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Full-Text Articles in Quantum Physics

Model Of Electromagnetic Waves In An Axion-Induced Parity Symmetry Violation, Sarah Lipstone May 2021

Model Of Electromagnetic Waves In An Axion-Induced Parity Symmetry Violation, Sarah Lipstone

Macalester Journal of Physics and Astronomy

Axion particles have been postulated to resolve the strong CP problem in Quantum chromodynamics. The axion field may double as the inflaton field that produces cosmic inflation. In this project, we use a combination of analytical and numerical analysis to study how axion-induced parity symmetry violation affects the dynamics of electromagnetic waves.


Zeta Function Regularization And Its Relationship To Number Theory, Stephen Wang May 2021

Zeta Function Regularization And Its Relationship To Number Theory, Stephen Wang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

While the "path integral" formulation of quantum mechanics is both highly intuitive and far reaching, the path integrals themselves often fail to converge in the usual sense. Richard Feynman developed regularization as a solution, such that regularized path integrals could be calculated and analyzed within a strictly physics context. Over the past 50 years, mathematicians and physicists have retroactively introduced schemes for achieving mathematical rigor in the study and application of regularized path integrals. One such scheme was introduced in 2007 by the mathematicians Klaus Kirsten and Paul Loya. In this thesis, we reproduce the Kirsten and Loya approach to ...


Designing Cryogenic Strain Device For 2d Materials, Jake Carter May 2021

Designing Cryogenic Strain Device For 2d Materials, Jake Carter

Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Churchill lab working within the Physics Department at the University of Arkansas is working to create important quantum states including weak topological insulators (TIs) through the use of symmetry engineering and topological electronic states in two-dimensional (2D) crystals of WHM materials. Experimental results of these topological states have been obstructed due to the difficulty to perform controlled in situ strain. This project strives to create a mount to utilize a piezoelectric nanopositioner within cryostats achieving an in situ strain that creates the quantum states the lab is looking to observe. This report also examines the necessary equations to determine ...


Curved Spacetime In The Causal Set Approach To Quantum Gravity, Ayush Dhital May 2021

Curved Spacetime In The Causal Set Approach To Quantum Gravity, Ayush Dhital

Honors Theses

Causal Set theory is an approach to quantum gravity. In this approach, the spacetime continuum is assumed to be discrete rather than continuous. The discrete points in a causal set can be seen as a continuum spacetime if they can be embedded in a manifold such that the causal structure is preserved. In this regard, a manifold can be constructed by embedding a causal set preserving causal information between the neighboring points. In this thesis, some of the fundamental properties of causal sets are discussed and the curvature and dimension information of Minkowski, de Sitter, and Anti-de Sitter spaces is ...


Quantum Dynamical Phenomena In Non-Hermitian And Magnomechanical Systems, Saeid Vashahri Ghamsari May 2021

Quantum Dynamical Phenomena In Non-Hermitian And Magnomechanical Systems, Saeid Vashahri Ghamsari

Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, we have investigated quantum dynamics via three case studies. First, we studied a system of two coupled waveguides respectively carrying optical damping and optical gain in addition to squeezing elements in one or both waveguides. Such a system is expected to generate highly entangled light fields in the two waveguides. We, however, show that the degree of the created entanglement is significantly affected by the quantum noises associated with the amplification and dissipation. Because of the noise effect, one can only have nonzero entanglement for a limited time interval. Second, we generalized the first project by considering ...


Exploring Manifoldlike Causal Sets And Their Dimensions, Santosh Bhandari Apr 2021

Exploring Manifoldlike Causal Sets And Their Dimensions, Santosh Bhandari

Honors Theses

Causal Set Theory is an approach to quantum gravity that tries to replace the continuum spacetime structure of general relativity with the spacetime that has the property of discreteness and causality. From the standpoint of causal set theory, our spacetime is made up of discrete points that are causally related to one another. A causal set is said to be manifoldlike if it can be faithfully embedded in a Lorentzian manifold. In this thesis, some of the fundamental properties of causal sets are discussed. The first chapter is devoted to the historical background of quantum gravity with a discussion of ...


