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Crop Pests And Predators Exhibit Inconsistent Responses To Surrounding Landscape Composition, Daniel S. Karp, Julie A. Peterson, 155 other co-authors 2018 University of California, Davis

Crop Pests And Predators Exhibit Inconsistent Responses To Surrounding Landscape Composition, Daniel S. Karp, Julie A. Peterson, 155 Other Co-Authors

Faculty Publications: Department of Entomology

The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are measured. Here, we use a pest-control database encompassing 132 studies and 6,759 sites worldwide to model natural enemy and pest abundances, predation rates ...


Crossing Corridors: Wildlife Use Of Jumpouts And Undercrossings Along A Highway With Wildlife Exclusion Fencing, Alex J. Jensen, Alex Joseph Jensen 2018 Cal Poly

Crossing Corridors: Wildlife Use Of Jumpouts And Undercrossings Along A Highway With Wildlife Exclusion Fencing, Alex J. Jensen, Alex Joseph Jensen

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Roads pose two central problems for wildlife: wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVCs) and habitat fragmentation. Wildlife exclusion fencing can reduce WVCs but can exacerbate fragmentation. In Chapter 1, I summarize the relevant studies addressing these two problems, with a focus on large mammals in North America. Chapters 2 and 3 summarize field assessments of technologies to reduce WVCs and maintain connectivity, specifically jumpout ramps and underpasses, along Highway 101 near San Luis Obispo, CA. In a fenced highway, some animals inevitably breach the fence and become trapped, which increases the risk of a wildlife-vehicle collision. Earthen escape ramps, or “jumpouts”, can allow ...


Macrophytes And Atrazine In Ponds Of Southwest Missouri, Christine Michelle Cornish 2018 Missouri State University

Macrophytes And Atrazine In Ponds Of Southwest Missouri, Christine Michelle Cornish

MSU Graduate Theses

Wetlands are often the ultimate destination of agrochemicals. The increased use of these pollutants has resulted in their increased transport, via runoff and spray drift, into wetlands. Atrazine, a commonly used herbicide, has been detected in surface water, groundwater, soil, and sediment, and has shown to have adverse impacts on aquatic biota, such as fish and amphibians. Few studies have reported on the relationships between atrazine and macrophytes. I measured atrazine concentrations in surface sediments in agricultural, conservation, and golf course ponds of southwest Missouri, and investigated how those concentrations might be related to macrophyte communities, and pond environmental characteristics ...


Long-Term Trends Of Stream Fish Community Assemblages In Southern Missouri With Contemporary Land Use Impacts, Stephanie Marie Sickler 2018 Missouri State University

Long-Term Trends Of Stream Fish Community Assemblages In Southern Missouri With Contemporary Land Use Impacts, Stephanie Marie Sickler

MSU Graduate Theses

Stream fish communities in the Ozarks are structured via a number of different mechanisms, including basin, stream size, and human land use. The purpose of this study was to understand the structuring mechanisms of stream fish communities in southern Missouri. I compiled 48 years of historical fish collections performed by the Ichthyology class at Missouri State University consisting of 140 sites. I resampled 45 of these sites in summer of 2016. First, I tested whether communities are different between basins and stream size. Next, I tested associations of land use at three spatial scales to local fish communities. Last, I ...


Patterns Of Threatened Vertebrates Based On Trophic Level, Diet, And Biogeography, Shaley A. Valentine 2018 Utah State University

Patterns Of Threatened Vertebrates Based On Trophic Level, Diet, And Biogeography, Shaley A. Valentine

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Humans have indirectly and directly contributed to the extinction of over 500 species within the past 500 years, a rate far higher than we have seen in the past. The high extinction rate and the fact that 18% of vertebrates may become extinct within the next century have pushed Earth into a biodiversity crisis. Understanding what makes species more at risk of extinction is needed to protect Earth’s biodiversity.

Generally, it is expected that predators have greater extinction risk than omnivores and herbivores because predators are larger in body size, depend on other animal species for food, need large ...


Using Anthropogenic Risks To Inform Salmonid Conservation At The Landscape Scale, Andrew W. Witt 2018 Utah State University

Using Anthropogenic Risks To Inform Salmonid Conservation At The Landscape Scale, Andrew W. Witt

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The expansion and industrialization of humanity has caused many unforeseen consequences to the natural world. Due to the importance of freshwater for people, rivers have been particularly altered to meet human needs, often at the expense of the natural world. Supplying water for farms, industries, and cities has reshaped the natural state of rivers by altering river paths, chemistry, and species compositions. These changes have harmed many species that prospered before widespread human alterations, including the native trout and salmon of western North America. As human populations continue to grow, new threats will surface for rivers, and the trout and ...


