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Articles 1 - 30 of 6291

Full-Text Articles in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecology

A Statistical Analysis Of The Change In Age Distribution Of Spawning Hatchery Salmon, Rachel Macaulay, Emily Barrett, Grace Penunuri, Eli E. Goldwyn Jan 2023

A Statistical Analysis Of The Change In Age Distribution Of Spawning Hatchery Salmon, Rachel Macaulay, Emily Barrett, Grace Penunuri, Eli E. Goldwyn

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

Declines in salmon sizes have been reported primarily as a result of younger maturation rates. This change in age distribution poses serious threats to salmon-dependent peoples and ecological systems. We perform a statistical analysis to examine the change in age structure of spawning Alaskan chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha using 30 years of hatchery data. To highlight the impacts of this change, we investigate the average number of fry/smolt that each age of spawning chum/Chinook salmon produce. Our findings demonstrate an increase in younger hatchery salmon populations returning to spawn, and fewer amounts of fry produced …


Burmese Pythons In Florida: A Synthesis Of Biology, Impacts, And Management Tools, Jacquelyn C. Guzy, Bryan G. Falk, Brian J. Smith, Johnd David Willson, Robert N. Reed, Nicholas G. Aumen, Michael L. Avery, Ian A. Bartoszek, Earl Campbell, Michael S. Cherkiss, Natalie M. Claunch, Andrea F. Currylow, Tylan Dean, Jeremy Dixon, Richard Engeman, Sarah Funck, Rebekah Gibble, Kodiak C. Hengstebeck, John S. Humphrey, Margaret E. Hunter, Jillian M. Josimovich, Jennifer Ketterlin, Michael Kirkland, Frank J. Mazzotti, Robert Mccleery, Melissa A. Miller, Matthew Mccollister, M. Rockwell Parker, Shannon E. Pittman, Michael Rochford, Christina Romagosa, Art Roybal, Ray W. Snow, Mckayla M. Spencer, J. Hardin Waddle, Any A. Yackel Adams, Kristen M. Hart Jan 2023

Burmese Pythons In Florida: A Synthesis Of Biology, Impacts, And Management Tools, Jacquelyn C. Guzy, Bryan G. Falk, Brian J. Smith, Johnd David Willson, Robert N. Reed, Nicholas G. Aumen, Michael L. Avery, Ian A. Bartoszek, Earl Campbell, Michael S. Cherkiss, Natalie M. Claunch, Andrea F. Currylow, Tylan Dean, Jeremy Dixon, Richard Engeman, Sarah Funck, Rebekah Gibble, Kodiak C. Hengstebeck, John S. Humphrey, Margaret E. Hunter, Jillian M. Josimovich, Jennifer Ketterlin, Michael Kirkland, Frank J. Mazzotti, Robert Mccleery, Melissa A. Miller, Matthew Mccollister, M. Rockwell Parker, Shannon E. Pittman, Michael Rochford, Christina Romagosa, Art Roybal, Ray W. Snow, Mckayla M. Spencer, J. Hardin Waddle, Any A. Yackel Adams, Kristen M. Hart

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) are native to southeastern Asia, however, there is an established invasive population inhabiting much of southern Florida throughout the Greater Everglades Ecosystem. Pythons have severely impacted native species and ecosystems in Florida and represent one of the most intractable invasive-species management issues across the globe. The difficulty stems from a unique combination of inaccessible habitat and the cryptic and resilient nature of pythons that thrive in the subtropical environment of southern Florida, rendering them extremely challenging to detect. Here we provide a comprehensive review and synthesis of the science relevant to managing invasive …


Range-Wide Sources Of Variation In Reproductive Rates Of Northern Spotted Owls, Jeremy T. Rockweit, Julianna M. Jenkins, James E. Hines, James D. Nichols, Katie M. Dugger, Alan B. Franklin, Peter C. Carlson, William L. Kendall, Damon B. Lesmeister, Christopher Mccafferty, Steven H. Ackers, L. Steven Andrews, Larissa L. Bailey, Jesse Burgher, Kenneth P. Burnham, Tara Chestnut, Mary M. Conner, Raymond J. Davis, Krista E. Dilione, Eric D. Forsman, Elizabeth M. Glenn, Scott A. Gremel, Keith A. Hamm, Dale R. Herter, J. Mark Higley, Rob B. Horn, David W. Lamphear, Trent L. Mcdonald, Janice A. Reid, Carl J. Schwarz, David C. Simon, Stan G. Sovern, James K. Swingle, J. David Wiens, Heather Wise, Charles B. Yackulic Jan 2023

