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Perception Of Nuclear Security As A Barrier To Female Representation In Africa, Primerose Ruhukwa Ms 2023 Radiation Protection Authority of Zimbabwe

Perception Of Nuclear Security As A Barrier To Female Representation In Africa, Primerose Ruhukwa Ms

International Journal of Nuclear Security

Women are strongly underrepresented in the nuclear energy sector, particularly in the field of Nuclear security. Regardless of several government efforts to increase the number of women in this field, which include gender balance polices, education, and awareness campaigns, the nuclear security industry remains a male-dominated field. The reason why nuclear security is shunned by most women in Africa is because of an incorrect perception of what nuclear security is. When a lay person hears the term nuclear, the first thing that comes to mind is nuclear weapons, and many are quick to judge, saying that Africa does not …


Phase Transitions And Thermal Stability Of The Magnetic Dual Chiral Density Wave Phase In Cold, Dense Qcd, William G. Gyory 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Phase Transitions And Thermal Stability Of The Magnetic Dual Chiral Density Wave Phase In Cold, Dense Qcd, William G. Gyory

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The correct description of strongly interacting matter at extreme densities and low temperatures remains poorly understood. We analyze the magnetic dual chiral density wave (MDCDW) phase, an inhomogeneous chiral condensate that arises in cold, dense quark matter in a magnetic field. We first review the background theory and derive the free energy of the condensate. Then we show how the phase transitions can be studied using a generalized Ginzburg-Landau expansion, and we derive a convenient all-orders formula for the coefficients. Using these tools, we compute the order parameters, critical temperature, and threshold temperature over a range of chemical potentials and …


Centrality Effects On Heavy-Flavor Quark Production And Invariant Yield In Phenix Proton–Gold Collisions At Center-Of-Mass Energy 200 Gev, And Assembly, Testing, Calibration, And Installation Of The Sphenix Hadronic Calorimeters, Daniel Richford 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Centrality Effects On Heavy-Flavor Quark Production And Invariant Yield In Phenix Proton–Gold Collisions At Center-Of-Mass Energy 200 Gev, And Assembly, Testing, Calibration, And Installation Of The Sphenix Hadronic Calorimeters, Daniel Richford

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Hadrons created in heavy-ion collisions interact with the open color-charge of the quark-gluon plasma through their constituent quarks. The medium imparts substantial modifications to heavy-flavor hadrons' momentum spectra. For collisions of small systems, the centrality of those collisions affects both the production of heavy-quarks and the medium modifications that the heavy-quarks experience. This analysis uses the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, which collected data from proton--gold collisions in 2015, with a trigger to preference the collection of the five-percent most-central collisions. This analysis uses the distance-of-closest-approach of electron tracks to study semileptonic decays from charm and bottom …


Multi-Agent Deep Reinforcement Learning For Radiation Localization, Benjamin Scott Totten 2023 Portland State University

Multi-Agent Deep Reinforcement Learning For Radiation Localization, Benjamin Scott Totten

Dissertations and Theses

For the safety of both equipment and human life, it is important to identify the location of orphaned radioactive material as quickly and accurately as possible. There are many factors that make radiation localization a challenging task, such as low gamma radiation signal strength and the need to search in unknown environments without prior information. The inverse-square relationship between the intensity of radiation and the source location, the probabilistic nature of nuclear decay and gamma ray detection, and the pervasive presence of naturally occurring environmental radiation complicates localization tasks. The presence of obstructions in complex environments can further attenuate the …


Direct Measurement Of The 114cd(��, ��)115cd Cross Section In The 1 Ev To 300 Kev Energy Range, Kofi Tutu Addo Assumin-Gyimah 2023 Mississippi State University

Direct Measurement Of The 114cd(��, ��)115cd Cross Section In The 1 Ev To 300 Kev Energy Range, Kofi Tutu Addo Assumin-Gyimah

Theses and Dissertations

The large thermal cross section of cadmium makes it ideal for many practical applications where screening of thermal neutrons is desired. For example, in non-destructive assay techniques, or for astrophysical studies of the s-process. All such applications require precise knowledge of the neutron-capture cross section on cadmium. Although there are some data on neutron-capture cross sections particularly at thermal energies and at energies relevant for astrophysics, there is very little data at most other energies. Further, the evaluated cross sections from the ENDF and JENDL databases disagree at high energies. Therefore, there is a critical need for precise knowledge of …


