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Corn And Soybean Response To Wastewater-Recycled Phosphorus Fertilizers, Shane Ylagan 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Corn And Soybean Response To Wastewater-Recycled Phosphorus Fertilizers, Shane Ylagan

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

The ability to recycle phosphorus (P) from wastewaters could provide a sustainable, continuous source of P that might also help protect surface water quality from P enrichment. The mineral struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) is an understudied material that can be created from Pcontaining wastewater and has been shown to have agricultural fertilizer value. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of electrochemically precipitated struvite (ECST), chemically precipitated struvite (Crystal Green; CG), diammonium phosphate (DAP), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), rock phosphate (RP), and triple super phosphate (TSP) on corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) response in a 79-day greenhouse ...


Summaries Of Arkansas Cotton Research 2019, Fred Bourland 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Summaries Of Arkansas Cotton Research 2019, Fred Bourland

Research Series

Statewide, temperatures and precipitation were mostly above average (https://www.weather.gov/lzk/cli2019atxt.htm). The 2019 season was the wettest since 2015, and the 7th wettest on record. The wettest month was May, and the driest month was September. By average temperature, the coldest month was January, and the warmest month was August. Considering departures from normal, the most significant warmth occurred in September, which was 7.0 degrees above average. Many fields were muddy or underwater, given a lot of rain early in the year, and extensive river flooding (including the historic Arkansas River flood). It was far ...


Spring‐Applied Corn Herbicides Impact Fall‐Planted Cover Crops In South Dakotaa, Sydney Pridlie, S. A. Clay, G. Shaffer 2020 South Dakota State University

Spring‐Applied Corn Herbicides Impact Fall‐Planted Cover Crops In South Dakotaa, Sydney Pridlie, S. A. Clay, G. Shaffer

Agronomy, Horticulture and Plant Science Faculty Publications

Early spring herbicide applications can have residuals that impede fall‐planted cover crop growth. A greenhouse study examined radish (Raphanus sativus L.) or rye (Secale cereale L.) growth in silty clay loam (southeastern South Dakota) and silt loam (north‐central South Dakota) where corn herbicides had been applied about 120 d prior to collection. S‐metolachlor, acetochlor, flumetsulam, metribuzin, bicyclopyrone + mesotrione + S‐metolachlor + atrazine, and primisulfuron‐methyl + prosulfuron (northern site only) were applied at the suggested timing and highest recommended rate and planted to corn (Zea mays L.). Two 11‐cm diam. soil cores to a 10‐cm depth were ...


Genome-Wide Characterization Of The Grf Family And Their Roles In Response To Salt Stress In Gossypium, Jun-Feng Cao, Jin-Quan Huang, Xia Liu, Chao-Chen Huang, Zi-Shou Zheng, Xiu-Fang Zhang, Xiao-Xia Shangguan, Ling-Jian Wang, Yu-Gao Zhang, Jonathan F. Wendel, Corrinne E. Grover, Zhi-Wen Chen 2020 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Genome-Wide Characterization Of The Grf Family And Their Roles In Response To Salt Stress In Gossypium, Jun-Feng Cao, Jin-Quan Huang, Xia Liu, Chao-Chen Huang, Zi-Shou Zheng, Xiu-Fang Zhang, Xiao-Xia Shangguan, Ling-Jian Wang, Yu-Gao Zhang, Jonathan F. Wendel, Corrinne E. Grover, Zhi-Wen Chen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Background: Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important world-wide fiber crop but salt stress limits cotton production in coastal and other areas. Growth regulation factors (GRFs) play regulatory roles in response to salt stress, but their roles have not been studied in cotton under salt stress.

Results: We identified 19 GRF genes in G. raimondii, 18 in G. arboreum, 34 in G. hirsutum and 45 in G. barbadense, respectively. These GRF genes were phylogenetically analyzed leading to the recognition of seven GRF clades. GRF genes from diploid cottons (G. raimondii and G. arboreum) were largely retained in allopolyploid cotton, with ...


The Perceived Benefits, Challenges, And Environmental Effects Of Cover Crop Implementation In South Carolina, Lucas Clay, Katharine Perkins, Marzieh Motallebi, Alejandro Plastina, Bhupinder Singh Farmaha 2020 Clemson University

The Perceived Benefits, Challenges, And Environmental Effects Of Cover Crop Implementation In South Carolina, Lucas Clay, Katharine Perkins, Marzieh Motallebi, Alejandro Plastina, Bhupinder Singh Farmaha

Economics Publications

Cover crops are becoming more accepted as a viable best management practice because of their ability to provide important environmental and soil health benefits. Because of these benefits, many land managers are strongly encouraging the use of cover crops. Additionally, there is limited information on farmers′ perceptions of the benefits and challenges of implementing cover crops. Many farmers state that they do not have enough money or time to implement cover crops. In an attempt to gather more data about the adoption rate and perceptions of cover crops in South Carolina, a survey was sent to 3000 row crop farmers ...


