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Editorial: Optimizing Miscanthus For The Sustainable Bioeconomy: From Genes To Products, Kerrie Farrar, Emily A. Heaton, Luisa M. Trindade 2018 Aberystwyth University

Editorial: Optimizing Miscanthus For The Sustainable Bioeconomy: From Genes To Products, Kerrie Farrar, Emily A. Heaton, Luisa M. Trindade

Agronomy Publications

In this Research Topic we report advances in fundamental and applied aspects of the perennial C4 bioenergy crop miscanthus (Miscanthus spp.) and its role in mitigating climate change as part of the bioeconomy. Miscanthus is a high yielding C4 perennial grass with great potential for sustainable biomass production in temperate climates, including Europe and North America as well as its native Asia. With high resource use efficiency and good biomass quality, miscanthus is a well-suited feedstock for a plethora of applications including bioenergy, biofuels and biomaterials (van der Weijde et al.).


Field Pea Response To Seeding Rate, Depth, And Inoculant In West-Central Nebraska, Strahinja V. Stepanovic, Charles Burr, Julie A. Peterson, Daran Rudnick, Cody F Creech, Rodrigo Werle 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Field Pea Response To Seeding Rate, Depth, And Inoculant In West-Central Nebraska, Strahinja V. Stepanovic, Charles Burr, Julie A. Peterson, Daran Rudnick, Cody F Creech, Rodrigo Werle

West Central Research and Extension Center, North Platte

Increased market demand and larger adoption of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) in semiarid west-central Nebraska has provided opportunities to replace summer fallow and diversify crop rotations. As a relatively new crop, its response to different seeding practices has not been evaluated in this eco-region. Field pea grain yield response to seeding depth (25, 50, and 75 mm), inoculation with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae (yes and no rhizobia inoculant), and seeding rates (35, 50, 65, 75, 90, 105, and 120 plants m–2) was investigated in 2015 and 2016 at five sites in Perkins County, NE. There were no differences ...


Soil Science In Precision Agriculture Lesson Plan, Carson Ellis Cronkright 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Soil Science In Precision Agriculture Lesson Plan, Carson Ellis Cronkright

Agricultural Education and Communication

Due to the increasing demands for the American agricultural industry to provide exceptional products at an increasing rate of production, as well as implement the practice of sustainable farming, it is imperative that more modern concepts be taught at a younger age (Ray, 2013). In order to inform students of advancements and the future of agriculture in the United States, curriculum and lesson plans should reflect this movement in industry in order to provide relevant information and maintain the highest quality of education possible. This project will provide a constructed lesson plan as one example of adopting more progressive methods ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


Summary Of Thermo–Time Domain Reflectometry Method: Advances In Monitoring In Situ Soil Bulk Density, Yili Lu, Xiaona Liu, Meng Zhang, Joshua Heitman, Robert Horton, Tusheng Ren 2018 China Agricultural University

Summary Of Thermo–Time Domain Reflectometry Method: Advances In Monitoring In Situ Soil Bulk Density, Yili Lu, Xiaona Liu, Meng Zhang, Joshua Heitman, Robert Horton, Tusheng Ren

Agronomy Publications

Soil bulk density (ρb) is a key indicator of soil compaction and soil health that relates to water infiltration, plant rooting depth, nutrient availability, and soil microbial activity. Under field conditions, ρb usually varies with time and depth because of agronomic practices, root growth, and environmental processes (e.g., rainfall events, wetting/drying, and freezing/thawing). The traditional technique (i.e., the coring method) for determining ρb has the problems of destructive sampling, labor intensive, and is unable to capture the spatial and temporal variations. In a chapter of the recent Methods of Soil Analysis book, we ...


Where Can Switchgrass Production Be More Profitable Than Corn And Soybean? An Integrated Subfield Assessment In Iowa, Usa, Elke Brandes, Alejandro Plastina, Emily A. Heaton 2018 Iowa State University

Where Can Switchgrass Production Be More Profitable Than Corn And Soybean? An Integrated Subfield Assessment In Iowa, Usa, Elke Brandes, Alejandro Plastina, Emily A. Heaton

Agronomy Publications

Perennial bioenergy crops are considered an important feedstock for a growing bioeconomy. However, in the USA, production of biofuel from these dedicated, nonfood crops is lagging behind federal mandates and markets have yet to develop. Most studies on the economic potential of perennial biofuel crops have concluded that even high-yielding bioenergy grasses are unprofitable compared to corn/soybeans, the prevailing crops in the United States Corn Belt. However, they did not account for opportunities precision agriculture presents to integrate perennials into agronomically and economically underperforming parts of corn/soybean fields. Using publicly available subfield data and market projections, we identified ...


