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Winter Greenhouse Production And Tissue Culture Of Basil (Ocimum Spp.), Wan Wei 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Winter Greenhouse Production And Tissue Culture Of Basil (Ocimum Spp.), Wan Wei

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Basil (Ocimum spp.) is a popular annual culinary and medicinal herb contains essential oils. Numerous researchers have studied the effects of fertilizer level on the growth and oil yield of basil, but in most studies, basil was grown in the field during the summer. Our experiment was conducted in a controlled environment greenhouse using a capillary mat system during the winter with a goal of increasing dry weight for fresh produce and basil essential oil. The 7-month experiment was conducted to determine the optimal production timeline and fertilizer levels for eight basil cultivars grown in a soilless mix. We found ...


Evaluating Zoysiagrass-Tall Fescue Mixtures In Kansas, Mingying Xiang, J. Fry, M. Kennelly 2016 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Evaluating Zoysiagrass-Tall Fescue Mixtures In Kansas, Mingying Xiang, J. Fry, M. Kennelly

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Seeding zoysiagrass at 1 lb PLS/1,000 sq ft in June with subsequent seeding of tall fescue into established zoysiagrass in September at 8 lbs PLS/1,000 sq ft resulted in the best mixture of these two species.


Development Of Cold Hardy, Large Patch Resistant Zoysiagrass Cultivars For The Transition Zone, Mingying Xiang, J. Fry, M. Kennelly 2016 Kansas State University, Manhattan

Development Of Cold Hardy, Large Patch Resistant Zoysiagrass Cultivars For The Transition Zone, Mingying Xiang, J. Fry, M. Kennelly

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

TAES 5645, a Z. japonica genotype that exhibited resistance to large patch in preliminary studies, was used as a breeding parent and crossed with 22 cold hardy zoysiagrasses, resulting in 985 progeny. These progeny were evaluated for cold hardiness and agronomic traits (establishment rate, overall quality, spring greenup, leaf texture, and genetic color) in Manhattan, KS; West Lafayette, IN; and Dallas, TX; from 2012 to 2014. From this work, 60 progeny were identified for further evaluation in larger plots. During the 2015-2016 establishment year, experimental line 6102-47 showed good vigor and spring green up rate, which is comparable to ‘Meyer ...


Preventative Control Of Brown Patch With Select Fungicides, E. Alderman, J. Reeves, J. Hoyle 2016 Kansas State University

Preventative Control Of Brown Patch With Select Fungicides, E. Alderman, J. Reeves, J. Hoyle

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Preventative applications of Velista and Heritage Action fungicides will decrease the percentage of brown patch observed in a perennial stand of tall fescue.


Evaluating The Effects Of Simulated Golf Cart Traffic On Dormant Buffalograss And Turfgrass Colorants, E. Alderman, J. Hoyle, J. Fry, S. Keeley 2016 Kansas State University

Evaluating The Effects Of Simulated Golf Cart Traffic On Dormant Buffalograss And Turfgrass Colorants, E. Alderman, J. Hoyle, J. Fry, S. Keeley

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Percent green cover will ultimately decrease over time when traffic is applied to dormant buffalograss with turfgrass colorants. Data suggests that an additional five weeks of acceptable green cover can be achieved under high traffic situations when Endurant Premium is applied to dormant turf.


Late Pre-Emergent Control Of Annual Bluegrass With Flazasulfuron & Indaziflam, J. Reeves, J. Hoyle 2016 Kansas State University

Late Pre-Emergent Control Of Annual Bluegrass With Flazasulfuron & Indaziflam, J. Reeves, J. Hoyle

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

All applications of flazasulfuron or indaziflam resulted in acceptable control of Annual Bluegrass (Poa annua), only allowing <3% visual weed cover (VWC) in all treatments compared to the non-treated (26% VWC) up to 133 days after application (DAA).


