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Seed Rain–Successional Feedbacks In Wet Tropical Forests, Nohemi Huanca Nuñez, Robin L. Chazdon, Sabrina E. Russo 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Seed Rain–Successional Feedbacks In Wet Tropical Forests, Nohemi Huanca Nuñez, Robin L. Chazdon, Sabrina E. Russo

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Abstract

Tropical forest regeneration after abandonment of former agricultural land depends critically on the input of tree seeds, yet seed dispersal is increasingly disrupted in contemporary human-modified landscapes. Here, we introduce the concept of seed rain–successional feedbacks as a deterministic process in which seed rain is shaped by successional dynamics internal to a forest site and that acts to reinforce priority effects. We used a combination of time series and chronosequence approaches to investigate how the quantity and taxonomic and functional composition of seed rain change during succession and to evaluate the strength of seed rain–successional feedbacks, relative ...


Estimation Of Additive And Dominance Effects Of A Mutant Glutathione S-Transferase Gene On Anthocyanin And Proanthocyanidin Content In Muscadine Grape (Vitis Rotundifolia), Autumn Brown 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Estimation Of Additive And Dominance Effects Of A Mutant Glutathione S-Transferase Gene On Anthocyanin And Proanthocyanidin Content In Muscadine Grape (Vitis Rotundifolia), Autumn Brown

Horticulture Undergraduate Honors Theses

The skin color of muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia) is typically classified as black or bronze. A glutathione S-transferase, VrunGST4, has been identified as a candidate gene for berry skin color in muscadine grapes. A molecular marker was developed within VrunGST4 to distinguish between muscadine genotypes (cultivars and selections) with bronze (T:T), heterozygote black (C:T), and homozygote black (C:C) berries. The objectives of this study were to determine whether there was a correlation between berry skin color and total anthocyanin content and to calculate additive and dominance effects of VrunGST4 in determining total anthocyanins in the berries and ...


Comparison Of A T-Trellis And A Rotating Cross-Arm Trellis For Arkansas Blackberry Production, Erika Henderson 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Comparison Of A T-Trellis And A Rotating Cross-Arm Trellis For Arkansas Blackberry Production, Erika Henderson

Theses and Dissertations

As blackberry production in the southeastern United States expands, the need for updated cultural practices, like alternative trellis systems that enhance blackberry fruit yield, fruit quality, and economic viability for fresh-market growers are needed. There are challenges to producing high-quality blackberry fruit with high yields in the Southeast due to intense heat, high rainfall, humidity, and heavy pest pressure. Southeastern growers are interested in the rotating cross-arm (RCA) trellis due to its potential to increase yield and fruit quality, however there is minimal research of its use in blackberry production in the Southeast. In 2019 and 2020, a trial was ...


Fruit Tree Responses To Water Stress: Automated Physiological Measurements And Rootstock Responses, William D. Wheeler 2020 Utah State University

Fruit Tree Responses To Water Stress: Automated Physiological Measurements And Rootstock Responses, William D. Wheeler

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

New orchard plantings utilize trees grafted to dwarfing rootstocks planted close together to facilitate larger harvests. These dwarfing rootstocks have not been comprehensively studied for their ability to withstand drought. This is of special importance in the Intermountain West which has limited rainfall. Additionally, orchard growers face competition for water from a growing population and increased uncertainty in rainfall from climate change. My research examined the use of dendrometers, which measure changes in trunk diameter, and sap flow sensors, which measure how quickly sap moves, as methods to inform growers about tree water status. I also used a weighing lysimeter ...


Phenotypic And Genotypic Studies In The Peach [Prunus Persica (L.) Batsch] And Muscadine Grape (Vitis Rotundifolia Michx.), Jennifer Anne Lewter 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Phenotypic And Genotypic Studies In The Peach [Prunus Persica (L.) Batsch] And Muscadine Grape (Vitis Rotundifolia Michx.), Jennifer Anne Lewter

Theses and Dissertations

Peach: Peaches [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] are routinely chilled to increase shelf-life. Exposure to temperatures of 5° C for two weeks can induce chilling injury (CI) symptoms, including flesh mealiness (or wooliness) and a lack of juiciness. Phenotypic data were collected on seven biparental F1 peach populations maintained at the University of Arkansas Fruit Research Station. A genome wide association study (GWAS) was performed using TASSEL 5 which identified four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with expressible juice, four QTLs for mealiness, five QTLs for soluble solids, and three QTLs for fruit weight. Exploiting these genetic markers could help breeders ...


