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Three Essays On Public Policy And Welfare In Developing Countries, Alvaro Jeronimo Callejas 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Three Essays On Public Policy And Welfare In Developing Countries, Alvaro Jeronimo Callejas

Doctoral Dissertations

Developing countries typically implement public policies that modify the market structure to reach a specific goal. However, in this attempt to achieve a policy objective, policymakers may not consider unintended consequences caused by firms' and consumers' optimizing behavior. Moreover, the reaction of market agents to the implemented policy may undermind its effectiveness or lead to an outcome opposite to the one persuaded. This dissertation uses a set of structural models to assess the welfare effect of both intended and unintended consequences of public policies introduced in developing countries.

In the first chapter, we evaluate the welfare implications of a public ...


Transportation Utility Fee To Fund Transit In California, Shishir Mathur, Ralph Robinson 2022 San Jose State University

Transportation Utility Fee To Fund Transit In California, Shishir Mathur, Ralph Robinson

Mineta Transportation Institute Publications

Public transit is a key tool to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to combat climate change; improve safety for pedestrians, cyclists, and drivers; and expand accessibility and mobility for all. However, we can only realize this potential by making sufficient investments to provide transit service levels that attract and retain greater ridership. To help with this needed investment, a handful of local governments have turned to transportation utility fees (TUFs), primarily collected as a monthly charge on customers' utility bills or property tax bills. While more widely used to support street maintenance, this study identifies six case studies where TUF ...


The Voluntary Carbon Market: Managing The Private Provision Of Public Goods, Atticus Maloney 2022 Swarthmore College

The Voluntary Carbon Market: Managing The Private Provision Of Public Goods, Atticus Maloney

Gettysburg College Headquarters

While much work has examined the large-scale compliance-based carbon offset programs associated with the Kyoto Protocol and Clean Development Mechanism, there has been far less focus on the voluntary purchasing of carbon offsets. This critical literature review will look at the formation and management of the demand for voluntary carbon offsets within the United States. It will frame carbon offsets as impure public goods and review possible explanations as to why private provision has been so active in the U.S. market. The paper will then survey the efficiency gains and other benefits associated with the voluntary market. It will ...


Strengthening The Southern Nevada Workforce Pipeline, Katie M. Gilbertson 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Strengthening The Southern Nevada Workforce Pipeline, Katie M. Gilbertson

Student Papers / Brookings Minor Culminating Projects

Workforce development has been a keystone in the discussion of economic diversification of Las Vegas for decades. The leisure and hospitality industry is the lifeline for the Southern Nevada economy due to the reliance on tourism as the city’s main economic driver. The leisure and hospitality industry requires physical labor and more face-to-face customer interaction than other employment sectors. Thus, these jobs often do not require high educational attainment, but rather sharp soft skills like effective listening, nonverbal communication, and negotiation strategies. While these are valuable traits, the lack of educational attainment within the leisure and hospitality workforce suppresses ...


On The Impact Of Social Spending On Long-Term Economic Performance In The Usa, Jiayong Lu 2022 William & Mary

On The Impact Of Social Spending On Long-Term Economic Performance In The Usa, Jiayong Lu

Undergraduate Honors Theses

This paper analyzes the dynamics of social spending and long-term economic performance in the United States from 1949-2019 using vector autoregression models. It breaks down social spending into six disaggregate programs to identify if different social programs have similar effects on the economy. Overall, the study finds that social spending increases private savings and the unemployment rate. Due to its dominant distortionary effects on the labor market, social spending decreases GDP. These effects are mostly short-term effects. The economic effects of the different social spending programs on the economy are similar in direction but different in magnitude. The effects of ...


Public Policy, Economic Development, And Taxes: An Impact Analysis Of Business Incentive Strategies At The State And Local Level, Richard Nanney 2022 Clemson University

Public Policy, Economic Development, And Taxes: An Impact Analysis Of Business Incentive Strategies At The State And Local Level, Richard Nanney

All Dissertations

In an effort to promote economic development, state-level policymakers have exercised discretion over the use of public money to incentivize subsidy packages for decades. Estimates suggest state governments spend approximately $50 billion annually on these initiatives. However, there has been little empirical research about the political and economic benefits received by local residents from these subsidy programs. This dissertation analyzes the effectiveness of state subsidy policy by considering induced economic spillover effects and population attrition rates. It examines how subsidy distribution is related to employment rates, average weekly wages, and population attrition. The project offers two methodological innovations. First, to ...


Essays On Delegation And Voter Preferences, Cory Simpkins 2022 Clemson University

Essays On Delegation And Voter Preferences, Cory Simpkins

All Dissertations

Chapter 1 examines delegation and communication as strategies in coordination games with uncertainty and social preferences. I construct a model where other-regarding partners attempt to coordinate over a binary choice with privately known utilities. Players can choose to either communicate by signaling their preferences or delegate the choice entirely to their partner. I characterize equilibrium behavior under various assumptions on information transmission and coordination risk. If coordination is risky, there is a type of "first mover advantage" where the first player to communicate her own-preference guarantees her ideal outcome when communication is honest revelation. When preference signals are cheap talk ...