Soil Properties That Influence The Occurrence Of Hydrogen Sulfide Toxicity In Rice Fields, Julia Marie Fryer 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Soil Properties That Influence The Occurrence Of Hydrogen Sulfide Toxicity In Rice Fields, Julia Marie Fryer

Theses and Dissertations

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) producers face many challenges throughout each growing season. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) toxicity is a physiological disorder where sulfate (SO42-) is excessively reduced to the toxic gas, H2S. This can reduce yield and, in severe cases, result in crop death. The main research objectives were to: i) understand chemical and physical characteristics in soils prone to H2S toxicity, ii) determine influential soil characteristics on the incidence of H2S toxicity, iii) determine ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) fertilizer additions influence on H2S toxicity, and iv) predict when and where H2S will occur. Three greenhouse experiments were conducted using Arkansas ...


Evaluation Of Dicamba Off-Target Movement And Subsequent Effects On Soybean Offspring, Gordon Travis Jones 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluation Of Dicamba Off-Target Movement And Subsequent Effects On Soybean Offspring, Gordon Travis Jones

Theses and Dissertations

Commercial launch of cotton with resistance to dicamba, glyphosate, and glufosinate occurred in 2015 and launch of soybean with resistance to dicamba and glyphosate occurred in early 2016. It is likely that non-dicamba-resistant soybean will be planted in close proximity to dicamba-resistant soybean and cotton. Therefore, experiments were conducted to examine the distance dicamba moves during an application using commercial application equipment, as well as the effect the drift events have upon soybean offspring. Additional experiments were designed to investigate the effect glyphosate addition to dicamba has upon soybean growth and yield as well as possible effects on offspring. Lastly ...


Species And Cultural Management Of Earthworms On Golf Course Turf In Arkansas And Oklahoma, Paige Elizabeth Boyle 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Species And Cultural Management Of Earthworms On Golf Course Turf In Arkansas And Oklahoma, Paige Elizabeth Boyle

Theses and Dissertations

As earthworms feed, they can egest soil and nutrient-rich aggregates (casts) on the soil surface. In low-cut turfgrass systems, such as golf course greens, tees, and fairways, surface casting can result in a muddy playing surface, ball roll issues, weed and pest invasion, reduced aesthetics, surface softening, and reduced photosynthesis. Because the use of pesticides for earthworm control is illegal in the U.S., earthworm casting must be managed through cultural practices. Sand topdressing is one method of earthworm control studied for use on golf courses, with the supposition being that the abrasive sand particles will deter the soft-bodied earthworms ...


Irrigation Practice Adoption: Causes And Consequences In The Arkansas Delta, Kerr James Adams 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Irrigation Practice Adoption: Causes And Consequences In The Arkansas Delta, Kerr James Adams

Theses and Dissertations

Concerns about groundwater depletion from conventional irrigation agriculture in the Arkansas Delta region have led to the promotion of more efficient irrigation practices. With Arkansas being the largest producer of rice, the 10th largest producer of soybeans and the 16th largest producer of corn in the United States, the irrigation demand of these crops has put pressure on producers to find ways to irrigate more efficiently. Not only are the alternative technologies supposed to reduce water use, it is also believed that their adoption can also yield economic benefits for the producer. Despite these assumed benefits, adoption of alternative technologies ...


Determining The Light Requirements Of Various Turfgrass Systems And Investigating Techniques To Quantify Photosynthetically Active Radiation, Travis Russell 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Determining The Light Requirements Of Various Turfgrass Systems And Investigating Techniques To Quantify Photosynthetically Active Radiation, Travis Russell

Theses and Dissertations

Light is one of the primary growth-limiting factors of turfgrass. Without sufficient quantities of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400-700 nm wavelength), turfgrass quality will decline and could ultimately result in plant death. PAR light can be expressed in a daily quantity known as the daily light integral (DLI) and has been utilized to determine minimum light requirements for turfgrass as well as other plants. With an estimated 25% of all turfgrass being maintained under some level of shaded conditions, it is imperative to define minimum DLI requirements of various turfgrass systems to ensure acceptable turf quality. In addition, it is ...


