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An Inferentially Robust Look At Two Competing Explanations For The Surge In Unauthorized Migration From Central America, Nick Santos 2021 University of San Diego

An Inferentially Robust Look At Two Competing Explanations For The Surge In Unauthorized Migration From Central America, Nick Santos

Dissertations

The last 8 years have seen a dramatic increase in the flow of Central American apprehensions by the U.S. Border Patrol. Explanations for this surge in apprehensions have been split between two leading hypotheses. Most academic scholars, immigrant advocates, progressive media outlets, and human rights organizations identify poverty and violence (the Poverty and Violence Hypothesis) in Central America as the primary triggers responsible. In contrast, while most government officials, conservative think tanks, and the agencies that work in the immigration and border enforcement realm admit poverty and violence may underlie some decisions to migrate, they instead blame lax U ...


How The Level Of Job Complexity Impacts The Gender Wage Gap Across Occupations, Zytlaly Magaña Corona 2021 California State University – San Bernardino

How The Level Of Job Complexity Impacts The Gender Wage Gap Across Occupations, Zytlaly Magaña Corona

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The present study focused on unpacking the social and structural aspects of job complexity to better understand its effects on the gender wage gap. Previous research on the job complexity-compensation dynamic has primarily focused on cognitive complexity. Job complexity across occupations were examined using work activity data from O*NET and merging it with the Current Population Survey data sponsored by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (N=67,003). Results revealed that higher complexity jobs in this study yielded greater wage disparities across different occupations as predicted. Furthermore, physical activities and gaining knowledge from the Generalized Work Activities ...


Brain Drain In Mississippi, Clifford Adam Conner 2021 University of Mississippi

Brain Drain In Mississippi, Clifford Adam Conner

Honors Theses

Brain drain is the out-migration of educated individuals from an area. It is a problem with which Mississippi is overly familiar. This thesis uses data gathered from a survey of 965 respondents to identify who is leaving the state and for what reasons. The data gathered suggest confirmation that brain drain is an issue for the state, with roughly two-thirds of respondents having left the state or seriously considering doing so. The impetus for this varies with each individual, but respondents underscore economic and societal factors within Mississippi as pushing them away from the state. Quality of life factors are ...


Are Small Businesses The Framework For A Successful U.S. Economy?, Carson Clevenger 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Are Small Businesses The Framework For A Successful U.S. Economy?, Carson Clevenger

Accounting Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis will investigate the impact of small businesses on the United States’ economy. I will be assessing several impact areas including gross domestic product, employment, and local economy contribution. This thesis will cover a study from the time periods of 1998-2014 of the gross domestic product and employment levels and will use numbers from the years of 2018- present for other impact areas. Furthermore, I will be analyzing certain sectors of the economy, comparing small businesses contribution to corporate contribution, in order to discuss if small businesses are necessary for our country’s successful economy.


An Assessment Of The Economic Conditions In The City Of Battle Creek, Kathleen Bolter, Jim Robey, Gerrit Anderson 2021 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

An Assessment Of The Economic Conditions In The City Of Battle Creek, Kathleen Bolter, Jim Robey, Gerrit Anderson

Reports

The city of Battle Creek offers current and future residents many benefits including a lower cost of living, growing health care and manufacturing sectors, and relatively high wages for the region. At the same time, the city of Battle Creek, like many small-sized midwestern cities, faces many challenges. Its workforce is shrinking and aging. Residents lack the educational attainment needed to compete in the twenty-first-century economy. And, economic, social, racial, and ethnic divisions exist within the city. Together, these issues could risk the ability of the City of Battle Creek to reach a new level of competitiveness and attract new ...


Youth Disconnection During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Mark Borgschulte, Yuci Chen 2021 University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

Youth Disconnection During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Mark Borgschulte, Yuci Chen

Upjohn Institute Policy and Research Briefs

No abstract provided.


Youth Disconnection During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Mark Borgschulte, Yuci Chen 2021 University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

Youth Disconnection During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Mark Borgschulte, Yuci Chen

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

This paper studies the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on youth disconnection—i.e., the share of young people who were neither in school nor at work. Youth disconnection offers important advantages, relative to unemployment or participation rates, as a measure of the labor market for the most marginal and disadvantaged youth. Before the pandemic, approximately one out of eight young people between the ages of 18 and 24 were disconnected. The disconnection rate increased dramatically in April 2020 because of the pandemic; however, it has decreased quickly since that time. The increase in the disconnection rate at the beginning ...


Community Health Assessment: Kalamazoo, Kathleen Bolter, Jim Robey, Gerrit Anderson 2021 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

Community Health Assessment: Kalamazoo, Kathleen Bolter, Jim Robey, Gerrit Anderson

Reports

No abstract provided.


Community Health Assessment: Van Buren County, Kathleen Bolter, Jim Robey, Gerrit Anderson 2021 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

Community Health Assessment: Van Buren County, Kathleen Bolter, Jim Robey, Gerrit Anderson

Reports

No abstract provided.


Ward 7 And The Hough Neighborhood: Insights From Regional And Local Data, Jim Robey 2021 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

Ward 7 And The Hough Neighborhood: Insights From Regional And Local Data, Jim Robey

Reports

No abstract provided.


Impact Estimates For The Freshwater Center, Jim Robey 2021 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

Impact Estimates For The Freshwater Center, Jim Robey

Reports

Lake Superior State University, in support of a U.S. Economic Development Administration (EDA) grant application, asked the Regional and Economic Planning Services Team at the W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research (Upjohn) to estimate the economic impact of building and operating the Freshwater Center (Center) in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan.


