seymour soil, 1949-60. Although meadow was not fertilized, residual nutrients from fertilization of the oats nurse crop were expected to affect hay yield. Applied nutrients included only phosphorus and potassium.

The ...


Selection In Zea Mays L. By Inbred Line Appearance And Testcross Performance In Low And High Plant Densities, W. A. Russell, A. H. Teich 2017 Iowa State University of Science & Technology

Selection In Zea Mays L. By Inbred Line Appearance And Testcross Performance In Low And High Plant Densities, W. A. Russell, A. H. Teich

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The development of inbred lines and the search for their best hybrid combinations are the main bases of corn improvement in the United States. The most commonly used method for inbred development is to enforce self fertilization for several generations while practicing visual selection for the more highly heritable characteristics. During these generations, surviving stocks maintained on an ear-to-row basis become highly homozygous and highly homogeneous. Because' evaluation for combining ability by using test-cross procedures is expensive, it is usually delayed until after three to five generations of visual selection. Visual selection for combining ability among inbred progenies is rarely ...


Postglacial Environments In Relation To Landscape And Soils On The Cary Drift, Iowa, Patrick H. Walker 2017 Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization

Postglacial Environments In Relation To Landscape And Soils On The Cary Drift, Iowa, Patrick H. Walker

Research Bulletin (Iowa Agriculture and Home Economics Experiment Station)

The objectives of this study were to evaluate environmental and time factors in the genesis of soils and soil landscapes on the Cary drift in Iowa, with special reference to soils of the Clarion toposequence.

The stratigraphy of five bogs along the Des Moines lobe was studied in detail; and as a result, a general bog stratigraphy was established for the Cary drift in Iowa. The stratigraphic zones and appropriate radiocarbon dates are as follows: upper muck zone (UM), 0-3,000 years; upper silt zone (US), 3,000- 8,000 years; lower muck zone (LM), 8,000-10,500 years; lower ...


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