An Evaluation Of Breeding, Agronomic, And Processing Methodologies Of Vegetable Soybean (Edamame) To Increase Domestic Production In The United States Market, David Octor Moseley 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

An Evaluation Of Breeding, Agronomic, And Processing Methodologies Of Vegetable Soybean (Edamame) To Increase Domestic Production In The United States Market, David Octor Moseley

Theses and Dissertations

Edamame is a food-grade soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) that is either harvested immature (R6 stage) or after plant maturity (R8 stage). At R6, the premium product will have crescent- shaped large green pods and gray pubescence. At R8, the seed will either have stayed green or will have turned yellow, black, or brown. Edamame is a healthy snack with a sweet flavor and firm texture. The edamame market is growing in the United States, creating a need for more adapted varieties. The genetic diversity is low among adapted large-seeded breeding lines. Finding diverse accessions will help develop larger and ...


Genetic And Phytopathological Studies On Charcoal Rot Resistance In Soybean [Glycine Max (L) Merr.], Marcos Paulo da Silva 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Genetic And Phytopathological Studies On Charcoal Rot Resistance In Soybean [Glycine Max (L) Merr.], Marcos Paulo Da Silva

Theses and Dissertations

Charcoal rot of soybean (Glycine max (L.), caused by Macrophomina phaseolina is a disease of economic significance in the United States. The identification and quantification of the resistance is difficult, and very little is known about the genetics and markers linked to the charcoal rot (CR) resistance genes. Current assay methods can be time consuming, and data may vary between tests. The objectives of this study were to 1) create a robust seed plate assay (SPA) for CR resistance by comparing results with cut-stem and CFUI assays; 2) correlate and compare field data disease assessments with SPA; 3) identify QTLs ...


A Solution For Sampling Position Errors In Maize And Soybean Root Mass And Length Estimates, Raziel A. Ordonez, Michael J. Castellano, Jerry L. Hatfield, Mark A. Licht, Emily E. Wright, Sotirios V. Archontoulis 2018 Iowa State University

A Solution For Sampling Position Errors In Maize And Soybean Root Mass And Length Estimates, Raziel A. Ordonez, Michael J. Castellano, Jerry L. Hatfield, Mark A. Licht, Emily E. Wright, Sotirios V. Archontoulis

Agronomy Publications

Root mass and length attributes are difficult to obtain in the field and currently there is uniformity among literature studies in estimating the effect of sampling position error. With the objectives of 1) quantifying the sampling position error in calculating weighted average root values per unit area and 2) developing an algorithm to minimize root position sampling error so that existing data in the literature can be used in future studies, we collected and analyzed root mass and length data across four sampling positions (0, 12, 24 and 36 cm distance from the plant row; row-to-row spacing 76 cm) from ...


Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Production On A Silt-Loam Soil In Arkansas, Casey Rector 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Production On A Silt-Loam Soil In Arkansas, Casey Rector

Theses and Dissertations

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a common crop grown in Arkansas under flooded-soil conditions. The saturated to nearly saturated soil makes rice production an ideal environment for the production of potent greenhouse gases, such as nitrous oxide (N2O). The objectives of this study were to i) evaluate the impact of water management practice (full-season-flood and intermittent-flood) and cultivar (pure-line and hybrid) on N2O fluxes, season-long N2O emissions, and global warming potential (GWP; 2016) and ii) evaluate the impact of tillage practice [conventional tillage and no-tillage (NT)] and type of urea fertilizer [ N-(n-butyl) thiosphosphoric triamide (NBPT)-coated and non-coated urea ...