Range-Wide Sources Of Variation In Reproductive Rates Of Northern Spotted Owls, Jeremy T. Rockweit, Julianna M. Jenkins, James E. Hines, James D. Nichols, Katie M. Dugger, Alan B. Franklin, Peter C. Carlson, William L. Kendall, Damon B. Lesmeister, Christopher Mccafferty, Steven H. Ackers, L. Steven Andrews, Larissa L. Bailey, Jesse Burgher, Kenneth P. Burnham, Tara Chestnut, Mary M. Conner, Raymond J. Davis, Krista E. Dilione, Eric D. Forsman, Elizabeth M. Glenn, Scott A. Gremel, Keith A. Hamm, Dale R. Herter, J. Mark Higley, Rob B. Horn, David W. Lamphear, Trent L. Mcdonald, Janice A. Reid, Carl J. Schwarz, David C. Simon, Stan G. Sovern, James K. Swingle, J. David Wiens, Heather Wise, Charles B. Yackulic

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

We conducted a range-wide investigation of the dynamics of site-level reproductive rate of northern spotted owls using survey data from 11 study areas across the subspecies geographic range collected during 1993–2018. Our analytical approach accounted for imperfect detection of owl pairs and misclassification of successful reproduction (i.e., at least one young fledged) and contributed further insights into northern spotted owl population ecology and dynamics. Both nondetection and state misclassification were important, especially because factors affecting these sources of error also affected focal ecological parameters. Annual probabilities of site occupancy were greatest at sites with successful reproduction in the previous year …


Movements And Resource Selection Of Wild Pigs Associated With Growth Stages Of Corn, Bethany A. Friesenhahn, Randall W. Deyoung, Michael J. Cherry, Humberto L. Perotto-Baldivieso, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Nathan P. Snow Jan 2023

Movements And Resource Selection Of Wild Pigs Associated With Growth Stages Of Corn, Bethany A. Friesenhahn, Randall W. Deyoung, Michael J. Cherry, Humberto L. Perotto-Baldivieso, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Nathan P. Snow

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are one of the most successful invasive species globally and are often implicated in agricultural damage. This damage is expected to increase as ranges of wild pigs expand, impacting the human food supply and increasing costs of food production. Our objective was to evaluate movement behaviors of wild pigs relative to resource availability and landscape features in an agriculture-dominated landscape, with a goal of informing management practices for reducing damage to corn. We monitored hourly movements of adult wild pigs relative to corn crops using GPS collars during the 2019 and 2020 growing seasons (Feb–Sept) in …


Potential Effects Of Road Proximity On Zooplankton Communities And Water Quality In Lakes In The Northwest Territories, Marie N. Hannan Jan 2023

Potential Effects Of Road Proximity On Zooplankton Communities And Water Quality In Lakes In The Northwest Territories, Marie N. Hannan

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Studies conducted along Canada’s Dempster Highway in the Northwest Territories have shown that road dust can affect water quality in roadside lakes, leading to higher calcium, conductivity, and pH levels. These water quality changes have the potential to affect important members of the lower aquatic food web, such as zooplankton.

For my thesis research, I had two main objectives: 1) To determine if changes in water chemistry caused by deposition of road dust affects zooplankton communities; and 2) To examine if the type of roadside vegetation influences the effects of road dust on aquatic habitats. To achieve these objectives, I …


Predicting Mountain Lion Resource Selection And Abundance In North America, William Connor O'Malley Jan 2023

Predicting Mountain Lion Resource Selection And Abundance In North America, William Connor O'Malley

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The relationship between habitat quality and density is well documented in lower trophic levels but to what extent it can be extended to higher trophic levels is unknown. I tested the relationship between habitat quality, home-range size and density using a wide-ranging, well-studied, top carnivore, the mountain lion (Puma concolor). First, I created a second-order resource selection function (RSF) for mountain lions in their current North American range using GPS collar data from 476 individuals in 20 study sites and remotely-sensed landscape data. I used the RSF and home range estimates derived from collared animals to quantify mountain …


