Dual-Axis Solar Tracker, 2020 Central Washington University

#### Dual-Axis Solar Tracker, Bryan Kennedy

*All Undergraduate Projects*

Renewable energies, and fuels that are not fossil fuel-based, are one of the prolific topics of debate in modern society. With climate change now becoming a primary focus for scientists and innovators of today, one of the areas for the largest amount of potential and growth is that of the capturing and utilization of Solar Energy. This method involves using a mechanical system to track the progression of the sun as it traverses the sky throughout the day. A dual-axis solar tracker such as the one designed and built for this project, can follow the sun both azimuthally and in ...

Polarization Of Majorana Fermions In A Background Current, 2020 University of Puget Sound

#### Polarization Of Majorana Fermions In A Background Current, Lukas Karoly, David C. Latimer

*Summer Research*

A Majorana fermion is a particle which is its own antiparticle. As a consequence, their electromagnetic interactions are minimal. Because of this, they are a good candidate for dark matter with their sole static electromagnetic property being their anapole moment. The annihilation rate of Majorana fermions depends on whether their anapole moments are aligned (polarized) or anti-aligned (unpolarized). It is therefore important to understand how Majorana fermions polarize to better understand their annihilation rates. This can help us further understand and detect dark matter. Using Feynman diagrams, we calculate the cross section for the interaction between a Majorana fermion and ...

Production Of Entangled Photons Via Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion, 2020 Bard College

#### Production Of Entangled Photons Via Spontaneous Parametric Down-Conversion, Logan P. Kaelbling

*Senior Projects Spring 2020*

Quantum entanglement, a phenomenon in which the behavior of one particle is somehow immediately correlated with and informed by what is happening to a partner particle a long distance away, has been a pivotal part of the formulation of quantum theory as we know it today and is currently generating many promising avenues of research. As such, finding ways to reliably and inexpensively generate systems of entangled particles for research purposes has become crucial. For my project, I attempt to set up a system that generates energy- and polarization-entangled photons via a technique called spontaneous parametric down conversion. This method ...

Acoustics To Quantum Materials: A Centennial History Of The Department Of Physics, University Of Arkansas, 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

#### Acoustics To Quantum Materials: A Centennial History Of The Department Of Physics, University Of Arkansas, Rajendra Gupta, Paul C. Sharrah

*Physics Faculty Publications and Presentations*

The department of physics at the University of Arkansas was established in the 1907-08 academic year, although physics was taught from the very start of the University in 1872. The department celebrated its centennial in 2007-2008. *Acoustics to Quantum Materials* is a centennial history of the department covering the period 1907-08 to 2007-08. While the emphasis is on this period, instruction of physics over the period 1872-1907 is covered in two prologues, and the period 2009-18 is briefly covered in an epilogue. The first research laboratory to be established was in the area of acoustics. Subsequently, the department’s faculty ...

Development Of Quantum Information Tools Based On Multi-Photon Raman Processes In Rb Vapor, 2020 William & Mary - Arts & Sciences

#### Development Of Quantum Information Tools Based On Multi-Photon Raman Processes In Rb Vapor, Nikunjkumar Prajapati

*Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects*

Multi-photon nonlinear processes in atoms have served as important tools for quantum metrology, quantum communications, and quantum sensing. In this thesis, we experimentally address the interplay of various multi-photon Raman processes in hot Rb vapor, with the four-wave mixing (FWM) process being a central theme. FWM is the nonlinear response of a medium to a strong optical pump ﬁeld inelastically scattering oﬀ atomic resonances and resulting in the generation of additional photons in diﬀerent modes. FWM is a detrimental, but inherent part of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and Raman based quantum memories. However, we were able to weaken the four-photon ...

The Pion Form Factor And Momentum And Angular Momentum Fractions Of The Proton In Lattice Qcd, 2020 University of Kentucky

#### The Pion Form Factor And Momentum And Angular Momentum Fractions Of The Proton In Lattice Qcd, Gen Wang

*Theses and Dissertations--Physics and Astronomy*

Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) provides a way to have a precise calculation and a new way of understanding the hadrons from first principles. From this perspective, this dissertation focuses first on a precise calculation of the pion form factor using overlap fermions on six ensembles of 2+1-flavor domain-wall configurations generated by the RBC/UKQCD collaboration with pion masses varying from 137 to 339 MeV. Taking advantage of the fast Fourier transform, low-mode substitution (LMS) and the multi-mass algorithm to access many combinations of source and sink momenta, we have done a simulation with various valence quark masses and with ...