Implications Of The Quantum Dna Model For Information Sciences, F. Matthew Mihelic Apr 2021

Implications Of The Quantum Dna Model For Information Sciences, F. Matthew Mihelic

Faculty Publications

The DNA molecule can be modeled as a quantum logic processor, and this model has been supported by pilot research that experimentally demonstrated non-local communication between cells in separated cell cultures. This modeling and pilot research have important implications for information sciences, providing a potential architecture for quantum computing that operates at room temperature and is scalable to millions of qubits, and including the potential for an entanglement communication system based upon the quantum DNA architecture. Such a system could be used to provide non-local quantum key distribution that could not be blocked by any shielding or water depth, would ...


Magnetic Vector Potential Manipulation Of Majorana Fermions In Dna Quantum Logic, F. Matthew Mihelic Apr 2021

Magnetic Vector Potential Manipulation Of Majorana Fermions In Dna Quantum Logic, F. Matthew Mihelic

Faculty Publications

In the quantum logic of the DNA molecule, electrons are held and conducted coherently as spinless Cooper pairs and are shielded from electromagnetic energy by a Faraday cage effect of the double lipid bilayer of the nuclear membrane. The magnetic vector potential generated by cellular depolarization can synchronize logical activity in portions of the DNA molecule by affecting spin directions of appropriately oriented spinless electrons via the Aharonov-Bohm effect, but is not blocked by that Faraday cage effect. Within the logically and thermodynamically reversible chiral enantiomeric symmetry of the deoxyribose moieties the decoherent transition of Cooper pair to Dirac pair ...


Exploring Qcd Factorization At Moderate Energy Scales, Eric Alan Moffat Apr 2021

Exploring Qcd Factorization At Moderate Energy Scales, Eric Alan Moffat

Physics Theses & Dissertations

Asymptotic freedom in QCD facilitates the use of partonic degrees of freedom over short distances, but physical processes are sensitive to a wide range of scales. Thus, it is necessary in QCD calculations to utilize a factorization scheme to separate a process into perturbative and non-perturbative factors. This separation relies on an assumption that one energy scale is infinitely larger than the other scales involved in the process. However, much experimental research in areas such as nucleon structure and quark-hadron duality occur at more moderate energy scales where that basic assumption may not be true but perturbative calculations should still ...


Optomechanical Quantum Entanglement, Kahlil Y. Dixon Mar 2021

Optomechanical Quantum Entanglement, Kahlil Y. Dixon

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

As classical technology approaches its limits, exploration of quantum technologies is critical. Quantum optics will be the basis of various cutting-edge research and applications in quantum technology. In particular, quantum optics quite efficacious when applied to quantum networks and the quantum internet. Quantum Optomechanics, a subfield of quantum optics, contains some novel methods for entanglement generation. These entanglement production methods exploit the noise re-encoding process, which is most often associated with creating unwanted phase noise in optical circuits. Using the adapted two-photon formalism and experimental results, we simulate (in an experimentally viable parameter space) optomechanical entanglement generation experiments. These simulations ...


Energy-Constrained Distinguishability Measures For Assessing Performance In Quantum Information Processing, Kunal Sharma Mar 2021

Energy-Constrained Distinguishability Measures For Assessing Performance In Quantum Information Processing, Kunal Sharma

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The aim of this thesis is to develop a framework for assessing performance in quantum information processing with continuous variables. In particular, we focus on quantifying the fundamental limitations on communication and computation over bosonic Gaussian systems. Due to their infinite-dimensional structure, we make a realistic assumption of energy constraints on the input states of continuous-variable (CV) quantum operations. Our first contribution is to show that energy-constrained distinguishability measures can be used to establish tight upper bounds on the communication capacities of phase-insensitive, bosonic Gaussian channels -- thermal, amplifier, and additive-noise channels. We then prove that an optimal Gaussian input state ...


