Assisting Nature: Ducks, “Ding” And Du, 2018 Iowa State University
Assisting Nature: Ducks, “Ding” And Du, Arnold G. Van Der Valk
Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications
Jay "Ding" Darling (1876-1962) was a newspaper editorial cartoonist and duck hunter. Because of his pro-conservation cartoons, he had become one America’s most prominent conservationists by the early 1930s. Joseph P. Knapp (1864-1951) was a prominent businessman, philanthropist, conservationist, and duck hunter who, like Darling, had become concerned about the decline of waterfowl populations. Both worked to reverse this duck decline. Darling was appointed chief of the Bureau of Biological Survey in 1934 by President Franklin Roosevelt. During his short tenure as its chief (1934-1935), he focused the Bureau’s mission more on wildlife conservation and he oversaw the ...
Functions Of Ecosystems: Stream Metabolism As An Efficient And Effective Means To Gage The Health And Understand The Interworking Of Urban Streams In A Watershed Of Rock Island, Il, 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois
Functions Of Ecosystems: Stream Metabolism As An Efficient And Effective Means To Gage The Health And Understand The Interworking Of Urban Streams In A Watershed Of Rock Island, Il, Ryan Johnson, Dr. Kevin Geedey
Celebration of Learning
Stream metabolism is a critical functional measure of stream health that integrates physical parameters like slope and discharge, with ecosystem functions like photosynthesis and respiration. Stream metabolism is widely studied; however, urban stream metabolism remains poorly understood. Stream metabolism was measured for five streams ranging from 1st to 5th orders from October 11th to October 18th 2017 and four streams ranging from 1st to 4th order from October 22nd to 25th 2017 located within an approximately 9.3 square kilometer watershed of Rock Island, IL that has an urban to suburban type ...
Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender
Student Theses 2015-Present
This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...
The Distribution, Abundance, And Gut Microbiome Of Ribbed Mussel, Geukensia Demissa, Across Natural And Restored Salt Marshes In Jamaica Bay, New York, Bethany Freynk
Coastal wetlands perform valuable functions by protecting shorelines from floodwaters and storm surges, providing habitats for marine species, and improving local water quality. Unfortunately, over half of the area of global wetlands has been lost over the past century. Locally, in Jamaica Bay (Queens, NY), loss of wetlands has exceeded 98%. Restoration of Jamaica Bay marshes began in 2003. Ribbed mussels, Geukensia demissa, live symbiotically with marsh plants and have been shown to stabilize sediments and provide organic nutrients that enhance marsh plant growth. Mussels are suspension feeders, which collect algae from seawater and deposit organic matter in marsh sediments ...
Secrets Of A Rare Bird: Breeding Behavior Of The Gray-Breasted Flycatcher (Lathrotriccus Griseipectus) In Ecuador, 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville
Secrets Of A Rare Bird: Breeding Behavior Of The Gray-Breasted Flycatcher (Lathrotriccus Griseipectus) In Ecuador, William Harris Kirkpatrick
EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement
The Tumbesian region of southwestern Ecuador and northwestern Peru is home to a large number of endemic bird species. Many of these species are threatened with extinction, and little is known about their basic biology. Thus, information regarding natural history of species in the region is needed to guide conservation management. We studied the reproductive biology of the Gray-breasted Flycatcher, Lathrotriccus griseipectus, a small Tyrannid that lives in the Tumbesian region. Due to habitat destruction, the range size of L. griseipectus has dwindled and the species is now listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. We used a mounted ...
Larval-Ant Interactions In The Mojave Desert: Communication Brings Us Together, 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Larval-Ant Interactions In The Mojave Desert: Communication Brings Us Together, Alicia Mellor
UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones
Butterflies are a diverse and essential group of pollinators whose abundance is predominantly determined by growth and survival of their larvae. In the family Lycaenidae, many species participate in a larval-ant mutualism where ants feed on nutrient-rich nectar produced by larvae and, in turn, protect those larvae from predators. Emerging evidence indicates larval scent in the form of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), not nectar production, drives this interaction. This study takes two approaches to investigate CHCs as the driver behind the larval-ant mutualism in three butterfly species native to southern Nevada: Euphilotes bernardino martini (Martin’s blue), Brephidium exilis (western pygmy ...
