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Revision Of The Genus Monatractides (Parasitengona, Torrenticolidae) Of The United States And Canada: New Species, Re-Descriptions, Phylogenetics, And A Key To Species, Whitney Anne Nelson 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Revision Of The Genus Monatractides (Parasitengona, Torrenticolidae) Of The United States And Canada: New Species, Re-Descriptions, Phylogenetics, And A Key To Species, Whitney Anne Nelson

Theses and Dissertations

The full suite of known Monatractides (Parasitengona, Torrenticolidae) taxa of North America (north of Mexico) are investigated herein using integrative methods. Species hypotheses are supported with morphology, geography, and phylogenetic analysis of the barcoding region of COI for 154 individuals from over 100 localities. Relationships between species are examined with a combined analysis of COI and 28S rDNA for 55 specimens. Previously described species are examined and re-described with color images and updated information, where possible. Our results indicate the need to synonymize two species: M. californica (Marshall, 1943) is a junior synonym of M. geographica (Marshall, 1943). We describe ...


Evolutionary Dynamics Of Brown Treesnake (Boiga Irregularis) Reproductive Ecology, With Implications For Invasive Species Control, Brenna Aaren Levine 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evolutionary Dynamics Of Brown Treesnake (Boiga Irregularis) Reproductive Ecology, With Implications For Invasive Species Control, Brenna Aaren Levine

Theses and Dissertations

Invasive species represent major threats to biodiversity, global economies, and human health. Consequently, extensive research has been directed towards improving methods that restrict and contain them. Yet, control measures can also act as agents of selection by significantly impacting the reproductive capacity of invasives (in the context of “eco-evo” dynamics). The end result is that control measures subsequently alter the fitness landscape of an invasive over ecologically-relevant time, and lose their efficacy by so doing. However, adaptive management can be promoted by investigating the relationships between reproductive ecology, strength of selection, and (additive) genetic variation. In short, effective control can ...


Impacts Of Ammonia And Temperature On Freshwater Snail Behavior And Physiology., Megan Christine DeWhatley 2018 University of Louisville

Impacts Of Ammonia And Temperature On Freshwater Snail Behavior And Physiology., Megan Christine Dewhatley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Gastropods are one of the most imperiled groups of animals in North America, yet there are major gaps in the literature pertaining to pollutants and climate change, and especially sublethal impacts. This dissertation assesses the effects of climate warming and unionized ammonia (NH3), one of the most abundant water pollutants, on the behavior and physiology of two caenogastropod snails: fine-ridged elimia (Elimia semicarinata) and Shawnee rocksnails (Lithasia obovata) (Gastropoda: Neotaenioglossa: Pleuroceridae). Righting behavior, or the movement used by snails to turn themselves right-side-up, was used as the main endpoint; delays in this behavior compromise fitness via lost feeding time ...


Temperature And Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid’S Effect On Daphnia Magna Reproduction, Mark Albright 2018 East Tennessee State University

Temperature And Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid’S Effect On Daphnia Magna Reproduction, Mark Albright

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Organisms adapt to their environments by adjusting their biochemistry and physiology; such adaptation is limited by resource availability and physiological constraints. The freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna inhabits a wide range of environments and must survive and reproduce within a range of temperatures. One limit to low-temperature adaptation is thought to be the availability of unsaturated fatty acids necessary to maintain proper fluidity of cellular membranes. D. magna maintained at 10 ºC on a diet poor in unsaturated fatty acids have been observed to produce clutches that fail to develop. However, this has not been observed on a diet rich in ...


Assessing The Ecological Implications Of The Altered Flow And Sediment Regimes Of The Rio Grande Along The West Texas-Mexico Border, Demitra E. Blythe 2018 Utah State University

Assessing The Ecological Implications Of The Altered Flow And Sediment Regimes Of The Rio Grande Along The West Texas-Mexico Border, Demitra E. Blythe

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Large, exotic (those whose headwaters are in distant places) rivers are some of the most unique and diverse ecosystems on earth. Because they often flow through a multitude of biomes and climates, their waters are a vital resource not only for the organisms that inhabit these rivers, but for human societies as well. Thus, large rivers, like the Rio Grande, that flow through arid and agricultural regions are highly regulated and diverted. Regulation and dewatering upset a river’s natural flow regime (e.g., magnitude, duration, timing of large flood events), subsequently impacting the river’s ability to transport its ...