Applications Of Quantum Optics: From The Quantum Internet To Analogue Gravity, Anthony Brady Mar 2021

Applications Of Quantum Optics: From The Quantum Internet To Analogue Gravity, Anthony Brady

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The aim of this thesis is to highlight applications of quantum optics in two very distinct fields: space-based quantum communication and the Hawking effect in analogue gravity. Regarding the former: We simulate and analyze a constellation of satellites, equipped with entangled photon-pair sources, which provide on-demand entanglement distribution ser- vices to terrestrial receiver stations. Satellite services are especially relevant for long-distance quantum-communication scenarios, as the loss in satellite-based schemes scales more favor- ably with distance than in optical fibers or in atmospheric links, though establishing quantum resources in the space-domain is expensive. We thus develop an optimization technique which balances ...


Quantum Simulation Of Schrödinger's Equation, Mohamed Eltohfa Mar 2021

Quantum Simulation Of Schrödinger's Equation, Mohamed Eltohfa

Capstone and Graduation Projects

Quantum computing is one of the promising active areas in physics research. This is because of the potential of quantum algorithms to outperform their classical counterparts. Grover’s search algorithm has a quadratic speed-up compared to the classical linear search. The quantum simulation of Schrödinger’s equation has an exponential memory save-up compared to the classical simulation. In this thesis, the ideas and tools of quantum computing are reviewed. Grover’s algorithm is studied and simulated as an example. Using the Qiskit quantum computing library, a code to simulate Schrödinger’s equation for a particle in one dimension is developed ...


Towards A General Framework For Practical Quantum Network Protocols, Sumeet Khatri Mar 2021

Towards A General Framework For Practical Quantum Network Protocols, Sumeet Khatri

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

The quantum internet is one of the frontiers of quantum information science. It will revolutionize the way we communicate and do other tasks, and it will allow for tasks that are not possible using the current, classical internet. The backbone of a quantum internet is entanglement distributed globally in order to allow for such novel applications to be performed over long distances. Experimental progress is currently being made to realize quantum networks on a small scale, but much theoretical work is still needed in order to understand how best to distribute entanglement and to guide the realization of large-scale quantum ...


Quantum Computing: Resolving Myths, From Physics To Metaphysics, Jacob R. Mandel Mar 2021

Quantum Computing: Resolving Myths, From Physics To Metaphysics, Jacob R. Mandel

Physics

As the field of quantum computing becomes popularized, myths or misconceptions will inevitably come along with it. From the sci-fi genre to the casual usage of the term quantum, idealism begins to take over our projections of the technological future. But what are quantum computers? And what does quantum mean? How are they any different than the computers we use on an everyday basis? Will there be quantum computing smartphones? Are quantum computers just a faster version of conventional computing or a wholly new way of computing altogether? The objective of this paper is to resolve common myths or misconceptions ...


Extracting The Number Of Short Range Correlated Nucleon Pairs From Inclusive Electron Scattering Data, R. Weiss, A. W. Denniston, J. R. Pybus, O. Hen, E. Piasetzky, A. Schmidt, L. B. Weinstein, N. Barnea Mar 2021

Extracting The Number Of Short Range Correlated Nucleon Pairs From Inclusive Electron Scattering Data, R. Weiss, A. W. Denniston, J. R. Pybus, O. Hen, E. Piasetzky, A. Schmidt, L. B. Weinstein, N. Barnea

Physics Faculty Publications

The extraction of the relative abundances of short-range correlated (SRC) nucleon pairs from inclusive electron scattering is studied using the generalized contact formalism (GCF) with several nuclear interaction models. GCF calculations can reproduce the observed scaling of the cross-section ratios for nuclei relative to deuterium at high xB and large Q2, a2 = (σA/A)/(σd/2). In the nonrelativistic instant-form formulation, the calculation is very sensitive to the model parameters and only reproduces the data using parameters that are inconsistent with ab initio many-body calculations. Using a light-cone GCF formulation significantly decreases this sensitivity and ...