Marine-Derived Nutrient Cycling In The St. Croix River, Maine, 2018 University of Maine
Marine-Derived Nutrient Cycling In The St. Croix River, Maine, Betsy Barber
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Anadromous species can boost freshwater productivity through nutrient subsidies. Along the Maine coast of the northeast United States, several alewife populations are recovering after freshwater connectivity is restored. Iteroparity in this part of their range may reduce their role as nutrient subsidies. Stable isotope analysis was used to detect marine-derived nutrient input. Spatial and temporal trends were characterized in the St. Croix as a baseline before alewife recovery, and nutrient-diffusing substrates indicated nutrient co-limitation. A reference watershed was used to compare nutrient dynamics when alewives were present versus absent. Results indicated isotope shifts within particular functional feeding groups, but not ...
Changes In Soil Microbial Functioning In Coastal Wetlands Exposed To Environmental Stressors And Subsidies, 2018 Florida International University
Changes In Soil Microbial Functioning In Coastal Wetlands Exposed To Environmental Stressors And Subsidies, Shelby M. Servais
FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Environmental perturbations are ubiquitous features of ecosystems and shape ecological structure and function. Climate change will alter the intensity and frequency of disturbances and expose ecosystems to novel combinations of useful inputs (subsidies) and harmful inputs (stressors). Coastal wetlands are particularly vulnerable to changing environmental conditions and are increasingly exposed to effects of interacting subsidies and stressors. In particular, the Florida Coastal Everglades, which has experienced accelerated change due to a history of water management practices, is vulnerable to new disturbances associated with climate change. The low-lying Florida Everglades faces multiple disturbances from storm surge, nutrient enrichment, and sea-level rise ...
Habitat Associations And Detectability Of Three Unionid Species Along The Upper Sabine River In East Texas, 2018 University of Texas at Tyler
Habitat Associations And Detectability Of Three Unionid Species Along The Upper Sabine River In East Texas, Jared Dickson
East Texas contains the highest diversity of mussels in the state. Of the 37 species in East Texas, six are listed by the state as threatened and three have been proposed for listing as threatened or endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Although diverse, mussel populations are declining and few studies exist that establish habitat relationships identifying determinants of mussel distributions in the upper Sabine River. I explored potential habitat preferences of three state listed species using an occupancy modeling approach, including the: Texas Pigtoe, Fusconaia askewi, Sandbank Pocketbook, Lampsilis satura, and Texas Heelsplitter, Potamilus amphicaenus. Thirty sites ...
Impervious Surface And Macroinvertebrates In The South Atlanta Metropolitan Area, 2018 Clayton State University
Impervious Surface And Macroinvertebrates In The South Atlanta Metropolitan Area, Christopher H. Kodani
Georgia Journal of Science
Studies utilizing volunteer stream monitoring data are rare, particularly in in the Atlanta metropolitan area. This study investigated how the macroinvertebrate communities of 20 different stream sites in the south metropolitan Atlanta area were affected by the imperviousness of their surrounding watersheds. These sites were in a diverse landscape which included forests, wetlands, suburban day-use parks, and parking lots. Percentage impervious surface area was measured using Geographical Information System (GIS) analysis. Macroinvertebrates were collected using Georgia Adopt-A-Stream’s volunteer monitoring protocols, and a water quality index (WQI) was calculated from these data. The relationship between WQI and imperviousness was curvilinear ...