Deep Virtual Pion Pair Production, Dilini Lakshani Bulumulla 2023 Old Dominion University

Deep Virtual Pion Pair Production, Dilini Lakshani Bulumulla

Physics Theses & Dissertations

This experiment investigates the deep virtual production of both σ− and ρ− mesons, with a particular focus on the microscopic structure of the σ mesons. While the ρ meson is an ordinary qq¯ pair, the σ meson is composed of not only the typical qq¯ pair, making it a topic of controversy for nearly six decades. Although the existence of the σ− meson is now well established, its microscopic structure remains poorly understood. The primary objective of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of the σ meson by analyzing its deep virtual production. The main focus of this …


Inverse Mappers For Qcd Global Analysis, Manal Almaeen 2023 Old Dominion University

Inverse Mappers For Qcd Global Analysis, Manal Almaeen

Computer Science Theses & Dissertations

Inverse problems – using measured observations to determine unknown parameters – are well motivated but challenging in many scientific problems. Mapping parameters to observables is a well-posed problem with unique solutions, and therefore can be solved with differential equations or linear algebra solvers. However, the inverse problem requires backward mapping from observable to parameter space, which is often nonunique. Consequently, solving inverse problems is ill-posed and a far more challenging computational problem.

Our motivated application in this dissertation is the inverse problems in nuclear physics that characterize the internal structure of the hadrons. We first present a machine learning framework …


A Statistical Framework For Automating Resonance Detection: Modelling Pion Proton Collision Activity, Shahnaz Abdul Hameed 2023 Indian Institute of Technology Joghpur

A Statistical Framework For Automating Resonance Detection: Modelling Pion Proton Collision Activity, Shahnaz Abdul Hameed

2023 REYES Proceedings

In this paper, we analyze π− − p elastic collision data from the Particle Data Group (PDG), by creating a general framework to study resonance activity: automating peak detection, extrapolating, parametrizing thresholds, filtering resonances and further comparing and extracting characteristics, to identify Delta (Δ) baryons. We then analyse experimental Energy vs Phase-Shift (δ) data for the collision π+ +π− → π− +π+, model the T matrix from a curve fitted polynomial representation of the K−1 matrix, simulate its Riemann sheets and analyse it to identify the characteristics of ρ0(770) meson, as well as estimate their uncertainties. …


Fractional Charge Concept Opened Gates For New Ideas On Composition Of Matter, Polievkt Perov 2023 Suffolk University

Fractional Charge Concept Opened Gates For New Ideas On Composition Of Matter, Polievkt Perov

College of Arts & Sciences Faculty Works

Before the concept of quarks with fractional electric charges was introduced, the electron charge magnitude e was considered as the smallest amount of charge in nature so the charge of any object could be only an integer number of ± e. Then it was suggested that the proton and neutrons are composed of quarks with the fractional charges, combined in such a way that the total charge of a proton occurred to be that same known charge +e, and the charge of a neutron was zero. We suggest expanding that fruitful concept of fractional charges to build structural models of …


New Reaction Of Neutron-Proton Conversion, Polievkt Perov 2023 Suffolk University

New Reaction Of Neutron-Proton Conversion, Polievkt Perov

College of Arts & Sciences Faculty Works

Using our models of composite particles as consisting just of two types of elementary basic charges, +e/3 and -e/3, we suggest that in any nuclear reaction the total numbers of basic charges of each of the two types are conserved. That means that in any nuclear reaction, the basic elementary charges present in the reactants can join in different combinations to form the products of the reaction. This is like a balanced chemical equation where the number of atoms of each element is conserved. We apply this suggested principle of conservation of basic elementary charges in any nuclear reaction to …


Pairing And Rotation-Induced Nuclear Exotica In Covariant Density Functional Theory, Saja Teeti 2023 Mississippi State University

Pairing And Rotation-Induced Nuclear Exotica In Covariant Density Functional Theory, Saja Teeti

Theses and Dissertations

Covariant density functional theory (CDFT) is one of the modern theoretical tools for describing the nuclear structure physics of finite nuclei. Its performance is defined by underlying covariant energy density functionals (CEDFs). In this dissertation and within the framework of the CDFT, different physical properties of the ground and the excited states of rotating and non-rotating nuclei have been investigated.