Determination Of The Rydberg Constant From The Emission Spectra Of H And He+, Kyle D. Shaffer Feb 2021

Determination Of The Rydberg Constant From The Emission Spectra Of H And He+, Kyle D. Shaffer

Ramifications

Abstract

In this experiment, the Rydberg constants for the hydrogen atom and He+ were determined by analysis of the emission spectra of Hand He, respectively, in comparison to the principal quantum numbers of each transition. Using both a hydrogen and then a helium atomic lamp attached to a 0.5 m grating spectrometer and a photomultiplier detector (PMT), a change in voltage detected by the PMT can be paired with a corresponding wavelength passing through the spectrometer from each emission peak in the visible to ultraviolet range. The peaks acquired from this change in voltage were analyzed to find their ...


Plasmonic Waveguides To Enhance Quantum Electrodynamic Phenomena At The Nanoscale, Ying Li, Christos Argyropoulos Feb 2021

Plasmonic Waveguides To Enhance Quantum Electrodynamic Phenomena At The Nanoscale, Ying Li, Christos Argyropoulos

Faculty Publications from the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering

The emerging field of plasmonics can lead to enhanced light-matter interactions at extremely nanoscale regions. Plasmonic (metallic) devices promise to efficiently control both classical and quantum properties of light. Plasmonic waveguides are usually used to excite confined electromagnetic modes at the nanoscale that can strongly interact with matter. The analysis of these nanowaveguides exhibits similarities with their low frequency microwave counterparts. In this article, we review ways to study plasmonic nanostructures coupled to quantum optical emitters from a classical electromagnetic perspective. These quantum emitters are mainly used to generate single-photon quantum light that can be employed as a quantum bit ...


Interactions Of Organic Fluorophores With Plasmonic Surface Lattice Resonances, Robert J. Collison Feb 2021

Interactions Of Organic Fluorophores With Plasmonic Surface Lattice Resonances, Robert J. Collison

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

It is common knowledge that metals, alloys and pure elements alike, are lustrous and reflective, the more so when a metal surface is flat, polished, and free from oxidation and surface fouling. However, some metals reflect visible light, in the 380 nm to 740 nm range of wavelengths, much more strongly than others. In particular, some metals reflect wavelengths in certain portions of the ultraviolet (UV), visible, and near-infrared (NIR) regime, let us say 200 nm to 2000 nm, while absorbing light strongly in other segments of this range. There are several factors that account for this difference between various ...


Multi-Atom Quasiparticle Scattering Interference For Superconductor Energy-Gap Symmetry Determination, Rahul Sharma, Andreas Kreisel, Miguel Antonio Sulangi, Jakob Böker, Andrey Kostin, Milan P. Allan, H. Eisaki, Anna E. Böhmer, Paul C. Canfield, Ilya Eremin, J. C. Séamus Davis, P. J. Hirschfeld, Peter O. Sprau Jan 2021

Multi-Atom Quasiparticle Scattering Interference For Superconductor Energy-Gap Symmetry Determination, Rahul Sharma, Andreas Kreisel, Miguel Antonio Sulangi, Jakob Böker, Andrey Kostin, Milan P. Allan, H. Eisaki, Anna E. Böhmer, Paul C. Canfield, Ilya Eremin, J. C. Séamus Davis, P. J. Hirschfeld, Peter O. Sprau

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Complete theoretical understanding of the most complex superconductors requires a detailed knowledge of the symmetry of the superconducting energy-gap Δαk, for all momenta k on the Fermi surface of every band α. While there are a variety of techniques for determining |Δαk|, no general method existed to measure the signed values of Δαk. Recently, however, a technique based on phase-resolved visualization of superconducting quasiparticle interference (QPI) patterns, centered on a single non-magnetic impurity atom, was introduced. In principle, energy-resolved and phase-resolved Fourier analysis of these images identifies wavevectors connecting all k-space regions where Δαk has the same or opposite sign ...


On Conservation Laws In Quantum Mechanics, Yakir Aharonov, Sandu Popescu, Daniel Rohrlich Jan 2021

On Conservation Laws In Quantum Mechanics, Yakir Aharonov, Sandu Popescu, Daniel Rohrlich

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Conservation laws are one of the most important aspects of nature. As such, they have been intensively studied and extensively applied, and are considered to be perfectly well established. We, however, raise fundamental question about the very meaning of conservation laws in quantum mechanics. We argue that, although the standard way in which conservation laws are defined in quantum mechanics is perfectly valid as far as it goes, it misses essential features of nature and has to be revisited and extended.