Challenges And Opportunities In Machine-Augmented Plant Stress Phenotyping, Arti Singh, Sarah Jones, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar, Daren S. Mueller, Kulbir Sandhu, Koushik Nagasubramanian 2020 Iowa State University

Challenges And Opportunities In Machine-Augmented Plant Stress Phenotyping, Arti Singh, Sarah Jones, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Soumik Sarkar, Daren S. Mueller, Kulbir Sandhu, Koushik Nagasubramanian

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Plant stress phenotyping is essential to select stress-resistant varieties and develop better stress-management strategies. Standardization of visual assessments and deployment of imaging techniques have improved the accuracy and reliability of stress assessment in comparison with unaided visual measurement. The growing capabilities of machine learning (ML) methods in conjunction with image-based phenotyping can extract new insights from curated, annotated, and high-dimensional datasets across varied crops and stresses. We propose an overarching strategy for utilizing ML techniques that methodically enables the application of plant stress phenotyping at multiple scales across different types of stresses, program goals, and environments.


Food System And Water–Energy–Biodiversity Nexus In Nepal: A Review, Roshan Subedi, Madhav Karki, Dinesh Panday 2020 International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), Kathmandu, Nepal

Food System And Water–Energy–Biodiversity Nexus In Nepal: A Review, Roshan Subedi, Madhav Karki, Dinesh Panday

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Water, energy, and biodiversity are essential components for building a sustainable food system in a developing country like Nepal. Green Revolution technologies and the package of practices largely ignored the role of ecosystem services, leaving a large population of small farmers’ food- and nutrition-insecure. Biodiversity, especially, agrobiodiversity is in decline and this vital cross-cutting element is less discussed and interlinked in nexus literature. The interlinking food system with water–energy–biodiversity nexus, therefore, is essential to achieve a resilient food system. It ensures the vital structures and functions of the ecosystem on which it is dependent are well protected in ...


B.R. Wells Arkansas Rice Research Studies 2019, K.A. K. Moldenhauer, B. Scott, J. Hardke 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

B.R. Wells Arkansas Rice Research Studies 2019, K.A. K. Moldenhauer, B. Scott, J. Hardke

Research Series

No abstract provided.


Leaf Angle Extractor: A High‐Throughput Image Processing Framework For Leaf Angle Measurements In Maize And Sorghum, Sunil K. Kenchanmane Raju, Miles Adkins, Alex Enersen, Daniel Santana de Carvalho, Anthony J. Studer, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Patrick S. Schnable, James C. Schnable 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Leaf Angle Extractor: A High‐Throughput Image Processing Framework For Leaf Angle Measurements In Maize And Sorghum, Sunil K. Kenchanmane Raju, Miles Adkins, Alex Enersen, Daniel Santana De Carvalho, Anthony J. Studer, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Patrick S. Schnable, James C. Schnable

Mechanical Engineering Publications

PREMISE: Maize yields have significantly increased over the past half-century owing to advances in breeding and agronomic practices. Plants have been grown in increasingly higher densities due to changes in plant architecture resulting in plants with more upright leaves, which allows more efficient light interception for photosynthesis. Natural variation for leaf angle has been identified in maize and sorghum using multiple mapping populations. However, conventional phenotyping techniques for leaf angle are low throughput and labor intensive, and therefore hinder a mechanistic understanding of how the leaf angle of individual leaves changes over time in response to the environment.

METHODS: High-throughput ...


Influence Of Cover Crop Management Practices On Rainfed Corn Production In Semi-Arid Western Nebraska, Alexandre Tonon Rosa 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Influence Of Cover Crop Management Practices On Rainfed Corn Production In Semi-Arid Western Nebraska, Alexandre Tonon Rosa

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

With the increased cover crop (CC) popularity, producers of semi-arid regions of western Nebraska are questioning whether they could successfully incorporate CC into their rainfed winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-corn (Zea mays L.)-fallow rotations. The major concern is that CCs may deplete soil water affecting the subsequent crop. Therefore, three studies were established under rainfed conditions of western Nebraska to access the effects of CCs on soil water, soil compaction, nutrient cycling, weed demographics, residue coverage, and subsequent corn yield. The first study evaluated the influence of CC planting and termination times prior to corn establishment. Late termination ...