Resource Efficient Design Of Quantum Circuits For Cryptanalysis And Scientific Computing Applications, 2020 University of Kentucky

#### Resource Efficient Design Of Quantum Circuits For Cryptanalysis And Scientific Computing Applications, Edgard Munoz-Coreas

*Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering*

Quantum computers offer the potential to extend our abilities to tackle computational problems in fields such as number theory, encryption, search and scientific computation. Up to a superpolynomial speedup has been reported for quantum algorithms in these areas. Motivated by the promise of faster computations, the development of quantum machines has caught the attention of both academics and industry researchers. Quantum machines are now at sizes where implementations of quantum algorithms or their components are now becoming possible. In order to implement quantum algorithms on quantum machines, resource efficient circuits and functional blocks must be designed. In this work, we ...

Sparsity And Weak Supervision In Quantum Machine Learning, 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

#### Sparsity And Weak Supervision In Quantum Machine Learning, Seyran Saeedi

*Theses and Dissertations*

Quantum computing is an interdisciplinary field at the intersection of computer science, mathematics, and physics that studies information processing tasks on a quantum computer. A quantum computer is a device whose operations are governed by the laws of quantum mechanics. As building quantum computers is nearing the era of commercialization and quantum supremacy, it is essential to think of potential applications that we might benefit from. Among many applications of quantum computation, one of the emerging fields is quantum machine learning. We focus on predictive models for binary classification and variants of Support Vector Machines that we expect to be ...

Decay And Dissipation: Finding Energy Level Jumps In A Harmonic Oscillator System Using Fortran And Fourier Analysis, 2020 Claremont Colleges

#### Decay And Dissipation: Finding Energy Level Jumps In A Harmonic Oscillator System Using Fortran And Fourier Analysis, Clara Chilton

*Scripps Senior Theses*

In this paper, I will look at a mass-spring system that can be described by a Hamiltonian. In most systems described by a Hamiltonian, the energy levels will be quantized, and the system will be able to jump between them. However, many methods of finding these jumps aren’t well-suited to numerical analysis. I’ll use a Markovian approximation (The Liouville von Neuman Equation), which allows me to use only the last time step to find the current one. Using this, I will analyze the system to find the time evolution of the probability density matrix – whose diagonal shows the ...

Magnetism In Γ-Fesi2 Nanostructures: A First Principles Study, 2020 Michigan Technological University

#### Magnetism In Γ-Fesi2 Nanostructures: A First Principles Study, Sahil Dhoka

*Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports*

First-principles calculations are performed on γ-FeSi_{2} nanostructures grown on Si (111) and (001) substrate. An attempt to explain the origin of emergent magnetic properties of the metastable gamma phase of iron di-silicide (γ-FeSi_{2}) is made, which show ferromagnetic behavior on nanoscale, unlike its possible bulk form. Many papers try to explain this magnetism from factors like bulk, epitaxial strain, interface, surface, edges, and corners but doesn’t provide an analytical study for these explanations. Density functional theory is used to analyze the magnetic effects of these factors. The results for the epitaxial structures show no magnetic behavior for ...

Theoretical Studies Of C And Cp Violation In $\Eta \To \Pi^+ \Pi^- \Pi^0$ Decay, 2020 University of Kentucky

#### Theoretical Studies Of C And Cp Violation In $\Eta \To \Pi^+ \Pi^- \Pi^0$ Decay, Jun Shi

*Theses and Dissertations--Physics and Astronomy*

A violation of mirror symmetry in the $\eta\to\pi^+\pi^-\pi^0$ Dalitz plot has long been recognized as a signal of C and CP violation. In this thesis, we show how the isospin of the underlying C- and CP-violating structures can be reconstructed from their kinematic representation in the Dalitz plot. Our analysis of the most recent experimental data reveals, for the first time, that the C- and CP-violating amplitude with total isospin I = 2 is much more severely suppressed than that with total isospin I = 0.