Shallow-Circuit Variational Quantum Eigensolver Based On Symmetry-Inspired Hilbert Space Partitioning For Quantum Chemical Calculations, Feng Zhang, Niladri Gomes, Noah F. Berthusen, Peter P. Orth, Cai-Zhuang Wang, Kai-Ming Ho, Yong-Xin Yao Jan 2021

Shallow-Circuit Variational Quantum Eigensolver Based On Symmetry-Inspired Hilbert Space Partitioning For Quantum Chemical Calculations, Feng Zhang, Niladri Gomes, Noah F. Berthusen, Peter P. Orth, Cai-Zhuang Wang, Kai-Ming Ho, Yong-Xin Yao

Physics and Astronomy Publications

Development of resource-friendly quantum algorithms remains highly desirable for noisy intermediate-scale quantum computing. Based on the variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) with unitary coupled-cluster Ansatz, we demonstrate that partitioning of the Hilbert space made possible by the point-group symmetry of the molecular systems greatly reduces the number of variational operators by confining the variational search within a subspace. In addition, we found that instead of including all subterms for each excitation operator, a single-term representation suffices to reach required accuracy for various molecules tested, resulting in an additional shortening of the quantum circuit by a factor of 4–8. With these ...


Understanding The Research And Applications Of Quantum Computing, Joshua Foss Jan 2021

Understanding The Research And Applications Of Quantum Computing, Joshua Foss

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

In-Depth research of current quantum computing understanding and practices. Presentation of possible new and creative applications of quantum computing.


Quantum Computing For The Quantum Curious, Ciaran Hughes, Joshua Isaacson, Anastasia Perry, Ranbel F. Sun, Jessica Turner Jan 2021

Quantum Computing For The Quantum Curious, Ciaran Hughes, Joshua Isaacson, Anastasia Perry, Ranbel F. Sun, Jessica Turner

Open Access Books and Manuals

This open access book makes quantum computing more accessible than ever before. A fast-growing field at the intersection of physics and computer science, quantum computing promises to have revolutionary capabilities far surpassing “classical” computation. Getting a grip on the science behind the hype can be tough: at its heart lies quantum mechanics, whose enigmatic concepts can be imposing for the novice.

This classroom-tested textbook uses simple language, minimal math, and plenty of examples to explain the three key principles behind quantum computers: superposition, quantum measurement, and entanglement. It then goes on to explain how this quantum world opens up a ...


Equations Of State For Warm Dense Carbon From Quantum Espresso, Derek J. Schauss Jan 2021

Equations Of State For Warm Dense Carbon From Quantum Espresso, Derek J. Schauss

Theses and Dissertations

Warm dense plasma is the matter that exists, roughly, in the range of 10,000 to 10,000,000 Kelvin and has solid-like densities, typically between 0.1 and 10 grams per centimeter. Warm dense fluids like hydrogen, helium, and carbon are believed to make up the interiors of many planets, white dwarfs, and other stars in our universe. The existence of warm dense matter (WDM) on Earth, however, is very rare, as it can only be created with high-energy sources like a nuclear explosion. In such an event, theoretical and computational models that accurately predict the response of certain ...


Terahertz Second Harmonic Generation Form Nb3sn Superconductor, Dinusha Herath Mudiyanselage Jan 2021

Terahertz Second Harmonic Generation Form Nb3sn Superconductor, Dinusha Herath Mudiyanselage

Creative Components

Symmetry breaking phenomena in superconductors is a fascinating field of study. Here we report the observation of Terahertz second harmonic generation (T-SHG) from Nb3Sn superconductor. T-SHG can be used as a tool to detect symmetry breaking inside superconducting fluid. Conventionally SHG cannot be observed in superconductors with inversion symmetry. Here we perturb superconducting fluid using Terahertz electromagnetic radiation and break the inversion symmetry to generate T-SHG.


