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Beyond The 1984 Perspective: Narrow Focus On Modern Wildfire Trends Underestimates Future Risks To Water Security, Brendan P. Murphy, Larissa L. Yocom, Patrick Belmont 2018 Utah State University

Beyond The 1984 Perspective: Narrow Focus On Modern Wildfire Trends Underestimates Future Risks To Water Security, Brendan P. Murphy, Larissa L. Yocom, Patrick Belmont

Ecology Center Publications

The western United States remains well below historical wildfire activity, yet misconceptions abound in the public and news media that the area burning by wildfire each year in the American West is unprecedented. We submit that short‐term records of wildfire and a disproportionate focus on recent fire trends within high‐profile science stoke these misconceptions. Furthermore, we highlight serious risks to long‐term water security (encompassing water supply, storage, and quality) that have only recently been recognized and are underestimated as the result of skewed perspectives of wildfire. Compiling several data sets, we illustrate a comprehensive history of western ...


Spatial Analysis Of Borrow Pits Along The Platte River In South-Central Nebraska, Usa, In 1957 And 2016, Nicole M. Pauley, Mary J. Harner, Emma M. Brinley Buckley, Paul R. Burger, Keith Geluso 2018 University of Nebraska at Kearney

Spatial Analysis Of Borrow Pits Along The Platte River In South-Central Nebraska, Usa, In 1957 And 2016, Nicole M. Pauley, Mary J. Harner, Emma M. Brinley Buckley, Paul R. Burger, Keith Geluso

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

The Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska provides critical habitat for wildlife, while serving agricultural, indus­trial, and other human uses. Mining of sand and gravel from the floodplain of the Platte River has supported construction of roads and other uses, and this extraction has created many borrow-pit ponds, lakes, and other small bodies of standing water (hereafter borrow-pits), further transforming riparian and prairie habitats. The objective of this study was to compare the abundance, size, and distribution of borrow pits before construction of Interstate 80 (1957) and at present (2016) from Lexington to Chapman, Nebraska, a length of ...


Theory On Thermodynamic Constraints To Biogeochemical And Metabolic Diversity, Jordan Okie, Everett Shock 2018 Arizona State University

Theory On Thermodynamic Constraints To Biogeochemical And Metabolic Diversity, Jordan Okie, Everett Shock

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Modeling Elemental Constraints Across Aquatic Food Webs, Md Nazmul Hassan, Angela Peace 2018 Texas Tech University

Modeling Elemental Constraints Across Aquatic Food Webs, Md Nazmul Hassan, Angela Peace

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Hierarchical Variation In Cellulose Decomposition Across Southern Ontario Reference Streams, Jenna R. Webb 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Hierarchical Variation In Cellulose Decomposition Across Southern Ontario Reference Streams, Jenna R. Webb

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The cotton strip assay (CSA) has been promoted as a method of incorporating functional indicators into standardized river assessments by study of organic-matter decomposition. However, operationalization of the CSA as an indicator requires testing the spatial and temporal controls of variance associated with decomposition of cotton strips at regional reference sites. I conducted a hierarchically structured study of decomposition rates in Ontario, Canada. Cotton strips were deployed during the spring, summer and fall in pool and riffle habitats of 22 streams located in three distinct physiographic regions. Partitioning of variation among hierarchical scales associated with rates of decomposition were examined ...


Identification Of Microbiota Associated With The Ectosymbiotic Community Structure Of The Appalachian Brook Crayfish (Cambarus Bartonii), Matthew M. Cooke 6268927, Luke T. Fischer, Taylor Griffin, Sherrie Jeffers 2018 Liberty University

Identification Of Microbiota Associated With The Ectosymbiotic Community Structure Of The Appalachian Brook Crayfish (Cambarus Bartonii), Matthew M. Cooke 6268927, Luke T. Fischer, Taylor Griffin, Sherrie Jeffers

Montview Liberty University Journal of Undergraduate Research

Microbes play a significant role in ecosystems, effecting the vital functions of other organisms, interspecies relationships, and population sizes. Based upon previous research (Skelton et al., 2016), it has been hypothesized that crayfish symbionts (branchiobdellidans) play a significant role in regulating the amount of microbiota associated with the host. A growing body of knowledge is known regarding both the condition of gill fouling and the annelid worm’s symbiotic relationship with the crayfish (Skelton et al., 2016; Skelton et al., 2016). However, there is little to no evidence available concerning the bacteria’s role in the process (Skelton et al ...