Effects Of Char On Nitrogen Management In Agricultural Soils Of Semi-Arid Western Nebraska, Dinesh Panday 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Effects Of Char On Nitrogen Management In Agricultural Soils Of Semi-Arid Western Nebraska, Dinesh Panday

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Soils in western Nebraska are characterized by low soil organic C due to semi-arid environment in the region and further aggravated by disruption of soil aggregates and rapid C decomposition from intensive tillage, erosion, and frequent droughts. Proper management of soil C may improve soil properties, reduce N losses, and subsequently improve crop yields in this low C soil and low moisture condition. This dissertation focuses on C-rich coal char (henceforth “char”) as a potential strategy to overcome the existing problem of low C in semi-arid region. Char is an industrial by-product, resulting from inefficient coal burning during sugar beet ...


Effects Of Tank Contamination And Impact Of Drift-Reducing Agents On Weed Control In Response To Dicamba Applications, Milos Zaric 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Effects Of Tank Contamination And Impact Of Drift-Reducing Agents On Weed Control In Response To Dicamba Applications, Milos Zaric

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Availability of dicamba-tolerant (DT) crops from 2017 provided farmers with additional herbicides for weed control management in row crops. However, the technology alike this one has concerns regarding dicamba off-target movement (OTM) causing undesirable effects on sensitive vegetation. Even though dicamba has high water solubility OTM that has often been overlooked when it comes to unintended crop exposure is dicamba tank contamination. Considering the complexity of spraying equipment soybean response may be expected even when small amounts of residues are left in the spray equipment. Typically, the same field spray equipment is used to perform herbicide application through growing season ...


Automated Trichome Counting In Soybean Using Advanced Image‐Processing Techniques, Seyed Vahid Mirnezami, Therin Young, Teshale Assefa, Shelby Prichard, Koushik Nagasubramanian, Kulbir Sandhu, Soumik Sarkar, Sriram Sundararajan, Matthew E. O'Neal, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Arti Singh 2020 Iowa State University

Automated Trichome Counting In Soybean Using Advanced Image‐Processing Techniques, Seyed Vahid Mirnezami, Therin Young, Teshale Assefa, Shelby Prichard, Koushik Nagasubramanian, Kulbir Sandhu, Soumik Sarkar, Sriram Sundararajan, Matthew E. O'Neal, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Arti Singh

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Premise Trichomes are hair‐like appendages extending from the plant epidermis. They serve many important biotic roles, including interference with herbivore movement. Characterizing the number, density, and distribution of trichomes can provide valuable insights on plant response to insect infestation and define the extent of plant defense capability. Automated trichome counting would speed up this research but poses several challenges, primarily because of the variability in coloration and the high occlusion of the trichomes.

Methods and Results We developed a simplified method for image processing for automated and semi‐automated trichome counting. We illustrate this process using 30 leaves from ...


Effects Of Mass Selection On Husk And Cob Color In Five Purple Field Corn Populations Segregating For Purple Husks, Ponsawan Khamphasan, Khomsorn Lomthaisong, Bhornchai Harakotr, Marvin Paul Scott, Kamol Lertrat, Bhalang Suriharn 2020 Khon Kaen University

Effects Of Mass Selection On Husk And Cob Color In Five Purple Field Corn Populations Segregating For Purple Husks, Ponsawan Khamphasan, Khomsorn Lomthaisong, Bhornchai Harakotr, Marvin Paul Scott, Kamol Lertrat, Bhalang Suriharn

Agronomy Publications

Improvement of anthocyanin levels in husks and cobs of field corn may add economic value to corn coproducts in commercial production. This study aimed to evaluate the response to four cycles of modified mass selection (MMS) for yield, agronomic traits, total anthocyanin yield (TAY), total anthocyanin content (TAC), total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity assay (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC) in corn husk and cob of five purple field corn populations. The improved populations and check varieties were evaluated at two locations for two seasons in 2017/2018 ...


Processes, Patterns, And Predictions Of Soil Moisture Variation In Upland And Peatland Cranberry Farms In Massachusetts, Rebecca Brennan 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Processes, Patterns, And Predictions Of Soil Moisture Variation In Upland And Peatland Cranberry Farms In Massachusetts, Rebecca Brennan

Masters Theses

The American Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) represents a vital sector of the economy of southeastern Massachusetts. Due to the hydrogeological and edaphic characteristics of peatlands, variations in soil drainage and soil moisture represent major management challenges for growers in Massachusetts. An emerging trend of upland (mineral soil) cranberry farms planted with new hybrid cultivars has the potential to enhance the profitability and long-term viability of cranberry production in Massachusetts. However, sparse data exist on soil moisture characteristics of peatland and upland cranberry farms. The purpose of this research was to elucidate the differences in soil moisture between upland and peatland ...