A systematic global investigation of pairing properties based on all available experimental data on pairing indicators has been performed for the first time in the framework of covariant density functional theory. It is based on separable pairing interaction of Ref.\ …


Electron And Other Quarks As Particles Made Of Elementary Particles Of Charge E/3 And Mass Me/6, Polievkt Perov 2023 Suffolk University

Electron And Other Quarks As Particles Made Of Elementary Particles Of Charge E/3 And Mass Me/6, Polievkt Perov

College of Arts & Sciences Faculty Works

We suggest that the first-generation quarks are not elementary particles, but structures made of a basic elementary particle of charge e/3 and its antiparticle, interacting via an electrostatic force. The structures are suggested for d-quark as consisting of one positive and two negative basic elementary charges, for u-quark as a structure with one negative and three positive basic charges, for an electron as a quark with one positive and four negative basic charges, and for one more quark made of one positive and one negative basic charge. All the suggested structures are in a spinning motion and are stable. The …


Sub-Chandrasekhar Type Ia Supernovae Scenarios With Increased Pathways For Neutronization, Fernando Hernan Rivas 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Sub-Chandrasekhar Type Ia Supernovae Scenarios With Increased Pathways For Neutronization, Fernando Hernan Rivas

Doctoral Dissertations

Type Ia supernovae are thermonuclear explosions of white dwarfs (WD), electron-degenerate cores of old intermediate mass stars(under 8$M_{\odot}$). Reaching energies of $10^{51}$\si{\erg}, they outshine whole galaxies as they synthesize and distribute most of the iron group elements (IGE; V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni) into the interstellar medium, thus being one of the main agents in cosmic chemical evolution. Also, given their notably homogeneous lightcurves, they form the last step in the cosmic distance ladder outdistancing Cepheid variables by orders of magnitude. Though calibration of said lightcurves is dependent on a high number of confirmed events, the limits of statistical …


Fabrication, Measurements, And Modeling Of Semiconductor Radiation Detectors For Imaging And Detector Response Functions, Corey David Ahl 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Fabrication, Measurements, And Modeling Of Semiconductor Radiation Detectors For Imaging And Detector Response Functions, Corey David Ahl

Doctoral Dissertations

In the first part of this dissertation, we cover the development of a diamond semiconductor alpha-tagging sensor for associated particle imaging to solve challenges with currently employed scintillators. The alpha-tagging sensor is a double-sided strip detector made from polycrystalline CVD diamond. The performance goals of the alpha-tagging sensor are 700-picosecond timing resolution and 0.5 mm spatial resolution. A literature review summarizes the methodology, goals, and challenges in associated particle imaging. The history and current state of alpha-tagging sensors, followed by the properties of diamond semiconductors are discussed to close the literature review. The materials and methods used to calibrate the …


Total Absorption Spectroscopy Of Mo-106 And Tc-106, Michael Cooper 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Total Absorption Spectroscopy Of Mo-106 And Tc-106, Michael Cooper

Doctoral Dissertations

Total absorption spectroscopy is a method of gamma-ray spectroscopy that has gained prominence in the past several decades, as nuclear data revisions are performed on older nuclear data, which is often incomplete. A strong understanding of underlying nuclear data, particularly fission and beta decay data, is essential for nuclear reactors and nuclear fuel decay heat. This PhD work involves the analysis of fission fragments 106Mo [Mo-106] and 106Tc [Tc-106]. These neutron rich isotopes contribute upwards of 6% of the cumulative fission yield of 241Pu [Pu-241] fission, and 4% of 239Pu [Pu-239] fission. Prior data for these two fission fragments only …


Applying Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis To Assess Air Pollution With Spanish Moss As A Bioindicator In The Low Country Of The Savannah River Basin, Christina Jiang 2023 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Applying Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis To Assess Air Pollution With Spanish Moss As A Bioindicator In The Low Country Of The Savannah River Basin, Christina Jiang

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The Savanah River Basin is an area of 9,850 square miles that stretches from the border between South Carolina and Georgia, which empties into the Atlantic Ocean near Savannah, Ga. This area is home to surrounding cities, industrial sites, and the Savanah River Site. It is well documented that traffic, industrial operations, and agriculture contribute to worsening air pollution that needs to be monitored. While Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss) has been used in previous studies that prove it to be an effective biomonitor for air pollution and an accumulator of heavy metals, there have been no biomonitoring studies in the …