Survival At The Summits: Amphibian Responses To Thermal Extremes, Disease, And Rapid Climate Change In The High Tropical Andes, Kelsey E. Reider 2018 Florida International University

Survival At The Summits: Amphibian Responses To Thermal Extremes, Disease, And Rapid Climate Change In The High Tropical Andes, Kelsey E. Reider

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Understanding biological responses to climate change is a primary concern in conservation biology. Of the ecosystems being rapidly impacted by climate change, those in the high-elevation tropics are among the most poorly studied. The tropical Andean biosphere includes record elevations above 5000 meters, where extreme environmental conditions challenge many organisms. In the Cordillera Vilcanota of southern Peru, frogs including Pleurodema marmoratum and Telmatobius marmoratus have expanded their ranges to 5244 – 5400 m into habitats created by glacial recession, making them among the highest recorded amphibians on Earth. To understand how hydrologic alterations from loss of glacial meltwater and climatic fluctuations ...


Does Environment Filtering Or Seed Limitation Determine Post-Fire Forest Recovery Patterns In Boreal Larch Forests?, Wen H. Cai, Zhihua Liu, Yuan Z. Yang, Jian Yang 2018 Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

Does Environment Filtering Or Seed Limitation Determine Post-Fire Forest Recovery Patterns In Boreal Larch Forests?, Wen H. Cai, Zhihua Liu, Yuan Z. Yang, Jian Yang

Forestry and Natural Resources Faculty Publications

Wildfire is a primary natural disturbance in boreal forests, and post-fire vegetation recovery rate influences carbon, water, and energy exchange between the land and atmosphere in the region. Seed availability and environmental filtering are two important determinants in regulating post-fire vegetation recovery in boreal forests. Quantifying how these determinants change over time is helpful for understanding post-fire forest successional trajectory. Time series of remote sensing data offer considerable potential in monitoring the trajectory of post-fire vegetation recovery dynamics beyond current field surveys about structural attributes, which generally lack a temporal perspective across large burned areas. We used a time series ...


Conservation Of Aquatic Biodiversity In The Context Of Multiple-Use Management On National Forest System Lands, Brett B. Roper, James M. Capurso, Yvette Paroz, Michael K. Young 2018 Utah State University

Conservation Of Aquatic Biodiversity In The Context Of Multiple-Use Management On National Forest System Lands, Brett B. Roper, James M. Capurso, Yvette Paroz, Michael K. Young

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS) manages 193 million acres of public lands across 43 states and Puerto Rico. The original intent behind reserving lands managed by the USFS was to improve and protect forests, secure favorable conditions for water flows, and furnish a continuous supply of timber for the nation. Through time national forests have evolved, so they are managed for a broad array of uses. Differing expectations have led to conflicts between aquatic conservation and other aspects of the USFS’ mandate. In the 1990s, these conflicting goals came to a head with the listing of ...


Identification And Characterization Of Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria Associated With Kudzu Root Nodules, Chasity Lawless, Michelle Zedonek, Debbie Curtis, Jonda Scharringhausen, Jared Bryant, Wendy A. Dustman, Alexandra M. Kurtz, Bekah Ward Dr. 2018 Georgia Gwinnett College

Identification And Characterization Of Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria Associated With Kudzu Root Nodules, Chasity Lawless, Michelle Zedonek, Debbie Curtis, Jonda Scharringhausen, Jared Bryant, Wendy A. Dustman, Alexandra M. Kurtz, Bekah Ward Dr.

Georgia Journal of Science

Pueraria montana, better known as kudzu, is an invasive species rapidly spreading throughout the southeastern United States. This plant can form root nodules which house nitrogen-fixing bacteria, allowing atmospheric nitrogen to be converted into biologically available forms of nitrogen for use by the plant host. Given the centrality of these bacteria to the spread of kudzu, isolates from nodules were characterized after collection from seven different locations across the metropolitan Atlanta area. Twenty-five isolates were grown on two different variants of nitrogen free media. Four different carbon sources were evaluated as well. Finally, growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions ...