Sulfur Cave (Romania), An Extreme Environment With Microbial Mats In A Co2-H2S/O2 Gas Chemocline Dominated By Mycobacteria, 2018 California State University, Chico
Sulfur Cave (Romania), An Extreme Environment With Microbial Mats In A Co2-H2S/O2 Gas Chemocline Dominated By Mycobacteria, Serban M. Sarbu, Joost W. Aerts, Jean-François Flot, Rob J.M. Van Spanning, Calin Baciu, Artur Ionescu, Boglárka M. Kis, Reka Incze, Sándor Sikó-Barabási, Zoltan Para, Botond Hegyeli, Nicu-Viorel Atudorei, Casey Barr, Kenneth Nealson, Ferenc L. Forray, Cristian Lascu, Emily J. Fleming, Wilbert Bitter, Radu Popa
International Journal of Speleology
Sulfur Cave (Puturosu Mountain, Romania) is an extreme environment, unique for displaying life in a gas chemocline. The lower part of the cave is filled with CO2, CH4, and H2S of mofettic origin, while the upper part contains air that floats above the heavier volcanic gasses. S° and H2SO4 (from sulfur-oxidation) cover the cave wall at and below the CO2-H2S:O2 gas/gas interface. On the cave wall, near the interface the pH is < 1 and unusual microbial biofilms occur on the rock’s surface. We provide context information on the geology, mineralogy, chemistry and biology to better understand this unique environment. We have used X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with EDAX capabilities, stable isotope analysis and 16S and 18S rDNA amplicon sequencing. The most common taxa in the microbial biofilms are Mycobacteria, Acidithiobacillus and Ferroplasmaceae. Liquid water in this system originates solely from condensation of water ...
Juvenile Amphibian Response To Oak And Maple Leaf Litter, 2018 University of Connecticut - Storrs
Juvenile Amphibian Response To Oak And Maple Leaf Litter, Benjamin Breslau
Honors Scholar Theses
The composition of tree species within New England forests has changed significantly in recent decades, with an increase in maple (Acer spp.) abundance and a decrease in oak (Quercus spp.) abundance. Changing forest structure results in changing leaf litter composition of the forest floor, which influences the ground-dwelling amphibians that live in the litter. To better understand how changes to forest composition alters amphibian habitat quality, we recorded the growth and survival of 27 juvenile wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus or Rana sylvatica) and 27 juvenile American toads (Anaxyrus americanus) in response to leaf litter type. Between early August and late ...
Population Dynamics Of The Threatened Staghorn Coral, Acropora Cervicornis, And The Development Of A Species-Specific Monitoring Protocol, 2018 Nova Southeastern University
Population Dynamics Of The Threatened Staghorn Coral, Acropora Cervicornis, And The Development Of A Species-Specific Monitoring Protocol, Elizabeth Goergen
HCNSO Student Theses and Dissertations
Historically, Acropora cervicornis was found in high densities on many Caribbean, Florida, and Gulf of Mexico reefs. A disease outbreak in the late 1970s and 80s caused up to 99% loss of A. cervicornis cover at some sites, leaving populations sparsely distributed throughout its range and typically found as isolated colonies. Even though populations are depauperate causing a decrease in sexual reproduction, its fast growth rate and ability to reproduce through asexual fragmentation affords this species the potential for quick recovery and population growth. However, limited to no natural recovery has been documented. Many of these populations are poorly studied ...
Reproductive Effort And Lipid Dynamics Of The Emerald Shiner (Notropis Atherinoides) In The Upper Niagara River, New York, 2018 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College
Reproductive Effort And Lipid Dynamics Of The Emerald Shiner (Notropis Atherinoides) In The Upper Niagara River, New York, Christopher A. Osborne
Life history theory predicts that reproductive characteristics of organisms will be shaped by biotic and abiotic factors to maximize their overall fitness. In this study, I investigated how growth, reproductive effort, and lipid dynamics vary ontogenetically and seasonally for emerald shiners (Notropis atherinoides) in the upper Niagara River. Growth rates were highest in age 2 shiners and lower in age 1 and age 3 individuals. Evidence of reproduction was found beginning at age 1, and reproductive investment as measured by ovarian lipid content was lowest in age 1 and age 2 individuals and greatest in age 3 fish. All age ...
Big Data For Small Parks: Examining Regional Vegetation Patterns To Assess The Current Condition And Vulnerability Of Eastern National Parks To Climate Change, Kathryn M. Miller
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The United States National Park Service mission is to preserve natural and cultural resources unimpaired for future generations. Given climate change, the paradigm of restoring natural resources to their pre-European settlement condition is no longer appropriate or achievable management. Instead, we must promote resilience and plan for adaptation. This approach poses many challenges, including knowledge gaps about the current condition of park ecosystems including wetlands, and lack of information about the matrix surrounding parks, which will strongly influence park ecosystem response to climate change. My dissertation research focused on filling these knowledge gaps to provide much needed information to managers ...
