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The Separation Of Charm And Bottom Decays Measured In P+Au Collisions At 200 Gev, Zhiyan Wang 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Separation Of Charm And Bottom Decays Measured In P+Au Collisions At 200 Gev, Zhiyan Wang

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

It has long been observed experimentally, from previous heavy-flavor electron measurements, that heavy quarks are subject to substantial modifications of their momentum spectrum. Using the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), measurements of the production of open heavy flavor hadrons with charm and bottom quarks in p+Au collisions at 200 GeV are studied and presented in this thesis. Distance of closest approach analysis of electron tracks is used to study the semileptonic decay electrons from charm and bottom hadrons. The results include invariant yield and fraction of bottom electrons. In addition to the p+p and Au+Au collisions’ …


Magnetic Field Effects On The Physics Of Neutron Stars, Aric A. Hackebill 2022 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Magnetic Field Effects On The Physics Of Neutron Stars, Aric A. Hackebill

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

In the context of neutron stars (NS), dense-magnetized quark and hadron models have been well studied under the assumption that the system's pressures are isotropic. However, the pressures determined from semi-classical statistical averaging of the energy momentum tensor in the presence of a uniform background magnetic field are anisotropic with different pressures arising along and perpendicular to the magnetic field direction. Since large magnetic fields are expected to be present in the interior of NS, it is important to understand the roll the pressure anisotropy plays. While considering the pressure anisotropy, we revisit some important calculations in NS physics.

We …


The Fermilab Spinquest Experiment: Commissioning And Plans Toward Production, Nuwan Chaminda Gunawardhana Waduge 2022 Mississippi State University

The Fermilab Spinquest Experiment: Commissioning And Plans Toward Production, Nuwan Chaminda Gunawardhana Waduge

Theses and Dissertations

E1039/SpinQuest, a transversely-polarized Drell-Yan experiment at Fermilab, plans to use the 120 GeV proton beam and polarized NH3 and ND3 cryogenic targets to study azimuthal asymmetries in dimuon production to extract the magnitude as well as sign of the sea quarks Sivers functions. The SpinQuest spectrometer is optimized to detect oppositely-charged muons with a series of tracking chambers and hodoscope stations. The scope of this manuscript is to highlight the physics goals and the experimental setup with a focus on the ongoing debugging and training of one of the tracking systems, mainly drift chambers, as preparation for the upcoming commissioning …


The Structure Of 71ni Via Beta-Delayed Neutron Spectroscopy Of 71co, Andrew Keeler 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Structure Of 71ni Via Beta-Delayed Neutron Spectroscopy Of 71co, Andrew Keeler

Doctoral Dissertations

Studies of beta decays can give insights into the underlying structure of the nucleus. In particular, decays of closed-shell and near-closed-shell nuclei can provide important benchmarks for structure models, which are used in simulations of r-process nucleosynthesis. This work reports on a study of beta decays of 71Co produced in an experiment that was carried out in October 2016 at MSU’s National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) using the Versatile Array of Neutron Detectors at Low Energy (VANDLE). In order to carry out this experiment, a novel position-sensitive scintillating detector was developed to enable the sub-nanosecond timing response that VANDLE …


Improving Sensitivities In 0𝒗ββ Decay Searches By Utilizing Pen As A Structural Scintillating Material, Brennan Theresa Hackett 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Improving Sensitivities In 0𝒗ββ Decay Searches By Utilizing Pen As A Structural Scintillating Material, Brennan Theresa Hackett

Doctoral Dissertations

Neutrinoless double beta decay, 0nbb is currently the only experimental test to unambiguously determine the majorana nature of the neutrino. There is a large international effort to measure 0nbb decay, with several detector technologies being pursued. This dissertation will consider the LEGEND experiment (Large Enriched Germanium Experiment for Neutrinoless bb Decay), an international effort to measure 0nbb decay with 76Ge as both the target isotope and the detecting material.