Influence Of Glyphosate Timings On Conversion Of Golf Course Rough From Tall Fescue To ‘Sharps Improved Ii’ Buffalograss, J. Reeves, J. Hoyle, D. Bremer, S. Keeley 2016 Kansas State University

Influence Of Glyphosate Timings On Conversion Of Golf Course Rough From Tall Fescue To ‘Sharps Improved Ii’ Buffalograss, J. Reeves, J. Hoyle, D. Bremer, S. Keeley

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

All treatments, except the control that received no glyphosate application, resulted in acceptable buffalograss establishment (>90% buffalograss green cover) by 70 days after seeding (DAS). However, any treatment not sprayed prior to seeding date or that received a 7 DAS application lagged behind in establishment for 6 weeks after seeding.


2012 National Turfgrass Evaluation Program Tall Fescue Test: 2015 Data, L. Parsons, M. Kennelly, J. Griffin, J. Hoyle 2016 Kansas State University

2012 National Turfgrass Evaluation Program Tall Fescue Test: 2015 Data, L. Parsons, M. Kennelly, J. Griffin, J. Hoyle

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A number of the cultivars included in the 2012 National Turfgrass Evaluation Program Tall Fescue Test performed well and showed good brown patch resistance in southern Kansas during the 2015 growing season.


2013 National Turfgrass Evaluation Program Bermudagrass Test: 2015 Data, L. Parsons, J. Griffin, J. Hoyle 2016 Kansas State University

2013 National Turfgrass Evaluation Program Bermudagrass Test: 2015 Data, L. Parsons, J. Griffin, J. Hoyle

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Kansas represents the northernmost region in the central United States where bermudagrass can be successfully grown as a perennial turfgrass. Historically, few cultivars that have both acceptable quality and adequate cold-tolerance have been available to local growers. Because new introductions are continually being selected for improved hardiness and quality, both seeded and vegetative types need regular evaluation to determine their long-range suitability for use in Kansas.


Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Detect Turfgrass Drought, D. Bremer, Deon van der Merwe 2016 Kansas State University

Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Detect Turfgrass Drought, D. Bremer, Deon Van Der Merwe

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Kansas State University is evaluating the ability of using small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) to detect drought stress in turfgrass. Their research indicates high resolution remote sensing with small UAS can detect drought stress before it is visible to the human eye. Preliminary measurements of a golf course revealed interesting differences in fairways, tees, and greens between summer and fall seasons. Additional research will be conducted in 2016.


Nitrous Oxide Emissions And Carbon Sequestration In Turfgrass: Effects Of Irrigation And Nitrogen Fertilization (Year 1), R. Braun, D. Bremer, J. Fry 2016 Kansas State University

Nitrous Oxide Emissions And Carbon Sequestration In Turfgrass: Effects Of Irrigation And Nitrogen Fertilization (Year 1), R. Braun, D. Bremer, J. Fry

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

In this study, annual nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions were greatest in urea and least in untreated (no N) among treatments. Differences were negligible due to irrigation treatment. Irrigation levels may be decreased further in the final year to induce slight stress on the low irrigation treatment. All fertilizer treatments maintained acceptable quality, however the controlled-release fertilizer resulted in more consistent visual quality ratings compared to urea and untreated. Urea fertilizer had higher peak fluxes after fertilization and overall annual emissions than polymer-coated N-fertilizer. Thus, controlled released N fertilizers, such as polymer-coated urea, in turfgrass systems could potentially help ...


Release Of Ksuz 0802 Zoysiagrass, J. Fry, Ambika Chandra 2016 Kansas State University

Release Of Ksuz 0802 Zoysiagrass, J. Fry, Ambika Chandra

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A new zoysiagrass cultivar, under the experimental designation KSUZ 0802, was released jointly by the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station and Texas A&M AgriLife Research in 2015.