An Evaluation Of Bull Trout Movement Dynamics In The Walla Walla River, Courtney Newlon 2018 Utah State University

An Evaluation Of Bull Trout Movement Dynamics In The Walla Walla River, Courtney Newlon

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bull trout are a fish species listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act.Historically, they ranged from Northern California at the southernmost extent, into Canada at the northern most extent, and east into Nevada and Montana. Bull trout are highly migratory and require large, unfragmented habitats to persist and are thus highly susceptible to human induced land-use practices. The goal of my thesis was to obtain a better understanding of bull trout movement patterns in the Walla Walla River, Washington using complimentary techniques; Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT)technology and otolith microchemistry. PIT tags can be injected into a fish ...


The Abiotic And Biotic Controls Of Arctic Lake Food Webs: A Multifaceted Approach To Quantifying Trophic Structure And Function, Stephen L. Klobucar 2018 Utah State University

The Abiotic And Biotic Controls Of Arctic Lake Food Webs: A Multifaceted Approach To Quantifying Trophic Structure And Function, Stephen L. Klobucar

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Arctic is warming faster than any other region of the globe. To conserve and manage many thousands of lakes across arctic landscapes, scientists need to understand historic and present conditions within these lakes to predict how the lakes, and the organisms that inhabit them, may respond to a changing climate. The goal of my research was to improve our understanding of what physical, chemical, and biological factors contribute to: 1) how lake food webs are assembled; and, 2) how these food webs may change in the future. First, I used long-term observations and lab experiments to determine how fish ...


Safety, Stephen M. Vantassel, Brenda K. Osthus 2018 Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC Lewistown, Montana

Safety, Stephen M. Vantassel, Brenda K. Osthus

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Wildlife damage management (WDM) is an exciting field with many opportunities to provide solutions to the complex issues involved in human-wildlife interactions. In addition, WDM wildlife control operators (WCO) face a variety of threats to their physical well-being. Injuries can result from misused (Figure 1), faulty, or poorly maintained equipment, inexperience, mishandled wildlife, harsh weather, and dangerous situations, such as electrical lines. The goals of this publication are to: * Develop an awareness of safety issues and adopt a mindset of “Safety First”, * Review the major safety threats that WCOs face, * Provide basic information for WCOs to protect themselves, and * List ...


Prairie Reconstruction Unpredictability And Complexity: What Is The Rate Of Reconstruction Failures?, Jack E. Norland, Cami Dixon, Diane Larson, Kristine Askerooth, Benjamin A. Geaumont 2018 North Dakota State University--Fargo

Prairie Reconstruction Unpredictability And Complexity: What Is The Rate Of Reconstruction Failures?, Jack E. Norland, Cami Dixon, Diane Larson, Kristine Askerooth, Benjamin A. Geaumont

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

The outcomes of prairie reconstructions are subject to both unpredictability and complexity. Prairie, tallgrass, and mixed grass reconstruction is defined as the planting of a native herbaceous seed mixture composed of multiple prairie species (10 or more) in an area where the land has been heavily cultivated or anthropogenically disturbed. Because of the unpredictability and complexity inherent in reconstructions, some outcomes end up being failures dominated by exotic species. We propose that these failures follow a fat-tailed distribution as found in other complex systems. Fat-tailed distributions follow the Pareto principle, where 80% of the time reconstructions work as expected but ...