Determining Cluster Thinning And Storage Effects On Fruit Quality And Marketability Attributes Of Arkansas Table Grapes Grown Under High Tunnel Systems., Virginia Beasley 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Determining Cluster Thinning And Storage Effects On Fruit Quality And Marketability Attributes Of Arkansas Table Grapes Grown Under High Tunnel Systems., Virginia Beasley

Theses and Dissertations

Table Grapes (Vitus vinifera) are highly valued horticulture crops world-wide. Often, table grape production in the southern United States is restricted due to climate and pest issues. Viticulture production could be expanded to this region by the use of controlled environment growing systems, such as high tunnels (HT). The objective of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of HT systems for grape cultivation and compare the effects of different cluster thinning treatments on vines. In this two-year study, the cultivars Faith, Gratitude, Hope, and Jupiter were grown in HT systems and assessed for postharvest qualities at harvest and during ...


An Evaluation Of Biopesticide Combinations On Yield Performance And Disease/Arthropod Control Of Strawberries Grown In High Tunnel Plasticulture Production Systems In Arkansas., Karlee B. Pruitt 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

An Evaluation Of Biopesticide Combinations On Yield Performance And Disease/Arthropod Control Of Strawberries Grown In High Tunnel Plasticulture Production Systems In Arkansas., Karlee B. Pruitt

Theses and Dissertations

This two-year study investigated combinations of biopesticides to determine impacts on strawberry fruit marketable fruit yields, and effectiveness in controlling strawberry pests in a high tunnel production system at the University of Arkansas, Division of Agriculture Research and Extension Center in Fayetteville, Arkansas. Two strawberry cultivars Fragaria × ananassa (Duch.), Camino Real and Sweet Sensation were grown in a high tunnel from early-October to mid-May for two consecutive growing seasons, (2017-18 and 2018-19) with six treatment combinations of biopesticides including an untreated (water) control, nutrient spray and selected biological based fungicides and insecticides, arranged into a split-plot randomized block design. The ...


Do Trellis Systems Modify Grape's Health Beneficial Properties?, Molly Hanlon 2020 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Do Trellis Systems Modify Grape's Health Beneficial Properties?, Molly Hanlon

Honors Theses and Capstones

No abstract provided.


Investigating Dicamba Tolerance In Grapevine Cultivars Through Drift Simulation Assays, Bryce David Bentley 2019 Missouri State University

Investigating Dicamba Tolerance In Grapevine Cultivars Through Drift Simulation Assays, Bryce David Bentley

MSU Graduate Theses

Dicamba is a synthetic auxin herbicide which acts systematically and selectively controls broadleaf plants and has become increasingly popular in the past several years for weed control in commercial agriculture following widespread adoption of dicamba-resistant, transgenic soybean and cotton. Dicamba may be better acknowledged by growers of specialty crops, like grapes, for its capacity to drift miles away from the site of application and deposit on fields, remaining potent enough to cause crop damage and yield loss to vulnerable plants. Grapes are among the most susceptible agronomic crops to dicamba drift, showing visible injury at rates less than 1% of ...


Non-Linear Behavior Of Protein And Tannin In Wine Produced By Cofermentation Of An Interspecific Hybrid (Vitis Spp.) And Vinifera Cultivar, Erin L. Norton, Gavin L. Sacks, Joey N. Talbert 2019 Iowa State University

Non-Linear Behavior Of Protein And Tannin In Wine Produced By Cofermentation Of An Interspecific Hybrid (Vitis Spp.) And Vinifera Cultivar, Erin L. Norton, Gavin L. Sacks, Joey N. Talbert

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

Wines produced from red interspecific hybrid grape cultivars (Vitis spp.) typically have lower tannin than wines produced from vinifera cultivars, which can be attributed to the lower concentration of tannins and higher concentration of tannin binding proteins of interspecific cultivars. Tannin in wines produced from hybrid cultivars could potentially be increased by blending hybrids with vinifera. We hypothesized that blending of grapes prior to fermentation (cofermentation) should result in final wine tannin concentrations lower than wine tannin concentrations predicted from the individual components due to protein-tannin binding, but that this effect should be absent from monovarietal wines blended post-fermentation. To ...