Structural Adaptations In Overwintering Leaves Of Thermonastic And Nonthermonastic Rhododendron Species, Xiang Wang, Rajeev Arora, Harry T. Horner, Stephen L. Krebs 2016 Iowa State University

Structural Adaptations In Overwintering Leaves Of Thermonastic And Nonthermonastic Rhododendron Species, Xiang Wang, Rajeev Arora, Harry T. Horner, Stephen L. Krebs

Harry Horner

Evergreen rhododendrons (Rhododendron L.) are important woody landscape plants in many temperate zones. During winters, leaves of these plants frequently are exposed to a combination of cold temperatures, high radiation, and reduced photosynthetic activity, conditions that render them vulnerable to photooxidative damage. In addition, these plants are shallow-rooted and thus susceptible to leaf desiccation when soils are frozen. In this study, the potential adaptive significance of leaf morphology and anatomy in two contrasting Rhododendron species was investigated. R. catawbiense Michx. (native to eastern United States) exhibits thermonasty (leaf drooping and curling at subfreezing temperatures) and is more winter-hardy [leaf freezing ...


Seed-Set Evaluation Of Four Male-Sterile, Female-Fertile Soybean Lines Using Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees And Honey Bees As Pollinators, E. Ortiz-Perez, R. M. Mian, R. L. Cooper, T. Mendiola, T. Tew, Harry T. Horner, S. J. Hanlin, R. G. Palmer 2016 Iowa State University

Seed-Set Evaluation Of Four Male-Sterile, Female-Fertile Soybean Lines Using Alfalfa Leafcutting Bees And Honey Bees As Pollinators, E. Ortiz-Perez, R. M. Mian, R. L. Cooper, T. Mendiola, T. Tew, Harry T. Horner, S. J. Hanlin, R. G. Palmer

Harry Horner

Male-sterile, female-fertile plants were used to produce hybrid soybean seed. Manual cross-pollination using male-sterile plants to produce large quantities of hybrid seed is difficult and time-consuming because of the low success rate in cross-pollination. Insect pollinators may be suitable vectors to transfer pollen, but the most suitable vector for pollen transfer from the male parent to the female parent has not been identified for soybean. The objective of the present study was to evaluate seed-set on four male-sterile, female-fertile soybean lines by using alfalfa leafcutting bees (Megachile rotundata (F.)) and honey bees (Apis mellifera (L.)) as pollinators. Seed-set was evaluated ...


Evolution And Systematic Value Of Leaf Crystal Macropatterns In The Genus Peperomia (Piperaceae), Harry T. Horner, Stefan Wanke, Marie-Stephanie Samain 2016 Iowa State University

Evolution And Systematic Value Of Leaf Crystal Macropatterns In The Genus Peperomia (Piperaceae), Harry T. Horner, Stefan Wanke, Marie-Stephanie Samain

Harry Horner

Leaves of Peperomia species vary in texture, shape, succulence, lamina size, thickness, coloration, and venation. Each leaf contains only calcium oxalate druses in palisade cells, druses in palisade and raphides in spongy parenchyma, or druses in palisade and prisms in spongy parenchyma. Collectively, these variations create distinct crystal macropatterns. Leaves from 45 species were studied to identify their macropatterns and to compare the macropatterns with molecular data. Microscopic data showed two major crystal macropatterns and five variations of them. All but one species displayed either a single druse in most palisade cells forming one or more uniform crystal layers (81 ...


The Capacity Of Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum) To Degrade Atrazine In A Phytoremediation Setting., Ian J. Murphy, Joel R. Coats 2016 Iowa State University

The Capacity Of Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum) To Degrade Atrazine In A Phytoremediation Setting., Ian J. Murphy, Joel R. Coats

Joel R. Coats

Atrazine is a widely used herbicide in agriculture. Non-point source contamination of groundwater and drinking water may pose a significant threat to humans, wildlife, and the environment. Phytoremediation may provide a cost-effective strategy for reducing non-point source contamination of atrazine from agricultural runoff. Previous studies have shown that the rhizosphere of the native prairie grass, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is capable of enhancing the degradation of atrazine in soils. Biodegradation also may occur within the plant biomass; however, the extent to which this occurs has not been studied. We hypothesize that switchgrass has the capacity to degrade atrazine in vivo, in ...


Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition By Nootkatone And Carvacrol In Arthropods, Jennifer A. Anderson, Joel R. Coats 2016 Iowa State University

Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition By Nootkatone And Carvacrol In Arthropods, Jennifer A. Anderson, Joel R. Coats

Joel R. Coats

The essential oils from many botanicals have been screened for insecticidal activity. Two constituents of the Alaskan yellow cedar tree, the monoterpenoid carvacrol and the sesquiterpenoid nootkatone, both are toxic against several arthropods. The mode of action through which nootkatone and carvacrol exert their insecticidal activity remains uncertain. It has been hypothesized that they may inhibit acetylcholinesterase enzyme activity. The degree of acetylcholinesterase inhibition of carvacrol and nootkatone was compared to that of carbaryl, a known acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, in the house fly (Musca domestica), yellow fever mosquito (Aedes aegypti), American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) and American cockroach (Periplaneta americana). The ...


Evolutionary Ecology Of Weeds, 1st & 2nd Editions, Jack Dekker 2016 Retired: Iowa State University-University of Guelph-Michigan State University

Evolutionary Ecology Of Weeds, 1st & 2nd Editions, Jack Dekker

Jack Dekker

2nd Edition, July 2016.  Evolutionary Ecology of Weeds is the story of WHAT, WHY and HOW some plant species invade and occupy habitats ripe for exploitation.  The nature of weeds is the evolution of adaptive traits for seizing and exploiting locally available opportunity.  Weeds are the consequence of human disturbance which creates opportunity spacetime, leaving unused resources eager for invasion by weeds.  The nature of weeds is the story of us, humans.  We created highly successful wild-crop-weed complexes that resist control.  We created them by channeling natural selection, the driver of biological change.  Plants invade by dispersing, colonizing, reproducing and ...


Identification Of Light-Independent Inhibition Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection Through Bioguided Fractionation Of Hypericum Perforatum, Wendy Maury, Jason P. Price, Melinda A. Brindley, ChoonSeok Oh, Jeffrey D. Neighbors, David F. Wiemer, Nickolas Wills, Susan L. Carpenter, Catherine C. Hauck, Patricia A. Murphy, Mark P. Widrlechner, Kathleen Delate, Ganesh Kumar, George A. Kraus, Ludmila Rizshsky, Basil J. Nikolau 2016 University of Iowa

Identification Of Light-Independent Inhibition Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection Through Bioguided Fractionation Of Hypericum Perforatum, Wendy Maury, Jason P. Price, Melinda A. Brindley, Choonseok Oh, Jeffrey D. Neighbors, David F. Wiemer, Nickolas Wills, Susan L. Carpenter, Catherine C. Hauck, Patricia A. Murphy, Mark P. Widrlechner, Kathleen Delate, Ganesh Kumar, George A. Kraus, Ludmila Rizshsky, Basil J. Nikolau

Basil Nikolau

Background
Light-dependent activities against enveloped viruses in St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum) extracts have been extensively studied. In contrast, light-independent antiviral activity from this species has not been investigated.

Results
Here, we identify the light-independent inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) by highly purified fractions of chloroform extracts of H. perforatum. Both cytotoxicity and antiviral activity were evident in initial chloroform extracts, but bioassay-guided fractionation produced fractions that inhibited HIV-1 with little to no cytotoxicity. Separation of these two biological activities has not been reported for constituents responsible for the light-dependent antiviral activities. Antiviral activity was associated with more ...


Impacts Of Biofumigation And Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation On Strawberry Production, Jennifer Renee’ Wheeler 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Impacts Of Biofumigation And Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation On Strawberry Production, Jennifer Renee’ Wheeler

Masters Theses

Due to the phase-out of methyl bromide, there is a need for alternative, nonchemical fumigation treatments in strawberry production. Anaerobic soil disinfestation and biofumigation are two non-chemical methods for controlling soilborne plant pathogens of strawberry. This study was designed to observe strawberry fruit nutrition and soil volatiles of a strawberry field being treated with biofumigation treatments, anaerobic soil disinfestation treatments, and a combination of the two alternative methods. A trial was conducted with 11 pre-plant soil-incorporated treatments arranged in a randomized complete block design with 6 rows (blocks). Biofumigation treatments consisted of deactivated mustard meal, deoiled mustard meal, mustard pellets ...


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