LEGEND has a 200 kg stage and a 1000 kg stage, each requiring extremely low levels of background radiation at Qbb (E = 2.039 MeV). These ultra-low background levels …


Measurement Of Jet Constituent Yields In Pb-Pb Collisions At √Snn = 5.02 Tev Using The Alice Detector, Charles P. Hughes 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Measurement Of Jet Constituent Yields In Pb-Pb Collisions At √Snn = 5.02 Tev Using The Alice Detector, Charles P. Hughes

Doctoral Dissertations

Hard partonic scatterings serve as an important probe of quark-gluon-plasma (QGP) properties. The properties of jets and their constituents can provide a tool for understanding the partonic energy loss mechanisms. Low momentum jets offer a unique window into partonic energy loss because they reconstruct the partons which have lost a significant amount of energy to the QGP medium. The main difficulty in studying low momentum jets in heavy ion collisions is the presence of a significant uncorrelated background of low momentum hadrons from soft processes. One way to deal with this background is to use jet- hadron correlations to fit …


Monte Carlo Simulation Of Thallium-Bromide Semiconductor Detector For Range Verification Of A Carbon Ion Radiotherapy Beam Through Prompt Gamma-Ray Detection, Peter Dimpfl 2022 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Monte Carlo Simulation Of Thallium-Bromide Semiconductor Detector For Range Verification Of A Carbon Ion Radiotherapy Beam Through Prompt Gamma-Ray Detection, Peter Dimpfl

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Thallium-Bromide is a semiconductor material which is well suited for photon detection. Composed of high atomic number elements and a high mass density of 7.56 g/cm3, TlBr has superb photon stopping power. External beam radiation therapy is an ever-changing environment with technology rapidly improving. With proton therapy facilities becoming more widely available, and carbon ion facilities showcasing the benefits of carbon ion radiation therapy, there is an industry need toprovide accurate dosimetric treatment plans to verify patients are receiving proper care. Current clinical practices apply safety margins to clinical target volumes to safe treatment. Through research to improve detection techniques, …


Measurement Of Airborne Radionuclides And Their Relation To Weather Patterns At Orono, Me, James W. Deaton 2022 University of Maine

Measurement Of Airborne Radionuclides And Their Relation To Weather Patterns At Orono, Me, James W. Deaton

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

7Be and 210Pb activities were measured in air sampling filters collected at The University of Maine campus from 2014 to 2019. The activities of 7Be were in the range of 1.178-98.8 Bq, with an average value of 32.13 Bq. The activities of 210Pb were in the range of 0.091 to 13.64 Bq, and an average value of 3.029 Bq. The distributions of activity for both radionuclides are lognormal. Both 7Be and 210Pb show seasonal variation with maximum values in the summer and minimum values in the fall, and the 7Be/210Pb ratio shows a clear seasonal variation with maxima in the …


Absolute Quantification Of Tc-99m Activity Distributions Using A Planar Molecular Breast Imaging Commercial System, Benjamin P. Lopez 2022 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Absolute Quantification Of Tc-99m Activity Distributions Using A Planar Molecular Breast Imaging Commercial System, Benjamin P. Lopez

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Molecular breast imaging (MBI) uses two dedicated-breast semiconductor detectors to visualize the preferential uptake of technetium-99m-sestamibi (99mTc-sestamibi) by breast cancer cells relative to surrounding benign breast tissues. Clinically, MBI is used primarily as a supplementary tool to standard-of-care mammography because of its improved detection of breast cancers, especially in women with mammographically-dense breasts. Because of a lack of image corrections, MBI applications are currently limited to qualitative evaluations of relative pixel intensities between image regions with suspected lesions and normal tissue.

The objective of this dissertation was to use Monte Carlo simulations to better characterize the MBI imaging …


Computational Models To Detect Radiation In Urban Environments: An Application Of Signal Processing Techniques And Neural Networks To Radiation Data Analysis, Jose Nicolas Gachancipa 2022 Student

Computational Models To Detect Radiation In Urban Environments: An Application Of Signal Processing Techniques And Neural Networks To Radiation Data Analysis, Jose Nicolas Gachancipa