The Importance Of Marine Predators In The Provisioning Of Ecosystem Services By Coastal Plant Communities, Trisha B. Atwood, Edd Hammill 2018 Utah State University

The Importance Of Marine Predators In The Provisioning Of Ecosystem Services By Coastal Plant Communities, Trisha B. Atwood, Edd Hammill

Ecology Center Publications

Food web theory predicts that current global declines in marine predators could generate unwanted consequences for many marine ecosystems. In coastal plant communities (kelp, seagrass, mangroves, and salt marsh), several studies have documented the far-reaching effects of changing predator populations. Across coastal ecosystems, the loss of marine predators appears to negatively affect coastal plant communities and the ecosystem services they provide. Here, we discuss some of the documented and suspected effects of predators on coastal protection, carbon sequestration, and the stability and resilience of coastal plant communities. In addition, we present a meta-analysis to assess the strength and direction of ...


Spatial Heterogeneity In Species Composition Constrains Plant Community Responses To Herbivory And Fertilisation, Dorothee Hodapp, Lori A. Biederman, Philip A. Fay, et al. 2018 Helmholtz Institute for Functional Marine Biodiversity (HIFMB)

Spatial Heterogeneity In Species Composition Constrains Plant Community Responses To Herbivory And Fertilisation, Dorothee Hodapp, Lori A. Biederman, Philip A. Fay, Et Al.

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Environmental change can result in substantial shifts in community composition. The associated immigration and extinction events are likely constrained by the spatial distribution of species. Still, studies on environmental change typically quantify biotic responses at single spatial (time series within a single plot) or temporal (spatial beta diversity at single time points) scales, ignoring their potential interdependence. Here, we use data from a global network of grassland experiments to determine how turnover responses to two major forms of environmental change – fertilisation and herbivore loss – are affected by species pool size and spatial compositional heterogeneity. Fertilisation led to higher rates of ...


The Ecology Of A Tallgrass Treasure: Audubon’S Spring Creek Prairie, Paul A. Johnsgard 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Ecology Of A Tallgrass Treasure: Audubon’S Spring Creek Prairie, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This book describes the major plant and animal components of Spring Creek Prairie Audubon Center, an 850-acre National Audubon Society tallgrass prairie in Lancaster County, southeastern Nebraska. In addition to providing a species list of the area’s plants (368 species), there are comprehensive annotated lists of its birds (240), mammals (43), reptiles (23), and amphibians (10). There are also variably complete annotated lists of the area’s butterflies (76), sphinx moths (30), silk moths (7), dragonflies (24), damselflies (11), grasshoppers (9), katydids (11), mantids (2), and walkingsticks (2). Brief profiles of life histories and ecologies of 55 animal and ...


Coastal Wetland Dynamics Under Sea-Level Rise And Wetland Restoration In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico Using Bayesian Multilevel Models And A Web Tool, Tyler Hardy 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Coastal Wetland Dynamics Under Sea-Level Rise And Wetland Restoration In The Northern Gulf Of Mexico Using Bayesian Multilevel Models And A Web Tool, Tyler Hardy

Master's Theses

There is currently a lack of modeling framework to predict how relative sea-level rise (SLR), combined with restoration activities, affects landscapes of coastal wetlands with uncertainties accounted for at the entire northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM). I developed such a modeling framework – Bayesian multi-level models to study the spatial pattern of wetland loss in the NGOM, driven by relative RSLR, vegetation productivity, tidal range, coastal slope, and wave height – all interacting with river-borne sediment availability, indicated by hydrological regimes. These interactions have not been comprehensively investigated before. I further modified this model to assess the efficacy of restoration projects from ...