A Comparison Of Seasonal Reproductive Pattern In Two Sympatric Darters Of The Simoperca Clade, Etheostoma Duryi And Etheostoma Simoterum, Tiffany Bell, Elizabeth Cantrell, Bruce Stallsmith Dec 2022

A Comparison Of Seasonal Reproductive Pattern In Two Sympatric Darters Of The Simoperca Clade, Etheostoma Duryi And Etheostoma Simoterum, Tiffany Bell, Elizabeth Cantrell, Bruce Stallsmith

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

We present results from an examination of the seasonal reproductive patterns of two closely related sympatric darter species of the Simoperca clade, Etheostoma duryi and Etheostoma simoterum. Most members of the genus Etheostoma exhibit striking sexual dimorphism, making reproductive strategy a logical point of study. Monthly collections of specimens over a one-year period were performed at a single site on the Flint River near Huntsville, Alabama. Standard length and gross somatic mass were measured for all individuals. Sex ratio was examined for possible skew. Measures of reproductive effort were monthly means of gonadosomatic index of both sexes, total oocyte count, …


Niche Modeling Of Eight Crayfish Species In Texas, Nathan Schubert Dec 2022

Niche Modeling Of Eight Crayfish Species In Texas, Nathan Schubert

Biology Theses

Freshwater species make up ~10% of all known species and occupy less than one percent of earth’s habitat, which is being degraded by human usage. Crayfish have a large impact on their aquatic or terrestrial environment and can serve as a health indicator of aquatic environments, as they generally require undegraded environments. In many habitats, crayfish make up more than half of the macroinvertebrate biomass, and play important ecological roles, as a food resource for both aquatic and terrestrial species, as predators of fish and invertebrates, and as bioprocessors of vegetation and detritus. The objective of this project was to …


Establishment Of The Invasive Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis Cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) In Pakistan: A Potential Threat To Cultivated, Ornamental And Wild Opuntia Spp. (Cactaceae), Muhammad Ather Rafi, Harry Pavulaan, Muhammad Islam, Muhammad Ashfaq, Haseeb Kamran, Walija Fayaz, Gul Naz Parveen, Riffat Sultana, Ahmad Zia, Waqar Ahmed, Qudrat Ullah, Muhammad Qasim, Falak Naz, Nazeer Ahmed, Muhammad Tariq Khan, Muhammad Saeed, Jalal Hayat Khan Dec 2022

Establishment Of The Invasive Cactus Moth, Cactoblastis Cactorum (Berg) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) In Pakistan: A Potential Threat To Cultivated, Ornamental And Wild Opuntia Spp. (Cactaceae), Muhammad Ather Rafi, Harry Pavulaan, Muhammad Islam, Muhammad Ashfaq, Haseeb Kamran, Walija Fayaz, Gul Naz Parveen, Riffat Sultana, Ahmad Zia, Waqar Ahmed, Qudrat Ullah, Muhammad Qasim, Falak Naz, Nazeer Ahmed, Muhammad Tariq Khan, Muhammad Saeed, Jalal Hayat Khan

The Taxonomic Report of the International Lepidoptera Survey

Subsequent to the significant accomplishment of biological control of Opuntia weeds in Australia, the larvae of the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (native to parts of South America), were released in many countries for the biological control of native Opuntia species (Simmonds and Bennett, 1966). Inauspiciously, larvae were also released in the Caribbean, where the moth spread naturally and by the human support all over the region (García-Turudi et al., 1971). Its enhanced dissemination rate and the biological potential for invasiveness, suggests that the cactus moth is likely to become an invasive pest of Opuntia in the Southeast United States, Mexico, …


Length-Weight Relationships Of The Bream Abramis Brama (Linnaeus, 1758) In Beni- Haroun Dam Of Mila City (North-East Of Algeria), Tolba Mounia, Hadjab Ramzi, Chikara Bouziani Mohamed, Berrouk Houda, Kaouachi Nouha Dec 2022

Length-Weight Relationships Of The Bream Abramis Brama (Linnaeus, 1758) In Beni- Haroun Dam Of Mila City (North-East Of Algeria), Tolba Mounia, Hadjab Ramzi, Chikara Bouziani Mohamed, Berrouk Houda, Kaouachi Nouha