Flow Regime Influences On Stream And Riparian Soil Carbon Dynamics In The Ozark Highlands And Boston Mountains Of Arkansas, Allyn Dodd 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Flow Regime Influences On Stream And Riparian Soil Carbon Dynamics In The Ozark Highlands And Boston Mountains Of Arkansas, Allyn Dodd

Theses and Dissertations

The natural flow regime exerts primacy over lotic ecosystem patterns and processes. However, little work has examined the influence of flow regime on instream and riparian carbon (C) dynamics in minimally-impacted, temperate forested systems. To date, most research efforts have focused on characterizing C movement and transformations across biomes and land use categories; however, flow regime represents an overlooked, finer level of detail that may drive differences in ecosystem function. My dissertation objective was to measure C fixation and movement within and across multiple environmental spheres (e.g. within stream channels, between stream surfaces and the atmosphere, and from riparian ...


The Usefulness Of Gps Telemetry To Study Wolf Circadian And Social Activity, Samuel B. Merrill, L. David Mech 2018 New England Environmental Finance Center

The Usefulness Of Gps Telemetry To Study Wolf Circadian And Social Activity, Samuel B. Merrill, L. David Mech

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

This study describes circadian and social movement patterns of 9 wolves and illustrates capabilities and limitations of Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry for analysis of animal activity patterns. Wolves were studied at the Camp Ripley National Guard Training Site in Little Falls, Minnesota, and were captured via helicopter net-gunning. All study wolves showed nocturnal movement patterns regardless of time of year. One wolf's movement pattern switched to diurnal when he conducted an extraterritorial foray from his natal territory. All data sets with GPS intervals <1 hour (n=4) showed crepuscular movement peaks. We identified patterns of den visitation and attendance, estimated minimum distances traveled and minimum rates of movement, and observed that GPS location intervals may affect perceived rates of wolf travel. Global Positioning System telemetry was useful in determining when pack members were traveling together or apart and how long a breeding female wolf spent near her pups (e.g., 0-month-old pups were left unattended by their mother for as long as 17 days).


Cross-Life Stage Effects Of Aquatic Larval Density And Terrestrial Moisture On Growth And Corticosterone In The Spotted Salamander, Julie F. Charbonnier, Jacquelyn Pearlmutter, James R. Vonesh, Caitlin R. Gabor, Zachery R. Forsburg, Kristine L. Grayson 2018 University of Richmond

Cross-Life Stage Effects Of Aquatic Larval Density And Terrestrial Moisture On Growth And Corticosterone In The Spotted Salamander, Julie F. Charbonnier, Jacquelyn Pearlmutter, James R. Vonesh, Caitlin R. Gabor, Zachery R. Forsburg, Kristine L. Grayson

Biology Faculty Publications

For organisms with complex life cycles, conditions experienced during early life stages may constrain later growth and survival. Conversely, compensatory mechanisms may attenuate negative effects from early life stages. We used the spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, to test how aquatic larval density and terrestrial moisture influence juvenile growth, food intake, evaporative water loss and water reuptake rates, and corticosterone levels. We conducted an outdoor mesocosm experiment to manipulate larval density and transferred metamorphosed salamanders into low and high terrestrial moisture treatments in laboratory terrariums. After the larval stage, high-density salamanders were significantly smaller and had higher corticosterone release rates than ...


Population Modeling For The Reintroduction Of Mexican Gray Wolves As Predators To Decrease The Feral Hog Population In The Southern United States., John H. Kauphusman III 2018 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Population Modeling For The Reintroduction Of Mexican Gray Wolves As Predators To Decrease The Feral Hog Population In The Southern United States., John H. Kauphusman Iii

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

Invasive species are a problem in the United States. As their populations continue to increase in size they disrupt ecological systems. One of the most notorious invasive species is the feral hog. In Texas, the hog populations cause ecological and agricultural damage that costs the state $52 million annually. The reason for the large continuously growing population is that the feral hogs, unlike its relatives in Europe, have no natural predators and hunters cannot suppress the population growth. In Europe, the gray wolf is a predator to the European wild boar. However, wolves in the U.S. have been extirpated ...