Aspects Of The Reproductive Biology And Growth Of The Mississippi Silvery Minnow, Hybognathus Nuchalis (Agassiz, 1855) (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) From The Pearl River, Louisiana., Arely Ramírez-García, Kyle R. Piller 2018 Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo

Aspects Of The Reproductive Biology And Growth Of The Mississippi Silvery Minnow, Hybognathus Nuchalis (Agassiz, 1855) (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) From The Pearl River, Louisiana., Arely Ramírez-García, Kyle R. Piller

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

The reproductive biology and growth of the Mississippi Silvery Minnow, Hybognathus nuchalis, is described from multiple sites in the Pearl River, Louisiana. Individuals were collected from August 2011 to August 2012. Ovarian weights, expressed as a percentage of body weights, peaked in December. Size structure ranged from 29.0 to 60.0 mm SL for females and 25.0 to 56.0 mm SL for males. Mature ova were found from November to January. Females reached first maturity (L50) at 37.0 mm SL and L50 for males is at 41.0 mm SL. Sex ratio (females:males) is biased ...


Shoreline Characterization In The Northern Indian River Lagoon, Melinda Donnelly, Michelle Shaffer, Suzanne Connor, Linda Walters 2018 University of Central Florida

Shoreline Characterization In The Northern Indian River Lagoon, Melinda Donnelly, Michelle Shaffer, Suzanne Connor, Linda Walters

CEELAB Research Data

The purpose of this project was to evaluate current conditions of estuarine shorelines in the northern section of the Indian River Lagoon system, including Mosquito Lagoon, north Indian River, and Banana River. From January 2016 through June 2018, we evaluated structural and functional characteristics of 374 miles of shoreline, from Ponce Inlet in Volusia County to Sebastian Inlet in Brevard County (11,000+ data points). Hard-armoring accounted for approximately 50% of total shoreline, evenly divided between shoreline with bulkheads (25%) and hardened slopes (25%). Forty-five percent of shoreline without hard-armoring had anthropogenic alterations (i.e. mosquito impoundments, railroads and roadways ...


Ncer Assistance Agreement Annual Progress Report For Grant #83582401 - Assessment Of Stormwater Harvesting Via Manage Aquifer Recharge (Mar) To Develop New Water Supplies In The Arid West: The Salt Lake Valley Example, R. Ryan Dupont, Joan E. McLean, Richard Peralta, Sarah Null, Douglas B. Jackson-Smith 2018 Utah State University

Ncer Assistance Agreement Annual Progress Report For Grant #83582401 - Assessment Of Stormwater Harvesting Via Manage Aquifer Recharge (Mar) To Develop New Water Supplies In The Arid West: The Salt Lake Valley Example, R. Ryan Dupont, Joan E. Mclean, Richard Peralta, Sarah Null, Douglas B. Jackson-Smith

Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty Publications

The goals of the original proposed project remain the same, that is, to test the hypothesis that Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) for stormwater harvesting is a technically feasible, socially and environmentally acceptable, economically viable, and legally feasible option for developing new water supplies for arid Western urban ecosystems experiencing increasing population, and climate change pressures on existing water resources. The project is being carried out via three distinct but integrated components that include: 1) Monitoring of existing distributed MAR harvesting schemes involving a growing number of demonstration Green Infrastructure (GI) test sites; 2) Integrated stormwater/vadose zone/groundwater/ ecosystem services ...


Multi-Metric Conservation Assessment For The Imperiled Clinch Dace, Michael James Moore, Donald J. Orth, Eric M. Hallerman 2018 University of Missouri

Multi-Metric Conservation Assessment For The Imperiled Clinch Dace, Michael James Moore, Donald J. Orth, Eric M. Hallerman

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

Planning frameworks allow managers to spatially prioritize actions to promote species conservation. Traditional aquatic conservation planning frameworks are often organized at the ecological community or ecosystem level, which often neglect imperiled taxa occupying species-poor assemblages. In this study, we develop a multi-metric conservation assessment for the 15 geographically distinct candidate conservation areas (CCAs) occupied by the imperiled Clinch Dace (Chrosomus sp. cf. saylori). Clinch Dace habitat is threatened by anthropogenic landscape alterations, especially for coal mining and timber harvest. Our framework used four metrics to assess the conservation value of each subpopulation of Clinch Dace namely: “habitat condition”, “viability”, conservation ...