Journal of Bioresource Management

The study of fish growth is a valuable tool in providing good understanding on the general biology and growth of fish populations, in addition to the comparison of the same fish species populations living in remote geographic areas. Thus, the present work was designed to study the age and growth of Abramis brama species newly introduced in Beni-Haroun dam (Mila department, Northeast Algeria). Here, the study was conducted on sampling of 141 individuals from July 2015 to October 2016. The age of fishes was determined according to scalimetric method, since the fish sex was determined by macroscopic method, showing that …


Phytoplankton Community Of Boalia Khal Tributary Of The Halda River, Chattogram, Bangladesh, Md. Shafiqul Islam, M.A. Azadi, Munira Nasiruddin Dec 2022

Phytoplankton Community Of Boalia Khal Tributary Of The Halda River, Chattogram, Bangladesh, Md. Shafiqul Islam, M.A. Azadi, Munira Nasiruddin

Journal of Bioresource Management

Boalia Khal is one of the important tributaries of the River Halda. The productivity of the Boalia Khal tributary of the Halda River mainly depends on the phytoplankton diversity. A study was conducted for two years period from January 2017 to December 2018 to identify the phytoplankton community of the Boalia Khal tributary. A total of 61 species of phytoplankton under 37 genera belonging to 8 classes were recorded. The dominant group of phytoplankton was 25 species of Diatoms (40.98 %) followed by 18 species of Green Algae (29.5 %), 9 species of Euglenophytes (14.75 %), 7 species of Blue …


Review Of The Physical And Chemical Properties Of Seagrass Soils, Nerea Piñeiro-Juncal, Oscar Serrano, Miguel Ángel Mateo, Elena Diaz-Almela, Carmen Leiva-Dueñas, Antonio Martinez-Cortizas Dec 2022

Review Of The Physical And Chemical Properties Of Seagrass Soils, Nerea Piñeiro-Juncal, Oscar Serrano, Miguel Ángel Mateo, Elena Diaz-Almela, Carmen Leiva-Dueñas, Antonio Martinez-Cortizas

Research outputs 2022 to 2026

Seagrasses are a polyphyletic group of angiosperms that colonized marine environments more than 30 million years ago and currently inhabit coastal soft and rocky substrates in all continents except Antarctica. Due to their evolution from terrestrial plants, seagrasses have belowground organs that interact with the substrate, transforming it through chemo-physical processes analogous to terrestrial soil formation. Although seagrass substrates provide valuable ecosystem services including carbon and coastal stabilization, they have been largely regarded as sediments by marine scientists and neglected in soil science research. However, over the last decades, the increasing interest in carbon accumulation by seagrasses has generated multiple …


Microplastic Accumulation In The Digestive Tract Of Young-Of-Year Atlantic Sharpnose Sharks (Rhizoprionodon Terraenovae) In The Grand Strand, Sc, Andrew Curtis Sitlinger Dec 2022

Microplastic Accumulation In The Digestive Tract Of Young-Of-Year Atlantic Sharpnose Sharks (Rhizoprionodon Terraenovae) In The Grand Strand, Sc, Andrew Curtis Sitlinger

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study focused on the presence and accumulation of microplastic fibers in the digestive tract and livers of young-of-year Atlantic Sharpnose Sharks (Rhizopriondon terraenovae) from two sampling locations along the Grand Strand of South Carolina. R. terraenovae is a small, mesopredatory elasmobranch found abundantly along northwestern Atlantic Ocean coastlines. Thirty specimens of R. terraenovae were collected from May through August of 2020. Microplastics were found in all specimens. A total of 672 plastic particles were identified over the course of the study, with an average of 22.4 ± 10.5 (SD) plastics per specimen. The majority of the plastics were classified …


Fine-Scale Site Selection Of Strand-Feeding Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) And Their Prey, Deborah Kleinclaus Dec 2022

Fine-Scale Site Selection Of Strand-Feeding Common Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus) And Their Prey, Deborah Kleinclaus