In searching for C- and CP-violating sources beyond the SM, we ...

Optical-Depth Scaling Of Light Scattering From A Dense And Cold Atomic 87Rb Gas, 2020 Old Dominion University

#### Optical-Depth Scaling Of Light Scattering From A Dense And Cold Atomic 87Rb Gas, K. J. Kemp, S. J. Roof, M. D. Havey, I. M. Sokolov, D. V. Kupriyanov, W. Guerin

*Physics Faculty Publications*

We report investigation of near-resonance light scattering from a cold and dense atomic gas of ^{87}Rb atoms. Measurements are made for probe frequencies tuned near the F=2→ F'=3 nearly closed hyperfine transition, with particular attention paid to the dependence of the scattered light intensity on detuning from resonance, the number of atoms in the sample, and atomic sample size. We find that, over a wide range of experimental variables, the optical depth of the atomic sample serves as an effective single scaling parameter which describes well all the experimental data.

Neutron Valence Structure From Nuclear Deep Inelastic Scattering, 2020 Old Dominion University

#### Neutron Valence Structure From Nuclear Deep Inelastic Scattering, E. P. Segarra, A. Schmidt, T. Kutz, D. W. Higinbotham, E. Piasetzky, M. Strikman, L. B. Weinstein, O. Hen

*Physics Faculty Publications*

Mechanisms of spin-flavor SU(6) symmetry breaking in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) are studied via an extraction of the free neutron structure function from a global analysis of deep inelastic scattering (DIS) data on the proton and on nuclei from A = 2 (deuterium) to 208 (lead). Modification of the structure function of nucleons bound in atomic nuclei (known as the EMC effect) are consistently accounted for within the framework of a universal modification of nucleons in short-range correlated (SRC) pairs. Our extracted neutron-to-proton structure function ratio F^{n}_{2}/F^{p}_{2} becomes constant for *x*_{B }≥ 0.6, equaling 0 ...

Intrinsic Transverse Momentum And Evolution In Weighted Spin Asymmetries, 2020 Old Dominion University

#### Intrinsic Transverse Momentum And Evolution In Weighted Spin Asymmetries, Jian-Wei Qiu, Ted C. Rogers, Bowen Wang

*Physics Faculty Publications*

The transverse momentum-dependent (TMD) and collinear higher twist theoretical factorization frameworks are the most frequently used approaches to describe spin-dependent hard cross sections weighted by and integrated over transverse momentum. Of particular interest is the contribution from small transverse momentum associated with the target bound state. In phenomenological applications, this contribution is often investigated using transverse momentum weighted integrals that sharply regulate the large transverse momentum contribution, for example, with Gaussian parametrizations. Since the result is a kind of hybrid of TMD and collinear (inclusive) treatments, it is important to establish if and how the formalisms are related in applications ...

B-Meson Light-Cone Distribution Amplitude From Euclidean Quantities, 2020 Old Dominion University

#### B-Meson Light-Cone Distribution Amplitude From Euclidean Quantities, Wei Wang, Yu-Ming Wang, Ji Xu, Shuai Zhao

*Physics Faculty Publications*

A new method for the model-independent determination of the light-cone distribution amplitude of the *B*-meson in heavy quark effective theory (HQET) is proposed by combining the large momentum effective theory and the numerical simulation technique on the Euclidean lattice. We demonstrate the autonomous scale dependence of the nonlocal quasi-HQET operator with the aid of the auxiliary field approach, and further determine the perturbative matching coefficient entering the hard-collinear factorization formula for the *B*-meson quasidistribution amplitude at the one-loop accuracy. These results will be crucial to explore the partonic structure of heavy-quark hadrons in the static limit and to ...