40 - Home Range And Habitat Use Of The Eastern Box Turtle, Amber Rittgers, Samantha Shea, Kayla Bonadie 2018 University of North Georgia

40 - Home Range And Habitat Use Of The Eastern Box Turtle, Amber Rittgers, Samantha Shea, Kayla Bonadie

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC): November 2nd-3rd, 2018

Time: 900 – 1500

Location: University of North Georgia – Gainesville, Ga

Conference web site: http://www.gcsu.edu/gurc

Authors: A. Rittgers, S. Shea, K. Bonadie; Advisors: N.L. Hyslop, J.L. Mook

Home Range and Habitat Use of the Eastern Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina) in the North Georgia Piedmont

A. Rittgers, S. Shea, K. Bonadie; Advisors: N.L. Hyslop, J.L. Mook

Department of Biology, University of North Georgia

The Eastern Box Turtle (Terrapene carolina) is a terrestrial species native to the Eastern United States from New Hampshire to ...


Microbial Community Structure And Functions Differ Between Native And Novel (Exotic-Dominated) Grassland Ecosystems In An 8-Year Experiment, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, Racheal N. Upton, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey 2018 Iowa State University

Microbial Community Structure And Functions Differ Between Native And Novel (Exotic-Dominated) Grassland Ecosystems In An 8-Year Experiment, Aleksandra Checinska Sielaff, Racheal N. Upton, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Xia Xu, H. Wayne Polley, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

A Grasslands dominated by non-native (exotic) spe- cies have replaced purely native-dominated areas in many parts of the world forming ‘novel’ ecosystems. Altered precipitation patterns are predicted to exacerbate this trend. It is still poorly understood how soil microbial communities and their functions differ between high diversity native- and low diversity exotic-dominated sites and how altered precipitation will impact this difference.

Methods We sampled 64 experimental grassland plots in central Texas with plant species mixtures of either all native or all exotic species; half with summer irrigation. We tested how native vs. exotic plant species mixtures and summer irrigation affected ...


Museum Metabarcoding: A Novel Method Revealing Gut Helminth Communities Of Small Mammals Across Space And Time, Stephen E. Greiman, Joseph A. Cook, Vasyl V. Tkach, Eric P. Hoberg, Damian M. Menning, Andrew G. Hope, Sarah A. Sonsthagen, Sandra L. Talbot 2018 Georgia Southern University

Museum Metabarcoding: A Novel Method Revealing Gut Helminth Communities Of Small Mammals Across Space And Time, Stephen E. Greiman, Joseph A. Cook, Vasyl V. Tkach, Eric P. Hoberg, Damian M. Menning, Andrew G. Hope, Sarah A. Sonsthagen, Sandra L. Talbot

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Natural history collections spanning multiple decades provide fundamental historical baselines to measure and understand changing biodiversity. New technologies such as next generation DNA sequencing have considerably increased the potential of museum specimens to address significant questions regarding the impact of environmental changes on host and parasite/pathogen dynamics. We developed a new technique to identify intestinal helminth parasites and applied it to shrews (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae) because they are ubiquitous, occupy diverse habitats, and host a diverse and abundant parasite fauna. Notably, we included museum specimens preserved in various ways to explore the efficacy of using metabarcoding analyses that may enable ...


13 Terrestrial Wetlands, Randall Kolka, Carl T Trettin 2018 USDA Forest Service

13 Terrestrial Wetlands, Randall Kolka, Carl T Trettin

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

The objective of this chapter is to characterize the distribution of carbon stocks and fluxes in terrestrial wetlands within North America. The approach was to synthesize available literature from field measurements with analyses of resource inventory data to estimate wetland area, carbon stocks, and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon and methane (CH4) fluxes of terrestrial wetlands (see Appendices 13A, p. 547, and 13B, p. 557, for details1). Then, the findings employed from large-scale simulation studies provided additional context, with consideration given to the effects of disturbance regimes, restoration and creation of terrestrial wetlands, and the application of modeling tools ...