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Strand-feeding is a unique, cooperative foraging strategy used by some common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) at low tide in South Carolina and Georgia salt marshes, where a group of dolphins charges schools of fish, thrusting them onto the bank with their bow wave and then capturing prey items onshore. Strand-feeding dolphins are estuarine residents and frequent predictable stranding sites, suggesting an intimate knowledge of the area. Dolphin behavior prior to stranding suggests they do not herd the fish before charging, but instead prey on fish already shoaling near the bank. The use of active acoustics from strand-feeders in order to …


Extraction, Analysis, And Comparison Of Microplastics In Sc Marsh Substrates, Austin G. Sige Dec 2022

Extraction, Analysis, And Comparison Of Microplastics In Sc Marsh Substrates, Austin G. Sige

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The global, rapid increase in plastic production is a widespread problem for coastal environments such as marshes that present favorable conditions for plastic retention. This study looked at the microplastic abundance within three previously unstudied South Carolina marshes located in Myrtle Beach, Murrells Inlet, and Waties Island. A comparison between the microplastic types and abundances between locations provided knowledge about the impacts of sediment composition (sand, silt, clay, and organic matter) on microplastic sequestration. This study also produced a novel microplastic extraction methodology for cohesive marsh sediment that used elutriation to effectively break apart aggregates prior to chemical digestion and …


Assessing The Legacy Of Erosion And Flood Control Management Efforts On The Fish Assemblages And Physical Conditions Of Yazoo Basin Bluff Hill Streams, Nicky M. Faucheux Dec 2022

Assessing The Legacy Of Erosion And Flood Control Management Efforts On The Fish Assemblages And Physical Conditions Of Yazoo Basin Bluff Hill Streams, Nicky M. Faucheux

Theses and Dissertations

The hills of Yazoo Basin have a long history of land use modification and subsequent erosion and flood control issues. In response, federal actions were taken to address these issues beginning after the Mississippi River flood of 1927. Four major flood control reservoirs were built in 1932-1957, and instream low-drop grade control structures (GCS) were installed beginning in the 1980s. The objective of my dissertation was to ascertain the long-term effects of these efforts on stream fish assemblages and channel morphology. To assess whether the reservoirs affected upstream fish assemblages as barriers to recolonization by fluvial fishes or as source …


Worldwide Distribution Of Cave-Dwelling Chelodesmidae (Diplopoda, Polydesmida), Rodrigo Salvador Bouzan, Jackson C. Means, Kaloyan Ivanov, Rodrigo L. Ferreira, Antonio Domingos Brescovit, Luiz Felipe Moretti Iniesta Dec 2022

Worldwide Distribution Of Cave-Dwelling Chelodesmidae (Diplopoda, Polydesmida), Rodrigo Salvador Bouzan, Jackson C. Means, Kaloyan Ivanov, Rodrigo L. Ferreira, Antonio Domingos Brescovit, Luiz Felipe Moretti Iniesta

International Journal of Speleology

Chelodesmidae is one of the most species rich families within the Myriapoda. However, little is known regarding their association with caves. We provide a list of all Chelodesmidae taxa reported from caves, map their worldwide distribution, and discuss the troglomorphic features of the group. A total of 25 species and subspecies from 20 genera and 2 subfamilies have been recorded from 59 caves and cave systems in 11 countries. These numbers represent a surprisingly modest proportion (~3%) of the approximately 800 described species in the family. Records of cave-dwelling chelodesmids appear to be geographically biased with most taxa reported from …


Exposure Of Egyptian Rousette Bats (Rousettus Aegyptiacus) And A Little Free-Tailed Bat (Chaerephon Pumilus) To Alphaviruses In Uganda, Rebekah C. Kading, Erin M. Borland, Eric C. Mossel, Teddy Nakayiki, Betty Nalikka, Jeremy P. Ledermann, Mary B. Crabtree, Nicholas A. Panella, Luke Nyakarahuka, Amy T. Gilbert, Julian C. Kerbis-Peterhans, Jonathan S. Towner, Brian R. Amman, Tara K. Sealy, Barry R. Miller, Julius J. Lutwama, Robert M. Kityo, Ann M. Powers Dec 2022