Measurement Of The ³He Spin-Structure Functions And Of Neutron (³He) Spin-Dependent Sum Rules At 0 .035≤Q²≤0 .24 Gev², 2020 Old Dominion University

#### Measurement Of The ³He Spin-Structure Functions And Of Neutron (³He) Spin-Dependent Sum Rules At 0 .035≤Q²≤0 .24 Gev², V. Sulkosky, D. Hayes, C. E. Hyde, P. E. Ulmer, X. Zheng, L. Zhu, Et Al., Jefferson Lab E97-110 Collaboration

*Physics Faculty Publications*

The spin-structure functions *g*_{1} and *g*_{2}, and the spin-dependent partial cross-section *σ*π have been extracted from the polarized cross-sections differences,

Δ*σ*∥ (*ν**, **Q*^{2}) and Δ*σ*⊥ (*ν**,**Q*^{2}) measured for the 3^{→}He*( ^{→}*e

*,*e'

*)*X reaction, in the E97-110 experiment at Jefferson Lab. Polarized electrons with energies from 1.147 to 4.404GeV were scattered at angles of 6

^{◦}and 9

^{◦ }from a longitudinally or transversely polarized

^{3}He target. The data cover the kinematic regions of the quasi-elastic, resonance production and beyond. From the extracted spin-structure functions, the first moments Γ

_{1 ...}

Gluon Pseudo-Distributions At Short Distances: Forward Case, 2020 Old Dominion University

#### Gluon Pseudo-Distributions At Short Distances: Forward Case, Ian Balitsky, Wayne Morris, Anatoly Radyushkin

*Physics Faculty Publications*

We present the results that are necessary in the ongoing lattice calculations of the gluon parton distribution functions (PDFs) within the pseudo-PDF approach. We give a classification of possible two-gluon correlator functions and identify those that contain the invariant amplitude determining the gluon PDF in the light-cone z^{2 }→ 0 limit. One-loop calculations have been performed in the coordinate representation and in an explicitly gauge-invariant form. We made an effort to separate ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) sources of the ln(−z^{2})-dependence at short distances z^{2}. The UV terms cancel in the reduced Ioffe-time distribution (ITD), and ...

Klf Analysis Report: Meson Spectroscopy Simulation Studies, 2020 Old Dominion University

#### Klf Analysis Report: Meson Spectroscopy Simulation Studies, Shankar Adhikari, Moskov Amaryan

*Physics Faculty Publications*

This analysis report is written as a supplemental for the strange meson spectroscopy part of the KLF proposal submitted to the JLab PAC48.

Developing A High Resolution Zdc For The Eic, 2020 Old Dominion University

#### Developing A High Resolution Zdc For The Eic, J. H. Lee, T. Sako, K. Tanida, M. Murray, Q. Wang, N. Nickel, Y. Yamazaki, Y. Itow, H. Menjo, T. Shibata, C. E. Hyde, V. Baturin, Y. Goto, I. Nakagawa, R. Seidl, K. Kawade, A. Deshpande, B. Schmookler, K. Nakano, T. Chujo, Y. Miyachi

*Physics Faculty Publications*

The Electron Ion Collider offers the opportunity to make un-paralleled multidimen- sional measurements of the spin structure of the proton and nuclei, as well as a study of the onset of partonic saturation at small Bjorken-x [1]. An important requirement of the physics program is the tagging of spectator neutrons and the identification of forward photons. We propose to design and build a Zero Degree Calorimeter, or ZDC, to measure photons and neutrons with excellent energy & position resolution.

Beam-Target Helicity Asymmetry E In K⁺Σ⁻ Photoproduction On The Neutron, 2020 Old Dominion University

#### Beam-Target Helicity Asymmetry E In K⁺Σ⁻ Photoproduction On The Neutron, N. Zachariou, K. P. Adhikari, M. Khachatryan, M. Mayer, Y. Prok, Et Al., Clas Collaboration

*Physics Faculty Publications*

We report a measurement of a beam-target double-polarisation observable (E) for the 𝛾^{→ }n^{→}(p) → K^{+}Σ^{-}(p) reaction. The data were obtained impinging the circularly-polarised energy-tagged photon beam of Hall B at Jefferson Lab on a longitudinally-polarised frozen-spin hydrogen deuteride (HD) nuclear target. The E observable for an effective neutron target was determined for centre-of-mass energies 1.70 ≤ W ≤ 2.30 GeV, with reaction products detected over a wide angular acceptance by the CLAS spectrometer. These new double-polarisation data give unique constraints on the strange decays of excited neutron states. Inclusion of the new data within the Bonn-Gatchina theoretical ...