Soil Homogenization: Plant Species Diversity, Ecosystem Properties And Soil Freezing Effects During Tallgrass Prairie Restoration, Holly J. Stover 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Soil Homogenization: Plant Species Diversity, Ecosystem Properties And Soil Freezing Effects During Tallgrass Prairie Restoration, Holly J. Stover

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Tillage can increase soil uniformity in former agricultural sites. Within plant communities, niche-based species sorting may occur among distinct soil patches (microsites), increasing diversity, and the interfaces between microsites (microedges) also may provide unique microsites. However, the influence of soil homogenization and microedges on ecosystem processes and plant responses to stress have not been examined. My thesis assessed if adding microsites containing sand, woodchips, pits or mounds increased plant species diversity, productivity, decomposition and nitrogen retention (15N tracer) and buffered plant responses to soil freezing in a tallgrass prairie restoration on former cropland. Homogenization decreased diversity in flat topsoil ...


Exploring The Amphibian Exposome In An Agricultural Landscape Using Telemetry And Passive Sampling, Jennifer E. Swanson, Erin Muths, Clay L. Pierce, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Mark W. Vandever, Michelle L. Hladik, Kelly L. Smalling 2018 Iowa State University

Exploring The Amphibian Exposome In An Agricultural Landscape Using Telemetry And Passive Sampling, Jennifer E. Swanson, Erin Muths, Clay L. Pierce, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Mark W. Vandever, Michelle L. Hladik, Kelly L. Smalling

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

This is the first field study of its kind to combine radio telemetry, passive samplers, and pesticide accumulation in tissues to characterize the amphibian exposome as it relates to pesticides. Understanding how habitat drives exposure in individuals (i.e., their exposome), and how that relates to individual health is critical to managing species in an agricultural landscape where pesticide exposure is likely. We followed 72 northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) in two agricultural wetlands for insight into where and when individuals are at high risk of pesticide exposure. Novel passive sampling devices (PSDs) were deployed at sites where telemetered frogs ...


Wildlife Translocation, Michael T. Mengak 2018 University of Georgia

Wildlife Translocation, Michael T. Mengak

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Many people enjoy wildlife. It enriches their lives in many ways. Nationwide, Americans spend over $144 billion annually on fishing, hunting, and wildlife-watching activities. However, wildlife is not always welcome in or near homes, buildings, or other property and can cause significant damage or health and safety issues (Figure 1). In one study, 42% of urban residents reported experiencing a wildlife problem during the previous year and more than half of them said their attempts to resolve the problem were unsuccessful. Many people who experience a wildlife conflict prefer to resolve the issue without harming the offending animal. Of the ...


Wildlife Carcass Disposal, Stephen M. Vantassel, Mark A. King 2018 Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC Lewistown, Montana

Wildlife Carcass Disposal, Stephen M. Vantassel, Mark A. King

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Many wildlife management situations require the disposal of animal carcasses. These can include the lethal removal of wildlife to resolve damage or conflicts, as well as clean-up after mortalities caused by vehicle collisions, disease, oil spills (Figure 1) or other natural disasters. Carcasses must be disposed of properly to protect public sensitivities, the environment, and public health. Improper disposal of carcasses can result in public outrage, site contamination, injury to animals and people, and the attraction of other animals that may lead to wildlife damage issues. Concern over ground water contamination and disease transmission from improper carcass disposal has resulted ...


Spatial And Temporal Patterns Of Arctic Nearshore Fish Community And Food Web Structures, Mark B. Barton 2018 Florida International University

Spatial And Temporal Patterns Of Arctic Nearshore Fish Community And Food Web Structures, Mark B. Barton

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Climate change and increasing anthropogenic activities are causing rapid changes to environmental and ecological processes in the Arctic Ocean. To better understand these changes, scientists have increased research efforts in these regions, but to date the number of studies on Arctic nearshore habitats are lacking. My dissertation responds to the paucity of information and investigates patterns in Arctic nearshore fish communities and food webs to gain insight to how these ecosystems may shift as these changes continue. I used multivariate statistical analysis to examine patterns in community structure and composition to determine that Arctic nearshore fish communities are largely driven ...


Harvesting Invasive Plants To Reduce Nutrient Loads And Produce Bioenergy: An Assessment Of Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands, Brendan D. Carson, Shane C. Lishawa, Nancy C. Tuchman, Andrew M. Monks, Beth A. Lawrence, Dennis A. Albert 2018 Loyola University Chicago

Harvesting Invasive Plants To Reduce Nutrient Loads And Produce Bioenergy: An Assessment Of Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands, Brendan D. Carson, Shane C. Lishawa, Nancy C. Tuchman, Andrew M. Monks, Beth A. Lawrence, Dennis A. Albert

Institute of Environmental Sustainability: Faculty Publications and Other Works

In Laurentian Great Lakes coastal wetlands (GLCWs), dominant emergent invasive plants are expanding their ranges and compromising the unique habitat and ecosystem service values that these ecosystems provide. Herbiciding and burning to control invasive plants have not been effective in part because neither strategy addresses the most common root cause of invasion, nutrient enrichment. Mechanical harvesting is an alternative approach that removes tissue‐bound phosphorus and nitrogen and can increase wetland plant diversity and aquatic connectivity between wetland and lacustrine systems. In this study, we used data from three years of Great Lakes‐wide wetland plant surveys, published literature, and ...