Exposure Of Egyptian Rousette Bats (Rousettus Aegyptiacus) And A Little Free-Tailed Bat (Chaerephon Pumilus) To Alphaviruses In Uganda, Rebekah C. Kading, Erin M. Borland, Eric C. Mossel, Teddy Nakayiki, Betty Nalikka, Jeremy P. Ledermann, Mary B. Crabtree, Nicholas A. Panella, Luke Nyakarahuka, Amy T. Gilbert, Julian C. Kerbis-Peterhans, Jonathan S. Towner, Brian R. Amman, Tara K. Sealy, Barry R. Miller, Julius J. Lutwama, Robert M. Kityo, Ann M. Powers

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

The reservoir for zoonotic o’nyong-nyong virus (ONNV) has remained unknown since this virus was first recognized in Uganda in 1959. Building on existing evidence for mosquito bloodfeeding on various frugivorous bat species in Uganda, and seroprevalence for arboviruses among bats in Uganda, we sought to assess if serum samples collected from bats in Uganda demonstrated evidence of exposure to ONNV or the closely related zoonotic chikungunya virus (CHIKV). In total, 652 serum samples collected from six bat species were tested by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for neutralizing antibodies against ONNV and CHIKV. Forty out of 303 (13.2%) Egyptian rousettes …


Crustacean Assemblage Structure Over The Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone Of The Mid-Atlantic Ridge Collected During The 2009 Henry B. Bigelow Expedition, Kathryn Medina Dec 2022

Crustacean Assemblage Structure Over The Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone Of The Mid-Atlantic Ridge Collected During The 2009 Henry B. Bigelow Expedition, Kathryn Medina

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

The Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ) consists of two nearly parallel fracture transform faults that intersect the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) axis. This area has high primary productivity and biomass levels due to the topography and water. A predominant hydrographic feature of the MAR is the Sub-Polar Front (SPF) which runs along the southern edge of the CGFZ and is known as a biogeographical boundary for multiple species. As part of The Census of Marine Life project Patterns and Processes of the Ecosystem of the northern Mid-Atlantic (MAR-ECO), this study analyzed the abundance and distribution patterns of the CGFZ crustacean community …


Using Xbeach To Describe The Performance Of An Intertidal Vegetation Shoreline Stabilization Treatment, Elizabeth Winter Dec 2022

Using Xbeach To Describe The Performance Of An Intertidal Vegetation Shoreline Stabilization Treatment, Elizabeth Winter

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this project is to predict the hydrodynamic and morphodynamics of an engineered vegetation-only shoreline restoration project in Little Lagoon, Alabama under different storm and sea level rise scenarios. Little Lagoon is a shallow, single-inlet lagoon located in Baldwin County, Alabama that has been experiencing shoreline erosion for the past 28 years. A living shoreline using vegetation only (Spartina alterniflora) was implemented in the southwest corner of the lagoon, located within Bon Secour National Wildlife Refuge, to create habitat, improve water quality, and prevent future erosion. This research compares “with-project” and “without-project” hydrodynamics and morphodynamics using XBeach in …


How Low Can You Go? Expanding Oyster Tidal Niche With Predator Induction, Carter Lin Dec 2022

How Low Can You Go? Expanding Oyster Tidal Niche With Predator Induction, Carter Lin

Theses and Dissertations

An oyster’s realized niche is constrained by different stressors based on tidal elevation, such as desiccation or benthic predators. These factors constrain survival and set the boundary for their realized niche. Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) also harden their shells in response to predation risk which reduces their mortality. We performed an empirical study to investigate if this defense mechanism could be manipulated to expand their realized niche. We raised oysters in the presence of blue crab predators (Callinectes sapidus) or in controls sans predators, then monitored their survival at different tidal elevations. Oyster survival was significantly higher in the highest …


Water Availability As A Cross-Scale Driver Of Microbial Functions And Free Viral Abundance In Soil, Aubrey K. Fine Dec 2022

Water Availability As A Cross-Scale Driver Of Microbial Functions And Free Viral Abundance In Soil, Aubrey K. Fine

Doctoral Dissertations

Viral infection is widespread in natural microbial communities, with extensive study in aquatic ecosystems demonstrating direct influence on host physiology, functional activity, and mortality. While similar dynamics are assumed to occur across ecosystems, soils are distinct microbial habitats where soil physiochemical structure and water availability constrain resource availability. These unique environmental conditions have been widely demonstrated to affect microbial distribution, diversity, and functional activity in bulk soil, while their influence on virus-microbe interactions and free viral abundance remains limited. To address this knowledge gap, this research had three broad aims: i) to investigate variability in microbial responses to drying-rewetting cycles …