Landscape Genetics Reveal Broad And Fine‐Scale Population Structure Due To Landscape Features And Climate History In The Northern Leopard Frog (Rana Pipiens) In North Dakota, Justin M. Waraniak, Justin D. L. Fisher, Kevin Purcell, David M. Mushet, Craig A. Stockwell 2018 North Dakota State University--Fargo

Landscape Genetics Reveal Broad And Fine‐Scale Population Structure Due To Landscape Features And Climate History In The Northern Leopard Frog (Rana Pipiens) In North Dakota, Justin M. Waraniak, Justin D. L. Fisher, Kevin Purcell, David M. Mushet, Craig A. Stockwell

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Prehistoric climate and landscape features play large roles structuring wildlife populations. The amphibians of the northern Great Plains of North America present an opportunity to investigate how these factors affect colonization, migration, and current population genetic structure. This study used 11 microsatellite loci to genotype 1,230 northern leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) from 41 wetlands (30 samples/wetland) across North Dakota. Genetic structure of the sampled frogs was evaluated using Bayesian and multivariate clustering methods. All analyses produced concordant results, identifying a major east–west split between two R. pipiens population clusters separated by the Missouri River. Substructuring within the ...


Multi-Element Fingerprinting Of Waters To Evaluate Connectivity Among Depressional Wetlands, Yuxiang Yuan, Xiaoyan Zhu, David M. Mushet, Marinus L. Otte 2018 North Dakota State University

Multi-Element Fingerprinting Of Waters To Evaluate Connectivity Among Depressional Wetlands, Yuxiang Yuan, Xiaoyan Zhu, David M. Mushet, Marinus L. Otte

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

Establishing the connectivity among depressional wetlands is important for their proper management, conservation and restoration. In this study, the concentrations of 38 elements in surface water and porewater of depressional wetlands were investigated to determine chemical and hydrological connectivity of three hydrological types: recharge, flow-through, and discharge, in the Prairie Pothole Region of North America. Most element concentrations of porewater varied significantly by wetland hydrologic type (p < 0.05), and increased along a recharge to discharge hydrologic gradient. Significant spatial variation of element concentrations in surface water was observed in discharge wetlands. Generally, higher element concentrations occurred in natural wetlands compared to wetlands with known disturbances (previous drainage and grazing). Electrical conductivity explained 42.3% and 30.5% of the variation of all element concentrations in porewater and surface water. Non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis showed that the similarity decreased from recharge to flowthrough to discharge wetland in each sampling site. Cluster analysis confirmed that element compositions in porewater of interconnected wetlands were more similar to each other than to those of wetlands located farther away. Porewater and surface water in a restored wetland showed similar multi-element characteristics to natural wetlands. In contrast, depressional wetlands connected by seeps along a deactivated drain-tile path and a grazed wetland showed distinctly different multi-element characteristics compared to other wetlands sampled. Our findings confirm that the multi-element fingerprinting method can be useful for assessing hydro-chemical connectivity across the landscape, and indicate that element concentrations are not only affected by land use, but also by hydrological characteristics.


Beyond The 1984 Perspective: Narrow Focus On Modern Wildfire Trends Underestimates Future Risks To Water Security, Brendan P. Murphy, Larissa L. Yocom, Patrick Belmont 2018 Utah State University

Beyond The 1984 Perspective: Narrow Focus On Modern Wildfire Trends Underestimates Future Risks To Water Security, Brendan P. Murphy, Larissa L. Yocom, Patrick Belmont

Ecology Center Publications

The western United States remains well below historical wildfire activity, yet misconceptions abound in the public and news media that the area burning by wildfire each year in the American West is unprecedented. We submit that short‐term records of wildfire and a disproportionate focus on recent fire trends within high‐profile science stoke these misconceptions. Furthermore, we highlight serious risks to long‐term water security (encompassing water supply, storage, and quality) that have only recently been recognized and are underestimated as the result of skewed perspectives of wildfire. Compiling several data sets, we illustrate a comprehensive history of western ...


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