Neutrino Physics At A Research Reactor: Backgrounds And Analysis, Blaine Alexander Heffron 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Neutrino Physics At A Research Reactor: Backgrounds And Analysis, Blaine Alexander Heffron

Doctoral Dissertations

The field of neutrino physics has a rich history and is currently the subject of much active research. The discovery of neutrino oscillations led to the conclusion that neutrinos have mass which was in contradiction to the Standard Model. Now researchers are investigating a number of open questions regarding neutrino properties such as their mass values or the existence of CP violation in the weak interaction. In order to answer these questions experimental and analytical techniques of neutrino detection are becoming more advanced, entering into an era of precision neutrino detection.

Nuclear reactors as a source of antineutrinos have played …


Design And Construction Of A Longitudinally Polarized Solid Nuclear Target For Clas12, Victoria Lagerquist 2023 Old Dominion University

Design And Construction Of A Longitudinally Polarized Solid Nuclear Target For Clas12, Victoria Lagerquist

Physics Theses & Dissertations

A new polarized nuclear target has been developed, constructed, and deployed at Jefferson Laboratory in Newport News, VA for use with the upgraded 12 GeV CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) accelerator and the Hall B CLAS12 (12 GeV CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer) detector array. This ‘APOLLO’ (Ammonia POLarized LOngitudinally) target is a longitudinally polarized, solid ammonia, nuclear target which employs DNP (Dynamic Nuclear Polarization) to induce a net polarization in samples of protons (NH3) and deuterons (ND3) cooled to 1K via helium evaporation, held in a 5T polarizing field supplied by the CLAS12 spectrometer, and irradiated with 140 GHz …


Cross Sections Of The 83rb (P,Γ)84sr And 84kr(P,Γ)85rb Reactions At Energies Characteristic Of The Astrophysical Γ Process, M. Williams, B. Davids, G. Lotay, N. Nishimura, T. Rauscher, S. A. Gillespie, M. Alcorta, Alan M. Amthor, G. C. Ball, S. S. Bhattacharjee, V. Bildstein, W. N. Catford, D. T. Doherty, N. E. Esker, A. B. Garnsworthy, G. Hackman, K. Hudson, A. Lennarz, C. Natzke, B. Olaizola, A. Psaltis, C. E. Svensson, J. Williams, D. Walter, D. Yates 2023 TRIUMF / University of York

Cross Sections Of The 83rb (P,Γ)84sr And 84kr(P,Γ)85rb Reactions At Energies Characteristic Of The Astrophysical Γ Process, M. Williams, B. Davids, G. Lotay, N. Nishimura, T. Rauscher, S. A. Gillespie, M. Alcorta, Alan M. Amthor, G. C. Ball, S. S. Bhattacharjee, V. Bildstein, W. N. Catford, D. T. Doherty, N. E. Esker, A. B. Garnsworthy, G. Hackman, K. Hudson, A. Lennarz, C. Natzke, B. Olaizola, A. Psaltis, C. E. Svensson, J. Williams, D. Walter, D. Yates

Faculty Journal Articles

We have measured the cross section of the 83 Rb ( p , γ ) 84 Sr radiative capture reaction in inverse kinematics using a radioactive beam of 83 Rb at incident energies of 2.4 and 2.7 A MeV. Prior to the radioactive beam measurement, the 84 Kr ( p , γ ) 85 Rb radiative capture reaction was measured in inverse kinematics using a stable beam of 84 Kr at an incident energy of 2.7 A MeV. The effective relative kinetic energies of these measurements lie within the relevant energy window for the γ process in supernovae. The central …


One-Loop Corrections To Dihadron Production In Dis At Small X, Filip Bergabo 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

One-Loop Corrections To Dihadron Production In Dis At Small X, Filip Bergabo

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

We calculate the one-loop corrections to dihadron production in Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) at small x using the Color Glass Condensate formalism. We show that all UV and soft singularities cancel while the collinear divergences are absorbed into quark and anti quark-hadron fragmentation functions. Rapidity divergences lead to JIMWLK evolution of dipoles and quadrupoles describing multiple-scatterings of the quark anti-quark dipole on the target proton/nucleus. The resulting cross section is finite and can be used for phenomenological studies of dihadron angular correlations at small x in a future Electron-Ion Collider (EIC).


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