Beyond: Undergraduate Research Journal

Radioactive sources, such as uranium-235, are nuclides that emit ionizing radiation, and which can be used to build nuclear weapons. In public areas, the presence of a radioactive nuclide can present a risk to the population, and therefore, it is imperative that threats are identified by radiological search and response teams in a timely and effective manner. In urban environments, such as densely populated cities, radioactive sources may be more difficult to detect, since background radiation produced by surrounding objects and structures (e.g., buildings, cars) can hinder the effective detection of unnatural radioactive material. This article presents a computational model …


Study Of The Etaprimepi0 System In Gluex, Rupesh Dotel 2022 Florida International University

Study Of The Etaprimepi0 System In Gluex, Rupesh Dotel

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The η′π is an important decay channel for the potentially exotic hybrid meson π1(1600) that has been detected in the COMPASS, VES and E852 experiments. These previous experiments used a charged pion beam as a probe. In contrast, the GlueX experiment is designed to search for the exotic hybrid mesons using a linearly polarized photon beam. This thesis project analyzes the η′π0 system produced in GlueX by the reaction γp → η′π0p. After optimizing the event selection to minimize background contributions, a mass independent partial wave analysis is performed in search of an exotic signature. Within the currently available statistical …


Calibration Of The Lux-Zeplin Dual-Phase Xenon Time Projection Chamber With Internally Injected Radioisotopes, Christopher D. Nedlik 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Calibration Of The Lux-Zeplin Dual-Phase Xenon Time Projection Chamber With Internally Injected Radioisotopes, Christopher D. Nedlik

Doctoral Dissertations

Self-shielding in ton-scale liquid xenon (LXe) detectors presents a unique challenge for calibrating detector response to interactions in the detector's innermost volume. Calibration radioisotopes must be injected directly into the LXe to reach the central volume, where they must either decay away with a short half life or be purified out. We present an overview of, and results from, the prototype source injection system (SIS) developed at the University of Massachusetts Amherst for the LUX-ZEPLIN experiment (LZ). The SIS is designed to refine techniques for the injection and removal of precise activities of various calibration radioisotopes that are useful in …


Two-Current Transition Amplitudes With Two-Body Final States, Keegan H. Sherman, Feliipe G. Ortega-Gama, Raúl A. Briceño, Andrew W. Jackura 2022 Old Dominion University

Two-Current Transition Amplitudes With Two-Body Final States, Keegan H. Sherman, Feliipe G. Ortega-Gama, Raúl A. Briceño, Andrew W. Jackura

Physics Faculty Publications

We derive the on-shell form of amplitudes containing two external currents with a single hadron in the initial state and two hadrons in the final state, denoted as 1 + J → 2 + J . This class of amplitude is relevant in precision tests of the Standard Model as well as for exploring the structure of excited states in the QCD spectrum. We present a model-independent description of the amplitudes where we sum to all orders in the strong interaction. From this analytic form we are able to extract transition and elastic resonance form factors consistent with previous work …


Development Of Quantitative Methods To Study Pfas Using Proton Induced Gamma-Ray Emission, Colin Langton 2022 Union College - Schenectady, NY

Development Of Quantitative Methods To Study Pfas Using Proton Induced Gamma-Ray Emission, Colin Langton

Honors Theses

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are man-made chemicals that have become a major environmental concern. They can be found in a broad range of everyday products and pose a significant risk to the public due to their adverse health effects. They are persistent, bioaccumulate and do not break down in the environment. This project specifically aims to determine the concentration of Fluorine, a key identifier of PFAS, in environmental samples. To do this, we employ proton induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) to screen for Fluorine within our samples. PIGE is performed at the Union College Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory using a …


The Valence Quark Structure Of The Nucleon, Christopher A. Leon 2022 Florida International University

The Valence Quark Structure Of The Nucleon, Christopher A. Leon

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The nucleon is a composite object, formed from a sea of quarks, anti-quarks and gluons being continuously created and annihilated. Among this complexity, however, there are three valence quarks that give the nucleon its baryon and flavor numbers. Here we investigate the dynamical structure of valence quarks inside the nucleon. The primary tool used will be patron distribution functions (PDFs), which give the distribution of momentum fraction, x, of the quarks and gluons inside the nucleon. By examining the PDFs of the valence quarks from phenomenological fits, we derive a new model-independent relation of PDF peaks and connect it to …


Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission Spectroscopy In The 78ni Region And Development Of Yso-Based Implantation Detector, Maninder Singh 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Beta-Delayed Neutron Emission Spectroscopy In The 78ni Region And Development Of Yso-Based Implantation Detector, Maninder Singh

Doctoral Dissertations

Decays of Cu isotopes provide a laboratory to study the properties for nearly doubly-magic nuclei with a significant neutron excess which are also relevant for the r-process models. The beta-decay properties of doubly-magic 78Ni (N=50) are imprinted in the neighboring Cu decay, nuclei with a single proton outside the Z=28 core. The investigated isotopes 79,80,81Cu are strong beta-delayed neutron precursors, suggesting that their decay strength distribution lies above neutron separation energies in 79,80,81Zn daughters.

For decay studies, a segmented scintillator YSO (Y2SiO5 : Ce doped) based implantation detector was developed at the University of …


Tokamak 3d Heat Load Investigations Using An Integrated Simulation Framework, Thomas Looby 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Tokamak 3d Heat Load Investigations Using An Integrated Simulation Framework, Thomas Looby

Doctoral Dissertations

Reactor class nuclear fusion tokamaks will be inherently complex. Thousands of interconnected systems that span orders of magnitude in physical scale must operate cohesively for the machine to function. Because these reactor class tokamaks are all in an early design stage, it is difficult to quantify exactly how each subsystem will act within the context of the greater systems. Therefore, to predict the engineering parameters necessary to design the machine, simulation frameworks that can model individual systems as well as the interfaced systems are necessary. This dissertation outlines a novel framework developed to couple otherwise disparate computational domains together into …


The Upgraded Measurement Of The Neutron Lifetime Using The In-Beam Method, Jimmy P. Caylor 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Upgraded Measurement Of The Neutron Lifetime Using The In-Beam Method, Jimmy P. Caylor

Doctoral Dissertations

Precision measurements of neutron beta decay can provide answers to some of the most fundamental questions in particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. Neutron beta decay is the simplest semi-leptonic decay; therefore, it provides a clean test of the charged current sector of the Standard Model (SM). A precise measurement of the neutron lifetime and λ, the ratio of axial vector and vector coupling constants of the weak interaction, allows for a determination of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Moskawa (CKM) matrix element Vud that is free from nuclear structure effects. The SM predicts that the CKM matrix is unitary; therefore, the measurement of …


Measurement Of Neutrino-Induced Neutron Production In Lead, Brandon J. Becker 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Measurement Of Neutrino-Induced Neutron Production In Lead, Brandon J. Becker

Doctoral Dissertations

The COHERENT Collaboration is an experimental effort to make the first measurement of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CE𝜈NS). The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory provides an intense, timed source of neutrinos from the decay of pions and muons produced during the spallation of mercury by 1 GeV protons generated in a particle accelerator. COHERENT seeks to make an unambiguous measurement by using a variety of low-threshold detectors capable of measuring the low-energy nuclear recoils resulting from CE𝜈NS interactions. This already challenging task is further complicated with the presence of backgrounds. Consequently, we must seek to reduce …


Hepatocellular Carcinoma Image-Guided Intervention: Quantitative Characterization Of Reagents For Thermochemical Ablation, Emily A. Thompson 2022 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center

Hepatocellular Carcinoma Image-Guided Intervention: Quantitative Characterization Of Reagents For Thermochemical Ablation, Emily A. Thompson

Dissertations & Theses (Open Access)

Thermochemical ablation (TCA) is a minimally invasive therapy under development for hepatocellular carcinoma, a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. TCA utilizes acid-base chemistry delivered simultaneously to induce local ablation when administered. When delivered via a mixing catheter placed directly into the tumor, acid (e.g., AcOH) and base (e.g., NaOH) react to completion at the catheter tip, producing the acetate salt, water, and releasing heat (Δ>50°C) in sufficient quantities to induce lethal osmotic and thermal stress in tumor cells. However, these two reagents are not distinguishable from tissues with noninvasive imaging modalities, which makes monitoring the delivery of TCA …


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