Policy Complementarities Between And Within Jurisdictions: The Case Of Alcohol Consumption And Driving, Tabitha Knott 2022 Clemson University

Policy Complementarities Between And Within Jurisdictions: The Case Of Alcohol Consumption And Driving, Tabitha Knott

All Dissertations

Federalism allows multiple levels of government, such as counties, states, and nations, to control the same territory. The result is often differentiated policies across smaller jurisdictions, which inevitably create spillovers when goods can be purchased in one locality and not in another. The first chapter discusses how each of the subsequent chapters are related using this context.

The second chapter investigates how one jurisdiction's policy may diffuse across neighboring jurisdictions to mitigate spillover effects using evidence from Texas. Texas is one of 34 states that allow local jurisdictions to determine alcohol policies and regulations via local option referenda. A ...


Essays On Bank Performance, Strategic Behavior, And Community Development With A Focus On Minority Depository Institutions And The Political Economy Of Forgiving Student Loans, Guncha Babajanova 2022 Clemson University

Essays On Bank Performance, Strategic Behavior, And Community Development With A Focus On Minority Depository Institutions And The Political Economy Of Forgiving Student Loans, Guncha Babajanova

All Dissertations

I explore questions related to financial institutions, the accessibility of financial services, community development, and the political economy of forgiving student loans using the ideas from spatial economics, industrial organization, and public choice. Increased access to financial services improves the economic outcomes of individuals and firms in the community. Understanding sources leading to a lower accessibility of financial services is integral for an effective endeavor to lower barriers to financial services with far-reaching policy and economic implications. The economic literature provides evidence of the beneficial effects of increased access to financial services as well as the adverse effects of diminished ...


The Effect Of Quantitative Easing On U.S. Stock Prices And Wealth Inequality, Griffin W. Phillips 2022 University of Lynchburg

The Effect Of Quantitative Easing On U.S. Stock Prices And Wealth Inequality, Griffin W. Phillips

Student Scholar Showcase

My thesis will investigate and try to find a casual relationship between Quantitative Easing, or “QE”, and the U.S. stock market since 2003. The secondary effects will then be investigated to see if stock prices impact wealth inequality. To find the causal relationship between the two a regression model will be used. It predicts the magnitude of effects for QE and other variables that may impact stock prices. Since 2007-2009, the Federal Reserve has used QE as a means to spur economic growth. This expansionary monetary policy has impacted many financial markets including the U.S. stock market. Finding ...


Housing Wealth Shocks, Home Equity Withdrawal, And The Claiming Of Social Security Retirement Benefits, Naqun HUANG, Li JING, Amanda ROSS 2022 Nanjing Audit University

Housing Wealth Shocks, Home Equity Withdrawal, And The Claiming Of Social Security Retirement Benefits, Naqun Huang, Li Jing, Amanda Ross

Research Collection School Of Economics

This paper examines the impact of changes in house prices on when eligible individuals start receiving Social Security benefits. If house prices increase, financially constrained households may draw upon the additional home equity to finance expenses and delay receipt of Social Security in order to have increased lifetime monthly benefits. To address concerns that house price changes are correlated with unobserved local demand shocks, we use a control function approach and employ two different instrumental variables. We find that individuals delay Social Security claiming when house prices increase during the housing boom. The probability of claiming within two years after ...


Feeling The Heat? Fear Of Failure And Performance, Alberto Chong, Marco Chong 2022 Georgia State University

Feeling The Heat? Fear Of Failure And Performance, Alberto Chong, Marco Chong

CSLF Working Papers

Using a new, objective measure, we study the role of fear of failure in performance and find that it is positively linked with the latter, a finding that tends to contradict the conventional wisdom in both psychology and behavioral economics. We use individual data from the nationally syndicated television show MasterChef for the years 2010 to 2020 and exploit situations in which contestants are on the verge of being dropped from competition. Using ordinary least squares, we show that extreme fear of failure is associated with an increase of two to four positions in the final placement of the competition.


Slices Of The Big Apple: A Visual Explanation And Analysis Of The New York City Budget, Joanne Ramadani 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Slices Of The Big Apple: A Visual Explanation And Analysis Of The New York City Budget, Joanne Ramadani

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

As a component of government, budgets are fundamental not only to improving the quality of a shared society, but also to understanding what our government officials consider to be their priorities. However, most budgets can be difficult to understand, using terms that are not familiar to people who have not studied finance or economics. To that end, Slices of the Big Apple is an interactive, centralized narrative website that uses visualizations at its core in order to: 1) facilitate a holistic understanding of the New York City government budget for NYC residents; and 2) conduct a five-year analysis of Community ...


Waqf Fund Management Through Micro Waqf Bank Program In Indonesia, Fachry Ganiardi Danuwijaya, Nurwahidin M.Ag 2022 Universitas Indonesia

Waqf Fund Management Through Micro Waqf Bank Program In Indonesia, Fachry Ganiardi Danuwijaya, Nurwahidin M.Ag

Journal of Strategic and Global Studies

Waqf is a muamalah activity that has a very important economic and social role in Islamic history. Waqf is one of solutions to the problem of poverty and social inequality in society. The establishment of the Micro Waqf Bank initiated by the government together with the Financial Services Authority (OJK) has played an important role as one of the new Islamic microfinance institutions in financial inclusion in Indonesia. This paper will discuss how the management of waqf funds through the Islamic Waqf Bank program based on pesantren in efforts to alleviate poverty and social inequality which has become a chronic ...