Identifying Consumer Perceptions Of Fresh-Market Blackberries, Aubrey Dunteman 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Identifying Consumer Perceptions Of Fresh-Market Blackberries, Aubrey Dunteman

Food Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Blackberries are grown worldwide for commercial fresh markets, but there is limited information on consumer perceptions of this fruit. In this study, physiochemical and consumer sensory attributes of three Arkansas-grown fresh-market blackberry genotypes were evaluated and consumer perceptions of fresh-market blackberries were also investigated though an online survey. Two cultivars (Natchez and Ouachita) and one advanced selection (A-2418) were evaluated for compositional and nutraceutical analysis and consumer sensory analysis. Natchez had the highest berry weight, length, drupelets and pyrenes/berry, and pyrene weight/berry. Ouachita had the highest soluble solids content (11.9%), pH (3.18) and soluble solids/titratable ...


Evaluation Of Host Resistance And The Utilization Of Organic Amendments To Manage Macrophomina Crown Rot Of Strawberry In California, Jonathan W. Winslow 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Evaluation Of Host Resistance And The Utilization Of Organic Amendments To Manage Macrophomina Crown Rot Of Strawberry In California, Jonathan W. Winslow

Master's Theses

The production of strawberries can be severely limited by soilborne plant pathogens, insects and weeds. Macrophomina phaseolina is a problematic soilborne fungal pathogen in California strawberry production inciting the disease Macrophomina crown rot. When established, the pathogen can cause extensive plant decline and mortality. Host resistance will be a critical tool for managing this disease and guiding breeding programs in the post methyl bromide era. Evaluation of host resistance in strawberry germplasm to M. phaseolina was evaluated through phenotypic assessments of disease incidence. A total of 90 strawberry cultivars and elite selections were included in a replicated field trial conducted ...


Landscape Pattern And Wild Bee Communities In Maine, Brianne Du Clos 2019 University of Maine

Landscape Pattern And Wild Bee Communities In Maine, Brianne Du Clos

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Commercial production of lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton) in Maine relies primarily on managed honeybee hives; however, naturally occurring wild bees are more efficient pollinators of the crop. Wild bees have short foraging distances and must nest near crop fields to provide pollination services. After crop bloom, the surrounding landscape must provide sufficient forage to maintain wild bee populations for the remainder of the growing season. Lowbush blueberries in Maine are produced in a mixed-use landscape with two distinct landscape contexts. Here, we document bee communities and habitat resources (nesting and floral) in power line rights-of-way and eight land cover ...


The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly: Pollinators As Vectors Of Mummy Berry Disease In Highbush Blueberry, Matthew Boyer 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Good, The Bad, And The Ugly: Pollinators As Vectors Of Mummy Berry Disease In Highbush Blueberry, Matthew Boyer

Doctoral Dissertations

Background: Many plants must balance the need for pollination services with mediating the risk of pollinator-vectored pathogens. Vaccinium corymbosum, highbush blueberry, is negatively affected by an insect-vectored, fungal plant pathogen, Monilinia vaccinii-corymosi (MVC), the cause of mummy berry disease, in which the asexual spore mimics pollen grains and is transferred from blighted tissue to flowers via pollinators, resulting in inedible, hardened fruits. Highbush blueberry plants require outcrossed pollen for maximum yield and fecundity. Therefore, yield of blueberry plants rely on a balance between adequate pollination service and disease avoidance.

Approach: To explore the relationship between pollinator community and infection we ...


Apple Disease Forecasting Models: When Climate Changes The Rules, Elizabeth W. Garofalo 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Apple Disease Forecasting Models: When Climate Changes The Rules, Elizabeth W. Garofalo

Masters Theses

With a changing global climate, plant pathologists must understand the impact aberrant weather events may have on the development of plant diseases. Fungal plant infections are largely dependent on temperature and precipitation, climate parameters that are predicted to change more in this century. Venturia inaequalis causes apple scab, one of the most destructive apple diseases of temperate growing regions. Temperature and precipitation drive apple scab infections and forecast models, which guide growers in efficient, effective fungicide applications. In some recent years in the Northeast, these models have failed to accurately predict when ascospores of this fungus are available to cause ...