Improved Prediction Of Stream Flow Based On Updating Land Cover Maps With Remotely Sensed Forest Change Detection, Alexander J. Hernandez, Sean P. Healey, Hongsheng Huang, R. Douglas Ramsey 2018 Utah State University

Improved Prediction Of Stream Flow Based On Updating Land Cover Maps With Remotely Sensed Forest Change Detection, Alexander J. Hernandez, Sean P. Healey, Hongsheng Huang, R. Douglas Ramsey

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

The water balance in a watershed can be disrupted by forest disturbances such as harvests and fires. Techniques to accurately and efficiently map forest cover changes due to disturbance are evolving quickly, and it is of interest to ask how useful maps of different types of disturbances over time can be in the prediction of water yield. We assessed the benefits of using land cover maps produced at annual vs. five-year intervals in the prediction of monthly streamflows across 10 watersheds contained entirely within the US National Forest System. We found that annually updating land cover maps with forest disturbance ...


Biological Soil Crusts In A Northeastern Pine Barren: Composition And Ecological Effects, Jessica Gilbert 2018 Union College - Schenectady, NY

Biological Soil Crusts In A Northeastern Pine Barren: Composition And Ecological Effects, Jessica Gilbert

Honors Theses

Biological soil crusts (BSCs), otherwise known as cryptogamic soil crusts, biocrusts, or cyanobacterial crusts, are soil aggregations hosting diverse biotic communities. They are composed of cyanobacteria and algae, and generally have a covering of moss and/or lichen. BSCs are typically found in arid to semi-arid regions throughout the world, and are integral soil stabilizers, moisture retainers, and nitrogen fixers in these communities. Along with these factors, BSCs are able to impact germination and establishment of plants, either as an accompanying influence, or direct result of those listed above. BSCs have yet to be formally described in the inland northeastern ...


Desalination Concentrate Disposal: Ecological Effects And Sustainable Solutions, Ryan Hanley 2018 University of Washington – Tacoma

Desalination Concentrate Disposal: Ecological Effects And Sustainable Solutions, Ryan Hanley

Global Honors Theses

Freshwater availability is a growing global concern, and desalination is often presented as the solution, but from this important technology comes issues of toxic waste. Ecosystems are delicate areas that contain species adapted to that specific location, and any chemical or physical changes can disrupt the fitness of species. The concentrate byproduct waste from desalination plants is toxic to species if the concentrate is not compatible with the receiving water body. A critical review of scientific articles, industry-leading books, conversations with industry experts, and information from the American Membrane Technology Association conference was used to analyze the current knowledge. Species ...


Altered Spring Phenology Of North American Freshwater Turtles And The Importance Of Representative Populations, Fredric J. Janzen, Luke A. Hoekstra, Ronald J. Brooks, David M. Carroll, J. Whitfield Gibbons, Judith L. Greene, John B. Iverson, Jacqueline D. Litzgus, Edwin D. Michael, Steven G. Parren, Willem M. Roosenburg, Gabriel F. Strain, John K. Tucker, Gordon R. Ultsch 2018 Iowa State University

Altered Spring Phenology Of North American Freshwater Turtles And The Importance Of Representative Populations, Fredric J. Janzen, Luke A. Hoekstra, Ronald J. Brooks, David M. Carroll, J. Whitfield Gibbons, Judith L. Greene, John B. Iverson, Jacqueline D. Litzgus, Edwin D. Michael, Steven G. Parren, Willem M. Roosenburg, Gabriel F. Strain, John K. Tucker, Gordon R. Ultsch

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Globally, populations of diverse taxa have altered phenology in response to climate change. However, most research has focused on a single population of a given taxon, which may be unrepresentative for comparative analyses, and few long‐term studies of phenology in ectothermic amniotes have been published. We test for climate‐altered phenology using long‐term studies (10–36 years) of nesting behavior in 14 populations representing six genera of freshwater turtles (Chelydra, Chrysemys, Kinosternon,Malaclemys, Sternotherus, and Trachemys). Nesting season initiation occurs earlier in more recent years, with 11 of the populations advancing phenology. The onset of nesting for nearly ...


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