Detrital Protein Contributes To Oyster Nutrition And Growth In The Damariscotta Estuary, Maine, Usa, 2018 University of Maine School of Marine Science, Darling Marine Center
Detrital Protein Contributes To Oyster Nutrition And Growth In The Damariscotta Estuary, Maine, Usa, Cheyenne M. Adams
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Oyster aquaculture is an expanding industry that relies on identifying and utilizing natural estuarine conditions for the economically viable production of a filter-feeding crop. The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, is the principal species currently cultured in Maine. In addition to preferentially consumed phytoplankton, various detrital complexes (non-algal and/or non-living organic matter) may provide some nutrition to C. virginica between times of phytoplankton abundance. Here I investigated the importance of detrital proteins in supporting the growth of oysters cultured in the upper Damariscotta Estuary. Oyster aquaculture in this area is highly successful and previous reports indicate that labile detrital protein ...
Wildlife Use Of Vernal Pools In An Urbanizing Landscape With A Focus On Population Vitality Of Vernal Pool-Breeding Amphibians, Carly Jasmine Eakin Phd
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Vernal pools in the northeastern United States provide essential habitat for pool-breeding amphibians and provide resources for other forest-dwelling wildlife. These pools and pool-breeding amphibians in particular are threatened by land conversion associated with urbanization and urban-associated factors. The responses of these amphibians and of birds and mammals using vernal pools to intermediate levels of urban development are largely unknown. I used field observations and lab experiments to study the amphibians, birds, and mammals associated with vernal pools along an urban development gradient in greater Bangor, Maine.
In Chapter 1, I examined bird and mammal use and assemblage composition at ...
Nutrient Limitation Of Algal Growth In Fishery Lakes, 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Nutrient Limitation Of Algal Growth In Fishery Lakes, Madeline Ludwig
Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses
This study investigated the effect of nutrient addition on algal growth in three United States Forest Service lakes for fishery management in Arkansas. In fishery managed lakes, fertilization works by manipulating algae growth, a basal food resource in lakes, to promote the growth of the fish population. For the nutrient addition experiments, water was collected from each lake in cubitainers and spiked with nutrients; the treatments included the control, nitrogen (+N), phosphorus (+P), and nitrogen and phosphorus (+N +P). When algal growth was visually observed, a water sample was collected from each cubitainer and analyzed for chlorophyll-α. The results showed ...
Recent Climate Warming Drives Ecological Change In A Remote High-Arctic Lake, 2018 INSTAAR, University of Colorado Boulder
Recent Climate Warming Drives Ecological Change In A Remote High-Arctic Lake, Lineke Woelders, Jan Lenaerts, Kimberley Hagemans, Keechy Akkerman, Thomas B. Van Hoof, Wim Z. Hoek
University Libraries Open Access Fund Supported Publications
The high Arctic is the fastest warming region on Earth, evidenced by extreme near-surface temperature increase in non-summer seasons, recent rapid sea ice decline and permafrost melting since the early 1990’s. Understanding the impact of climate change on the sensitive Arctic ecosystem to climate change has so far been hampered by the lack of time-constrained, high-resolution records and by implicit climate data analyses. Here, we show evidence of sharp growth in freshwater green algae as well as distinct diatom assemblage changes since ~1995, retrieved from a high-Arctic (80 °N) lake sediment record on Barentsøya (Svalbard). The proxy record approaches ...
Soil Ecology Of The Exotic Dune Grass Leymus Arenarius., 2018 University of Louisville
Soil Ecology Of The Exotic Dune Grass Leymus Arenarius., Matthew L. Reid
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Exotic plants can alter the structure and function of native communities both above- and belowground, which is particularly important in primary successional sand dune ecosystems where plant-soil interactions are critical drivers of successional dynamics. In Great Lakes sand dunes, the native foundation grass Ammophila breviligulata dominates early in succession until an accumulation of detrimental soil organisms causes its die-back of the grasses. Die-back of this native foundation species can be slowed by mutualistic interactions between plants and mycorrhizal fungi. Changes to the plant community resulting from invasion, and subsequent effects on the soil community have the potential to disrupt the ...