Dicamba Effects On Soybean (Glycine Max) Growth, Yield, And Offspring, Mark Spencer McCown 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Dicamba Effects On Soybean (Glycine Max) Growth, Yield, And Offspring, Mark Spencer Mccown

Theses and Dissertations

Introduction of a new dicamba-resistant (Xtend) trait in soybean and cotton will increase dicamba herbicide use. Consequently, concern for injury to sensitive crops from off-target movement and tank contamination will likely increase. For soybean, foliar symptoms associated with dicamba damage do not necessarily reflect yield losses; hence, experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dicamba on soybean growth, yield, and offspring. Low rates of dicamba [1/64X (8.75 g ae ha-1) and 1/256X (2.18 g ae ha-1) of a normal 1X field rate (560 g ae ha-1)] were applied at two vegetative growth stages (V4, V6 ...


A Genome Wide Association Study For Fusarium Head Blight Resistance In Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat, Amanda Holder 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Genome Wide Association Study For Fusarium Head Blight Resistance In Southern Soft Red Winter Wheat, Amanda Holder

Theses and Dissertations

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease of small grains caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. FHB poses potential economic losses and health risks due to the accumulation of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) on infected seed heads. The objectives of this study are: 1) evaluate soft red winter wheat (SRWW) lines for resistance to FHB in terms of resistance to initial inoculum (incidence); resistance to spread within the head (severity); resistance to DON accumulation; and resistance to Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK), 2) determine the frequency and effect of known FHB resistance genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL), and 3 ...


Combinations Of Allelopathic Crop Extracts Reduce Digitaria Spp. And Setaria Faberi Seed Germination, Peter Apicella, Karl Guillard 2018 University of Connecticut Department of Plant Science

Combinations Of Allelopathic Crop Extracts Reduce Digitaria Spp. And Setaria Faberi Seed Germination, Peter Apicella, Karl Guillard

Honors Scholar Theses

Allelopathic cover crops contain compounds that deter other types of plant seeds from germinating or inhibiting established plants’ growth. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus, SF), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, BW), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum × drummondii [Nees ex. Steud.] Millsp. & Chase, SSG), and winter rye (Secale cereale) are all known allelopathic cover crops. However, there is little information about the use of these allelopathic cover crops used together and their combined impact on weed seed germination. Laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the effect of the aforementioned cover crops alone and in combinations in reducing the germination rate of Digitaria spp. (crabgrass) and Setaria faberi ...


Influence Of Multispecies Interference Of Common Ragweed (Ambrosia Artemisiifolia L.) And Common Waterhemp (Amaranthus Rudis Sauer) On Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.] Growth And Yield Under Variable Water Supply In Nebraska, Koffi Badou Jeremie Kouame 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Influence Of Multispecies Interference Of Common Ragweed (Ambrosia Artemisiifolia L.) And Common Waterhemp (Amaranthus Rudis Sauer) On Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.] Growth And Yield Under Variable Water Supply In Nebraska, Koffi Badou Jeremie Kouame

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) and common waterhemp (Amaranthus rudis Sauer) are two problematic weeds for soybean producers in the United States. Both weeds have evolved resistance to many herbicides, including glyphosate. It is therefore essential to understand how these weeds in mixture impact soybean growth and yield and also how they deplete soil moisture in rainfed and irrigated cropping systems. The objectives of this research were to: (i) understand the influence of variable water supply on soybean yield loss in mixture with ragweed and waterhemp, (ii) quantify the influence of variable water supply on soybean growth in mixture with ...


Modelling The Influence Of Crop Density And Weather Conditions On Field Drying Characteristics Of Switchgrass And Maize Stover Using Random Forest, Amit Khanchi, Stuart J. Birrell, Robert B. Mitchell 2018 Iowa State University

Modelling The Influence Of Crop Density And Weather Conditions On Field Drying Characteristics Of Switchgrass And Maize Stover Using Random Forest, Amit Khanchi, Stuart J. Birrell, Robert B. Mitchell

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Field drying trials were conducted using both field baskets as well as grab sampling techniques to study drying behaviour of switchgrass and maize (corn) stover (CS). Environmental conditions such as hourly solar radiation, vapour pressure deficit (VPD), average wind speed, rainfall amount, harvesting method, and field operations such as swath density were used as variables for model development. A powerful classification-based algorithm, which uses a collection of decision trees called random forest (RF) was utilised to predict moisture content (MC) of switchgrass and CS on wet basis. RF predicted the MC of switchgrass and CS with a coefficient of determination ...


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