Role Of Boundary Conditions In Quantum Computations Of Scattering Observables, Raúl A. Briceño, Juan V. Guerrero, Maxwell T. Hansen, Alexandru M. Sturzu Jan 2021

Role Of Boundary Conditions In Quantum Computations Of Scattering Observables, Raúl A. Briceño, Juan V. Guerrero, Maxwell T. Hansen, Alexandru M. Sturzu

Physics Faculty Publications

Quantum computing may offer the opportunity to simulate strongly interacting field theories, such as quantum chromodynamics, with physical time evolution. This would give access to Minkowski-signature correlators, in contrast to the Euclidean calculations routinely performed at present. However, as with present-day calculations, quantum computation strategies still require the restriction to a finite system size, including a finite, usually periodic, spatial volume. In this work, we investigate the consequences of this in the extraction of hadronic and Compton-like scattering amplitudes. Using the framework presented in Briceno et al. [Phys. Rev. D 101, 014509 (2020)], we estimate the volume effects for various ...


Energy-Dependent Π⁺Π⁺Π⁺ Scattering Amplitude From Qcd, Maxwell T. Hansen, Raúl A. Briceño, Robert G. Edwards, Christopher E. Thomas, David J. Wilson Jan 2021

Energy-Dependent Π⁺Π⁺Π⁺ Scattering Amplitude From Qcd, Maxwell T. Hansen, Raúl A. Briceño, Robert G. Edwards, Christopher E. Thomas, David J. Wilson

Physics Faculty Publications

Focusing on three-pion states with maximal isospin π⁺π⁺π⁺, we present the first nonperturbative determination of an energy-dependent three-hadron scattering amplitude from first-principles QCD. The calculation combines finite-volume three-hadron energies, extracted using numerical lattice QCD, with a relativistic finite-volume formalism, required to interpret the results. To fully implement the latter, we also solve integral equations that relate an intermediate three-body K matrix to the physical three-hadron scattering amplitude. The resulting amplitude shows rich analytic structure and a complicated dependence on the two-pion invariant masses, represented here via Dalitz-like plots of the scattering rate.


Neural-Network Analysis Of Parton Distribution Functions From Ioqffe-Time Pseudodistributions, Luigi Del Debbio, Tommaso Giani, Joseph Karpie, Kostas Orginos, Anatoly Radyushkin, Savvas Zafeiropoulos Jan 2021

Neural-Network Analysis Of Parton Distribution Functions From Ioqffe-Time Pseudodistributions, Luigi Del Debbio, Tommaso Giani, Joseph Karpie, Kostas Orginos, Anatoly Radyushkin, Savvas Zafeiropoulos

Physics Faculty Publications

We extract two nonsinglet nucleon Parton Distribution Functions from lattice QCD data for reduced Ioffe-time pseudodistributions. We perform such analysis within the NNPDF framework, considering data coming from different lattice ensembles and discussing in detail the treatment of the different source of systematics involved in the fit. We introduce a recipe for taking care of systematics and use it to perform our extraction of light-cone PDFs.


Ruling Out Color Transparency In Quasielastic ¹²C(E,E'P) Up To Q² Of 14.2 (Gev/C)², D. Bhetuwal, J. Matter, H. Szumila-Vance, F. Hauenstein, C. Yero, J. Zhang, Et Al., Hall C. Collaboration Jan 2021

Ruling Out Color Transparency In Quasielastic ¹²C(E,E'P) Up To Q² Of 14.2 (Gev/C)², D. Bhetuwal, J. Matter, H. Szumila-Vance, F. Hauenstein, C. Yero, J. Zhang, Et Al., Hall C. Collaboration

Physics Faculty Publications

Quasielastic 12C(e,e'p) scattering was measured at spacelike 4-momentum transfer squared Q2 = 8, 9.4, 11.4, and 14.2 (GeV/c)2, the highest ever achieved to date. Nuclear transparency for this reaction was extracted by comparing the measured yield to that expected from a plane-wave impulse approximation calculation without any final state interactions. The measured transparency was consistent with no Q2 dependence, up to proton momenta of 8.5 GeV/c, ruling out the quantum chromodynamics effect of color transparency at the measured Q2 scales in exclusive (e, e'p) reactions. These ...