Aquaculture In Africa: Aquatic Animal Welfare, Impact On The Environment And The Sustainability Of The Sector, Mwenda M. Mbaka, Janice H. Cox, Stephen Ronan Dec 2022

Aquaculture In Africa: Aquatic Animal Welfare, Impact On The Environment And The Sustainability Of The Sector, Mwenda M. Mbaka, Janice H. Cox, Stephen Ronan

Aquaculture

The African aquaculture sector recorded the fastest growth in the world between 2006-2018, averaging 10% or more, and is expected to partially fill the growing fish supply-demand gap up to 2063. In 2018, there were about 1.2 million aquafarmers across the continent, an increase from 920 thousand in 2014. According to the African Development Bank, expansion of aquaculture in Africa is hampered by "the overwhelming predominance of tilapia farming, which relies heavily on the production of fingerlings from a limited number of genetically improved strains that are resistant to the many diseases affecting this species, and on the production of …


Divergent Serpentoviruses In Free-Ranging Invasive Pythons And Native Colubrids In Southern Florida, United States, Steven B. Tillis, Jillian M. Josimovich, Melissa A. Miller, Laura L. Hoon-Hanks, Arik M. Hartmann, Natalie M. Claunch, Marley E. Iredale, Tracey D. Logan, Amy A. Yackel Adams, Ian A. Bartoszek, John S. Humphrey, Bryan M. Kluever, Mark D. Stenglein, Robert N. Reed, Christina M. Romagosa, James F.X. Wellehan, Robert J. Ossiboff Dec 2022

Divergent Serpentoviruses In Free-Ranging Invasive Pythons And Native Colubrids In Southern Florida, United States, Steven B. Tillis, Jillian M. Josimovich, Melissa A. Miller, Laura L. Hoon-Hanks, Arik M. Hartmann, Natalie M. Claunch, Marley E. Iredale, Tracey D. Logan, Amy A. Yackel Adams, Ian A. Bartoszek, John S. Humphrey, Bryan M. Kluever, Mark D. Stenglein, Robert N. Reed, Christina M. Romagosa, James F.X. Wellehan, Robert J. Ossiboff

USDA Wildlife Services - Staff Publications

Burmese python (Python bivittatus) is an invasive snake that has significantly affected ecosystems in southern Florida, United States. Aside from direct predation and competition, invasive species can also introduce nonnative pathogens that can adversely affect native species. The subfamily Serpentovirinae (order Nidovirales) is composed of positive-sense RNA viruses primarily found in reptiles. Some serpentoviruses, such as shingleback nidovirus, are associated with mortalities in wild populations, while others, including ball python nidovirus and green tree python nidovirus can be a major cause of disease and mortality in captive animals. To determine if serpentoviruses were present in invasive Burmese …


The Impacts Of A Quagga And Zebra Mussel Infestation, Casey Silva Dec 2022

The Impacts Of A Quagga And Zebra Mussel Infestation, Casey Silva

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Invasive species issues have been on the rise in the United States for decades. These organisms can disrupt the natural flow of an ecosystem and overtake native species, altering an environment as a whole. The introduction of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in 1988, followed by the quagga mussel (Dreissena rostriformis) in 1989 is arguably the most prolific aquatic infestation the nation is currently up against (Hoddle, 2022). Beginning in the Great Lakes, both quagga and zebra mussels quickly spread their infestations through the Midwest and the East coast. The potential invasion of these species across …


Round Goby (Neogobius Melanostomus) Seasonal Diet, Drift Impacts, And Influence On Stream Connectivity In Great Lakes Tributary Streams, Kyle R. Glenn Mr Dec 2022

Round Goby (Neogobius Melanostomus) Seasonal Diet, Drift Impacts, And Influence On Stream Connectivity In Great Lakes Tributary Streams, Kyle R. Glenn Mr