Ripeness Attributes Of Arkansas-Grown Peaches And Nectarines At Harvest And During Postharvest Storage, Mary Siebenmorgen 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Ripeness Attributes Of Arkansas-Grown Peaches And Nectarines At Harvest And During Postharvest Storage, Mary Siebenmorgen

Food Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Evaluating ripeness attributes of peaches and nectarines helps determine feasibility for commercial markets. Five cultivars (Amoore Sweet, Bowden, Bradley, Effie, and Souvenirs) and five breeding selections (A-663 CN, A-794 CN, A-811 CN, A-819, and A-885) were hand harvested in 2017 from the University of Arkansas System Division of Agriculture’s Fruit Research Station in Clarksville, AR. The tree-ripened fruit was evaluated at harvest (day 0), and commercially-ripened fruit (ripened during storage) was evaluated at 0, 7 and 14 d storage at 4° C. The attributes of tree and commercially-ripened fruit varied at harvest and included chlorophyll (0.04-0.86 abs ...


Effect Of Evapotranspiration Rate On Almond Yield In California, Dafne Isaac Serrano 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Effect Of Evapotranspiration Rate On Almond Yield In California, Dafne Isaac Serrano

Master's Theses

Since 2011, California has been under drought conditions. These conditions have not only affected water availability for farmers, but also production. California’s second most valuable crop, almonds, has been affected by drought conditions. This study used three models (Model 1-3) to describe almond yield variability from year to year and almond yield variability within a year in Kern County, CA. The study evaluated 185 almond farms that were classified in three locations (east side, west side and north west side). The years of the study were 2011 (wet year) and 2013-2015 (drought condition years). Model 1 determined a functional ...


Effects Of Fruit Position In Standard Place Pack Cartons And Gamma 1 Irradiation On The Postharvest Quality Of ‘Barnfield’ Navel Oranges, Karina Cruz Rodriguez (Friscia), José de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, Vrani Ibarra-Junquera, Maria Criselda Toto, Akanksha Jain, Anuradha Prakash 2018 Chapman University

Effects Of Fruit Position In Standard Place Pack Cartons And Gamma 1 Irradiation On The Postharvest Quality Of ‘Barnfield’ Navel Oranges, Karina Cruz Rodriguez (Friscia), José De Jesús Ornelas-Paz, Vrani Ibarra-Junquera, Maria Criselda Toto, Akanksha Jain, Anuradha Prakash

Food Science Faculty Articles and Research

The objective of this study was to determine if oranges in the top and bottom layers within a Standard Place Pack were impacted differently by irradiation after long-term storage. ‘Barnfield’ Navel oranges were packed in Standard Place Pack cartons and treated with 0, 0.15, or 1 kGy of gamma irradiation. The fruit were stored for 3 weeks at 5 °C and then for 1 week at 20 °C. After storage, the fruit from the top and bottom layers were separately evaluated for quality. The development of stem-end rind breakdown (SERB) was the main cause of quality loss and was ...


Aiding Growers’ Decisions: Describing Arkansas Blackberry Growers’ Resources And Needs Regarding Blackberry Production, Lesley Marie Smith 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Aiding Growers’ Decisions: Describing Arkansas Blackberry Growers’ Resources And Needs Regarding Blackberry Production, Lesley Marie Smith

Theses and Dissertations

This study was a census of blackberry growers who attended the Blackberry Growers Association informal interest meetings held throughout the state during the month of April. The purpose of this study was to describe blackberry operations in Arkansas, describe the ideal blackberry cultivar growers want to produce, describe resources they use to research production information, and describe what changes to current resources growers would like to have. Questionnaire responses regarding blackberry production of 18 blackberry growers in the state of Arkansas were analyzed. Three growers elected to not participate resulting in an 86% response rate. The researcher hopes that this ...


Bioavailability Of Bioactive Compounds, Wing Shun Lam 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Bioavailability Of Bioactive Compounds, Wing Shun Lam

Theses and Dissertations

Arachidin-1 (Ara-1) and arachidin-3 (Ara-3) are stilbenoids found in hairy peanut roots, which have been shown to possess similar, if not higher, efficacy in biological activities when compared to nonprenylated analogs such as piceatannol and resveratrol. Blackberry essences are concentrated volatiles, which are characterized by low molecular weight, lipophilic properties, and have also been demonstrated to have health benefits. As interest in dietary bioactive compounds functional ingredients increase, more emphasis has been placed on identifying which compounds have high efficacy as well as bioavailability. The ability of a compound to exert its health promoting effects depends on its bioavailable dose ...


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