Arkansas Corn And Grain Sorghum Research Studies 2019, Victor Ford, Jason Kelley, Nathan McKinney II 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Arkansas Corn And Grain Sorghum Research Studies 2019, Victor Ford, Jason Kelley, Nathan Mckinney Ii

Research Series

The 2020 Arkansas Corn and Grain Sorghum Research Studies Series is the inaugural edition of this annual report and includes research results on all topics pertaining to corn and grain sorghum production including disease management, environmental/sustainability, irrigation, post-harvest drying, soil fertility, weed control, and research verification program results. Our objective is capturing and broadly distributing the results of research projects funded by the Arkansas Corn and Grain Sorghum Board. The intended audience includes producers and their advisors, current investigators, and future researchers. The Series will also serve as a citable archive of research results. Research reports contained in this ...


Impact Of Covid-19 On Arkansas Field Crop Farms, A. Durand-Murat, S. Stiles, B. Watkins, C. R. Stark Jr. 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Impact Of Covid-19 On Arkansas Field Crop Farms, A. Durand-Murat, S. Stiles, B. Watkins, C. R. Stark Jr.

Research Reports and Research Bulletins

The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is disrupting the global economy in unprecedented ways, and the agricultural sector is no exception. Prices of most commodities decreased since the pandemic began, which are affecting farm revenues and production costs. We assess the impact of COVID-19 on Arkansas field crop farms using the Representative Farm models, calibrated to the latest baseline published by the Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute. The results show that COVID-19 decreases the net cash farm incomes of all five farms, increases the probability of having a negative net cash farm income, and increases the cost of commodity programs. Payments ...


Evaluating Opportunities For Integrated Crop Livestock Systems In Eastern Nebraska, Elizabeth Kay Christenson 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Evaluating Opportunities For Integrated Crop Livestock Systems In Eastern Nebraska, Elizabeth Kay Christenson

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Current agricultural systems focused on production of few commodities are facing production, economic, and environmental challenges. To address these challenges, Integrated Crop Livestock Systems (ICLS) have emerged through three primary methods 1) perennial grasslands for grazing and/or hay production, 2) crop residue grazing, and 3) cover crop grazing. To evaluate potential of ICLS mitigating current challenges, a field scale model ICLS was developed in 2015. The ICLS includes 4-ha each of ‘Newell’ smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis L.), ‘Liberty’ switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), and ‘Shawnee’ switchgrass. The ICLS also included 8-ha of continuous corn (Zea mays L.). In 2016, only ...


Sensitivity Of Enlisttm And Roundup Ready Xtend® Technologies To Auxin Herbicides And Comparison Of Resistance To Susceptible Cotton And Soybean Cultivars, James Rose 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Sensitivity Of Enlisttm And Roundup Ready Xtend® Technologies To Auxin Herbicides And Comparison Of Resistance To Susceptible Cotton And Soybean Cultivars, James Rose

Theses and Dissertations

Increases in weed resistance have led to the development of new herbicide-resistant crop technologies, namely the Roundup Ready Xtend® and EnlistTM weed control systems. These new technologies provide resistance to applications of the synthetic auxins dicamba or 2,4-D, respectively, in traited cotton or soybean. It is unknown if there is any resistance to other herbicides within the synthetic auxin group (WSSA Group 4) in these traited crops. Experiments were conducted with auxin herbicides representing all five families within WSSA Group 4. Herbicides were applied either preemergence (PRE) or postemergence (POST) relative to the crop in a single application. Applications ...


Performance Evaluation Of Four Arkansas Table Grape Cultivars Grown On Three Trellis Systems Under High Tunnels At Two Locations In Arkansas., Jose Hernandez 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Performance Evaluation Of Four Arkansas Table Grape Cultivars Grown On Three Trellis Systems Under High Tunnels At Two Locations In Arkansas., Jose Hernandez

Theses and Dissertations

Grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) are one of the most important horticultural crops world-wide. In the southern U.S. region, hot and humid climate accompanied by high pest pressure requires high levels of labor and pesticide inputs, making open field table grape production unsustainable. Previous research at University of Arkansas has demonstrated that table grape production under high tunnels (HTs) is a viable option to overcome biotic and abiotic challenges in the region. This project evaluated two HTs established in Arkansas. In the spring of 2014, at Fayetteville, three table grape cultivars (Faith, Gratitude, and Jupiter) were established in an 8 ...


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