Biology Theses

Seasonality, energy recruitment, and food web position dictate the degree of impact fish impose on their surrounding environment. In the Great Lakes, the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) is known to out-migrate from nearshore habitat to offshore depths in the winter months. However, in Great Lake tributaries, round goby populations were found up to 25 km upstream during winter months, and distance upstream was a predictor of out-migration propensity; populations farthest upstream did not out-migrate. Seasonal resources shaped the diet and condition of these fish thus creating inland populations with different average lengths, diets, and body condition compared to …


Dust Deposition Changes Production, Chlorophyll-A And Community Composition In Mountain Lakes, Jiahao Wen Dec 2022

Dust Deposition Changes Production, Chlorophyll-A And Community Composition In Mountain Lakes, Jiahao Wen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Increasing quantities of dust emitted from semi-arid soils, agricultural soils, and urban regions are blown to remote mountain lakes in the American West. Remote mountain lakes lacking local nutrient inputs and presenting simple food webs that are easily affected by climate changes. Dust can carry nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and phosphorus) to mountain lakes and potentially enhance algae growth and change algal communities. However, experimental tests of this hypothesis are lacking. Using in situ experiments, we investigated the effects of dust enrichment on the production, biomass, and primary algal species in three mountain lakes in the American West. We found that …


Evaluation Of Differences In Testosterone Concentration Among Species, Sexes, And Reproductive Tactics In Two-Lined Salamanders, Zaynab Massenburg Nov 2022

Evaluation Of Differences In Testosterone Concentration Among Species, Sexes, And Reproductive Tactics In Two-Lined Salamanders, Zaynab Massenburg

Symposium of Student Scholars

Fall 2022 symposium abstract:

Evaluation of differences in testosterone concentration among species, sexes, and reproductive tactics in two-lined salamanders

Zaynab Massenburg(1), Michelle Ross(1)

[zmassenb@students.kennesaw.edu, mross105@students.kennesaw.edu]

(1) Kennesaw State University

Inhabiting streams in the Appalachian Mountains in northern Georgia are two sympatric and closely related species of plethodontid salamanders—Brown-backed Salamanders (Eurycea aquatica) and Blue Ridge Two-lined Salamanders (Eurycea cf. wilderae). Male Eurycea cf. wilderae exhibit a morphological polymorphism corresponding to alternative reproductive tactics. “Searching” males display brighter coloration, the presence of cirri and a mental glad, and mate-searching behavior, while “guarding” males display hypertrophied jaw musculature, lack cirri and a mental …


Internal Vertebral Morphology Of Bony Fishes Matches The Mechanical Demands Of Different Environments, Dana Baxter, Karly E. Cohen, Cassandra M. Donatelli, Eric D. Tytell Nov 2022

Internal Vertebral Morphology Of Bony Fishes Matches The Mechanical Demands Of Different Environments, Dana Baxter, Karly E. Cohen, Cassandra M. Donatelli, Eric D. Tytell

Engineering Faculty Articles and Research

Fishes have repeatedly evolved characteristic body shapes depending on how close they live to the substrate. Pelagic fishes live in open water and typically have narrow, streamlined body shapes; benthic and demersal fishes live close to the substrate; and demersal fishes often have deeper bodies. These shape differences are often associated with behavioral differences: pelagic fishes swim nearly constantly, demersal fishes tend to maneuver near the substrate, and benthic fishes often lie in wait on the substrate. We hypothesized that these morphological and behavioral differences would be reflected in the mechanical properties of the body, and specifically in vertebral column …


Life History And Ecology Of The San Emigdio Blue Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), Gregory R. Ballmer Nov 2022

Life History And Ecology Of The San Emigdio Blue Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), Gregory R. Ballmer

The Taxonomic Report of the International Lepidoptera Survey

The San Emigdio blue butterfly, Plebulina emigdionis (Grinnell, 1905), occurs in small, scattered colonies in and near the southwestern Mojave Desert of California. Colonies depend on a symbiotic relationship with the ant Formica francoueri (Bolton), and occur only where the ant’s range (primarily in more mesic cis-montane habitats) narrowly overlaps that of the butterfly’s more widely distributed Atriplex larval hosts in more xeric habitats. Colonies of P. emigdionis are often localized around a few host plants and, therefore, sensitive to habitat changes due to anthropocentric causes and environmental stochasticity. The biology, ecology, and status of known colonies of P emigdionis …