Changes In Soil Respiration Across A Chronosequence Of Tallgrass Prairie Reconstructions, Ryan M. Maher, Heidi Asbjornsen, Randall K. Kolka, Cynthia A. Cambardella, James W. Raich 2018 Iowa State University

Changes In Soil Respiration Across A Chronosequence Of Tallgrass Prairie Reconstructions, Ryan M. Maher, Heidi Asbjornsen, Randall K. Kolka, Cynthia A. Cambardella, James W. Raich

James W. Raich

Close relationships among climatic factors and soil respiration (Rs) are commonly reported. However, variation in Rs across the landscape is compounded by site-specific differences that impede the development of spatially explicit models. Among factors that influence Rs, the effect of ecosystem age is poorly documented. We hypothesized that Rs increases with grassland age and tested this hypothesis in a chronosequence of tallgrass prairie reconstructions in central Iowa, U.S.A. We also assessed changes in root biomass, root ingrowth, aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), and the strength of soil temperature and moisture in predicting Rs ...


Nitrogen Cycling During A Period Of Environmental Change, Kaizad Patel 2018 University of Maine

Nitrogen Cycling During A Period Of Environmental Change, Kaizad Patel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Natural and anthropogenic disturbances have altered the N cycle on the regional to global scale. Although numerous studies have examined the effects of chronic atmospheric N deposition on ecosystem processes, less is known about intra-annual variability of these processes, or how these responses might be altered under conditions of changing climate. The work described in this dissertation focuses on the effects of a changing chemical and physical climate, particularly terrestrial N processes (a) during Maine’s changing winters, and (b) in response to chronic elevated N additions.

Subnivean winter soil processes were examined at the Dwight B. DeMerritt Forest (DBDF ...


Atmospheric Change Promotes Increasing Cyanobacteria Dominance In Swedish Lakes, Erika Christiane Freeman 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Atmospheric Change Promotes Increasing Cyanobacteria Dominance In Swedish Lakes, Erika Christiane Freeman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The frequency and intensity of cyanobacteria blooms are increasing globally. The interacting effects of environmental drivers, including increased temperature, altered precipitation, reduced acidification-with associated shifts in nutrient limitation- and increased dissolved organic matter loads to lakes are predicted to create favourable environmental conditions for cyanobacteria in northern lakes. This prediction was tested in 28 nutrient-poor Swedish lakes over 16 years (1998-2013). Increases in cyanobacteria abundance were identified in 21% of the study sites, composed mostly of increases in three specific genera: Merismopedia, Chroococcus, and Dolichospermum. Increases in temperature favoured Merismopedia dominance in lakes with low pH and high nitrogen to ...


Yardwork: A Biography Of An Urban Place By Daniel Coleman, Vivian M. Hansen 2018 University of Calgary

Yardwork: A Biography Of An Urban Place By Daniel Coleman, Vivian M. Hansen

The Goose

Review of Daniel Coleman's Yardwork: A Biography of an Urban Place.


Physiological Responses Of The State – Listed Texas Pigtoe To Environmental Stress, Sara M. Rumbelow 2018 University of Texas at Tyler

Physiological Responses Of The State – Listed Texas Pigtoe To Environmental Stress, Sara M. Rumbelow

Biology Theses

Systematic habitat destruction over the last 100 years combined with major anthropogenic stressors such as aquatic contaminants, exotic species, and economic endeavors are driving the decline in freshwater unionid species diversity. Two hundred fifty-seven individual adult Texas pigtoe (Fusconaia askewi) mussels (mean length, mm ± 1 SD; 58.7 ± 13.8) were collected from the upper Sabine river near Hawkins, Texas and taken to the University of Texas at Tyler to evaluate three factors likely impacting mussels in East Texas: siltation (a surrogate for bank erosion), elevated temperature and nitrogen. The impact of siltation was evaluated by burying mussels at two ...


Genetic Diversity In An Invasive Clonal Plant? A Historical And Contemporary Perspective, Elliot D. Weidow 2018 University of New Orleans

Genetic Diversity In An Invasive Clonal Plant? A Historical And Contemporary Perspective, Elliot D. Weidow

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Introduced populations of Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) possess extremely low levels of genetic diversity due to severe bottleneck events and clonal reproduction. While populations elsewhere have been well studied, North American populations of E. crassipes remain understudied. We used Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism markers to assess genetic diversity and population structure in North American E. crassipes populations. Patterns of diversity over the past fifty years were analyzed using herbarium specimens. Furthermore, we sampled populations across the Gulf Coast of the United States throughout a year to determine contemporary genetic diversity and assess potential seasonal effects. Genetic diversity was found to be ...


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