Impact Estimates For Fort Custer Multi-Tenant Industrial Space, Jim Robey 2021 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

Impact Estimates For Fort Custer Multi-Tenant Industrial Space, Jim Robey

Reports

In support of a grant application to be submitted to the U.S. Economic Development Administration (EDA), Battle Creek Unlimited (BCU) asked the Regional and Economic Planning Services Team at the W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research (Upjohn) to estimate the economic impact of the building and operations of a multi-tenant industrial incubator in Battle Creek, Michigan.


Workforce And Demographic Profile Of Berrien, Cass, And Van Buren Counties, Jim Robey 2021 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

Workforce And Demographic Profile Of Berrien, Cass, And Van Buren Counties, Jim Robey

Reports

The Whirlpool Corporation, located in Benton Harbor Charter Township, asked the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research to develop a dashboard of indicators portraying the current and future (where possible) “economic” health of the region.


Mccamly Plaza Economic Impact Report, Jim Robey 2021 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

Mccamly Plaza Economic Impact Report, Jim Robey

Reports

In August of 2020, leadership at Battle Creek Unlimited (BCU) requested that the Regional and Economic Planning Services Team at the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research (Upjohn) create a set of estimates for the renovation and operation of the McCamly Plaza Hotel and Plaza located in downtown Battle Creek.


How College Enrollment Changed For Kalamazoo Promise Students Between Fall 2019 And Fall 2020, Daniel A. Collier, Isabel McMullen, Brad J. Hershbein 2021 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

How College Enrollment Changed For Kalamazoo Promise Students Between Fall 2019 And Fall 2020, Daniel A. Collier, Isabel Mcmullen, Brad J. Hershbein

Upjohn Institute Policy Papers

The COVID-19 pandemic greatly reduced the college enrollment rate for students during the Fall 2020 semester. National data show that although enrollment of new students declined overall, it varied substantially by institution type and student characteristics. What national data do not reveal is how certain communities with already high college-going rates responded to the pandemic. We use data from Kalamazoo Public Schools (KPS) and the tuition-free program the Kalamazoo Promise to compare the immediate college enrollment of graduating high school students from the class of 2019 to that of the class of 2020. Overall, immediate college enrollment of KPS graduates ...


Trade And Informality In The Presence Of Labor Market Frictions And Regulations, Rafael Dix-Carneiro, Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg, Costas Meghir, Gabriel Ulyssea 2021 Duke University

Trade And Informality In The Presence Of Labor Market Frictions And Regulations, Rafael Dix-Carneiro, Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg, Costas Meghir, Gabriel Ulyssea

Upjohn Institute Working Papers

We build an equilibrium model of a small open economy with labor market frictions and imperfectly enforced regulations. Heterogeneous firms sort into the formal or informal sector. We estimate the model using data from Brazil, and use counterfactual simulations to understand how trade affects economic outcomes in the presence of informality. We show the following: 1) Trade openness unambiguously decreases informality in the tradable sector but has ambiguous effects on aggregate informality. 2) The productivity gains from trade are understated when the informal sector is omitted. 3) Trade openness results in large welfare gains even when informality is repressed. 4 ...


Essays On Exchange Rate Shocks And The Political Economy Of Local Fiscal Policy In Brazil, Raphael Rocha Gouvea 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Essays On Exchange Rate Shocks And The Political Economy Of Local Fiscal Policy In Brazil, Raphael Rocha Gouvea

Doctoral Dissertations

Do exchange rate shocks have distributional consequences? Does employment respond to exchange rate shocks? Do political parties matter when it comes to governing cities? Each chapter of this dissertation attempts to answer one of these questions in the Brazilian context. In the first chapter, titled Large devaluations and inflation inequality: evidence from Brazil, I show that prices of tradable goods/lower-priced varieties increase significantly more than the prices of nontradables/higher-priced varieties. These relative price changes may lead to inflation inequality when household consumption baskets are different across the distribution of income. Using Cravino and Levchenko (2017)'s methodology, we ...


Covid-19’S Impacts On The Labor Market In 2020, Brad J. Hershbein, Harry J. Holzer 2021 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

Covid-19’S Impacts On The Labor Market In 2020, Brad J. Hershbein, Harry J. Holzer

Employment Research Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Making The Child Care Tax Credit Permanently Refundable Could Benefit Low-Income Families, Gabrielle Pepin 2021 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research

Making The Child Care Tax Credit Permanently Refundable Could Benefit Low-Income Families, Gabrielle Pepin

Employment Research Newsletter

No abstract provided.


Bedford County Economic Needs Assessment, Dennis Burnside, Jim Robey, Brian Pittelko 2021 Juniper Solutions

Bedford County Economic Needs Assessment, Dennis Burnside, Jim Robey, Brian Pittelko

Reports

Bedford County Development Association (BCDA) engaged Juniper Solutions (“Juniper”) and The W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research (“Upjohn”), collectively the “Team,” to study the current economic conditions of Bedford County to assess potential opportunities from a workforce development and commercial real estate perspective. As part of this effort, the initial process entailed creating a baseline assessment leveraging a multitude of data sources, ranging from U.S. Census Bureau to subscription-based platforms like CoStar for commercial real estate and BurningGlass for job posting metrics. During the quantitative data collection, the the Team also met with stakeholders including public officials, County ...


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