Municipal Fiber In The United States: A Financial Assessment, Christopher S. Yoo, Jesse Lambert, Timothy P. Pfenninger 2022 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Municipal Fiber In The United States: A Financial Assessment, Christopher S. Yoo, Jesse Lambert, Timothy P. Pfenninger

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Despite growing interest in broadband provided by municipally owned and operated fiber-to-the-home networks, the academic literature has yet to undertake a systematic assessment of these projects’ financial performance. To fill this gap, we utilize municipalities’ official reports to offer an empirical evaluation of the financial performance of every municipal fiber project in the U.S. operating in 2010 through 2019. An analysis of the actual performance of the resulting fifteen-project panel dataset reveals that none of the projects generated sufficient nominal cash flow in the short run to maintain solvency without infusions of additional cash from outside sources or debt ...


Prospects For Valuation In Marine Decision Making In Europe, Rob Tinch, Stephen Hynes, Claire Armstrong, Wenting Chen 2022 eftec

Prospects For Valuation In Marine Decision Making In Europe, Rob Tinch, Stephen Hynes, Claire Armstrong, Wenting Chen

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

There is now high-level recognition that the UN Sustainable Development Goals can only be achieved if the decline of ecosystems and biodiversity can be halted and reversed. This will require effective control of ongoing pressures, meaningful protection and enforcement of protected areas, and significant investments in ecosystem restoration. This paper explores the possible use of economic valuation and appraisal in achieving these goals in marine systems and discusses the European marine policy instruments where they should have an important role The paper first briefly reviews the tools of economic valuation and appraisal for marine ecosystem management. A critique of the ...


From Monterey To Galway: Evolution Of The Oceans In National Income Accounts, Stephen Hynes, Charles S. Colgan 2022 National University of Ireland-Galway

From Monterey To Galway: Evolution Of The Oceans In National Income Accounts, Stephen Hynes, Charles S. Colgan

Journal of Ocean and Coastal Economics

This paper provides an introduction and overview of selected papers from the 5th International Symposium on the Oceans in National Income Accounts organized by the Socio-Economics Marine Research Unit at the National University of Ireland Galway in March 2021. Eleven papers drawn from the symposium are included in this volume. The papers cover the current status of defining the ocean economy within national accounts, the expansion of ocean accounting to include environmental economic values, and methodological tools to assist the integration.


An Empirical Investigation Of Real Farm Incomes Across Indian States Between 1987-88 And 2011-12, Deepankar Basu, Kartik Misra 2022 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

An Empirical Investigation Of Real Farm Incomes Across Indian States Between 1987-88 And 2011-12, Deepankar Basu, Kartik Misra

Economics Department Working Paper Series

Using unit-level data from various rounds of the Employment and Unemployment Survey of the National Sample Survey Organisation, we present the first consistent time series of average real farm income per cultivator for 18 major Indian states for 1987-88, 1993-94, 1999-00, 2004-05, 2007-08, 2009-10, and 2011-12. Using this data, we study two sets of issues. First, how did real farm income evolve across these 18 Indian states? Which states have high levels and growth rates of real farm incomes? Is there any evidence for convergence of real farm incomes across Indian states? We find evidence for unconditional convergence, which suggests ...


Local Revenue Development In Egypt / الإيرادات المحلية في مصر, Adel El Hemaily, Heba Yousry, Mohamed Hesham, Nada Bedir, Riham Soliman 2022 American University in Cairo

Local Revenue Development In Egypt / الإيرادات المحلية في مصر, Adel El Hemaily, Heba Yousry, Mohamed Hesham, Nada Bedir, Riham Soliman

Papers, Posters, and Presentations

Local administration in Egypt faces several challenges that hinder fulfilling its responsibilities towards citizens sufficiently. The main challenges are the lack of financial resources due to over-regulation as well as the non-enforcement of laws and regulations that allow the local administration to collect its own tax share, the local administration staff’s lack of skills to manage and develop revenue sources, and lack of accountability mechanisms. This policy paper seeks to propose policies to aid the local administration in increasing its financial resources.

In this paper, the authors depended on desk research as well as interviews held with officials from ...


Complexity, Diversity And Integration: Evidence From Recent Us Immigration, Noé Wiener 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Complexity, Diversity And Integration: Evidence From Recent Us Immigration, Noé Wiener

Economics Department Working Paper Series

This article proposes alternative measures of immigrant integration founded in information theory. By considering differences in the heterogeneity of outcomes between immigrants and natives, the proposed measures provide robust and non-parametric estimates of the extent to which cohorts remain defined by their national origin. Integration is furthermore premised on equality in the association between economic characteristics and incomes, so that other factors can begin to shape outcomes for im-migrants and natives alike. Results for successive immigrant cohorts in the post-war era are presented using Census income data for the United States. The speed by which the mark of migration on ...


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