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Consciousness As A Factor In Evolution, Kenneth A. Augustyn 2020 Michigan Technological University

Consciousness As A Factor In Evolution, Kenneth A. Augustyn

Michigan Tech Publications

What I call the mind began as a non-conscious robotic biochemical process control system in the very earliest forms of life. As life evolved, problems in control became more difficult and exceeded the computational capabilities of the organisms. Nature discovered a means of transcending computable physical processes resulting in non-computational subjective mental capabilities that, while still not conscious, had a degree of genuine autonomy from the physical world. These autonomous subjective wants and goals now affected the course of (but not the mechanism of) evolution. The integrated amalgam of robotic and transrobotic unconscious capabilities eventually gave rise to consciousness, which ...


Development Of A Comsol Microdialysis Model, Towards Creation Of Microdialysis On A Chip With Improved Geometries And Recovery, Patrick Pysz 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Development Of A Comsol Microdialysis Model, Towards Creation Of Microdialysis On A Chip With Improved Geometries And Recovery, Patrick Pysz

Theses and Dissertations

Microdialysis (µD) sampling is a diffusion-limited sampling method that has been widely used in different biomedical fields for greater than 35 years. Device calibration for in vivo studies is difficult for current non-steady state analytes of interest correlated with both inflammatory response and microbial signaling molecules (QS); which exist in low ng/mL to pg/mL with molecular weights over a wide range of 170 Da to 70 kDa. The primary performance metric, relative recovery (RR), relating the collected sample to the extracellular space concentration varies from 10% to 60% per analyte even under controlled bench-top conditions. Innovations in microdialysis ...


Characterization Of The Anomalous Ph Of Aqueous Nanoemulsions, Kieran P. Ramos 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Characterization Of The Anomalous Ph Of Aqueous Nanoemulsions, Kieran P. Ramos

Doctoral Dissertations

Aqueous water-in-oil nanoemulsions have emerged as a versatile tool for use in microfluidics, drug delivery, single-molecule measurements, and other research. Nanoemulsions are often prepared with perfluorocarbons which are remarkably biocompatbile due to their stability, low surface tension, lipophobicity, and hydrophobicity. Therefore it is often assumed that droplet contents are unperturbed by the perfluorinated surface. However, in microemulsions, which are similar to nanoemulsions, it is known that either the pH of the aqueous phase or the ionization constants of encapsulated molecules are different from bulk solution. There is also recent evidence of low pH in perfluorinated aqueous nanoemulsions. The current underlying ...


Analog Implementation Of The Hodgkin-Huxley Model Neuron, Zachary D. Mobille, George H. Rutherford, Jordan Brandt-Trainer, Rosangela Follmann, Epaminondas Rosa 2019 Illinois State University

Analog Implementation Of The Hodgkin-Huxley Model Neuron, Zachary D. Mobille, George H. Rutherford, Jordan Brandt-Trainer, Rosangela Follmann, Epaminondas Rosa

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Period Drift In A Neutrally Stable Stochastic Oscillator, Kevin Sanft 2019 Illinois State University

Period Drift In A Neutrally Stable Stochastic Oscillator, Kevin Sanft

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Studying Vapor-Liquid Transition Using A Generalized Ensemble, Deepti Ballal, Qing Lu, Muralikrishna Raju, Xueyu Song 2019 Ames Laboratory

Studying Vapor-Liquid Transition Using A Generalized Ensemble, Deepti Ballal, Qing Lu, Muralikrishna Raju, Xueyu Song

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Homogeneous vapor-liquid nucleation is studied using the generalized Replica Exchange Method (gREM). The generalized ensemble allows the study of unstable states that cannot directly be studied in the canonical ensemble. Along with replica exchange, this allows for efficient sampling of the multiple states in a single simulation. Statistical Temperature Weighted Histogram Analysis Method is used for postprocessing to get a continuous free energy curve from bulk vapor to bulk liquid. gREM allows the study of planar, cylindrical, and spherical interfaces in a single simulation. The excess Gibbs free energy for the formation of a spherical liquid droplet in vapor for ...


Exploring The Complex Folding Free Energy Landscapes Of A Series Of Β-Rich Proteins, Noah R. Cohen 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Exploring The Complex Folding Free Energy Landscapes Of A Series Of Β-Rich Proteins, Noah R. Cohen

GSBS Dissertations and Theses

Protein aggregation is deleterious to human health and detrimental to therapeutic shelf-life. The physical processes that induce aggregation are the same processes that drive productive folding reactions. As such, protein aggregation is a non-productive form of protein folding. To gain insight into the steps that serve as a partition between the folding and aggregation reactions, the folding mechanisms of several β-rich proteins with links to human disease or medicine were examined.

In the ALS-linked protein, SOD1, a subpopulation of the unfolded ensemble is found to be a common source of both nonnative structure and frustrated folding. These behaviors are only ...


Quantifying Uncertainty In A Measurement-Based Assessment Of Relative Biological Effectiveness In Carbon Ion Radiotherapy, Shannon Hartzell 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Quantifying Uncertainty In A Measurement-Based Assessment Of Relative Biological Effectiveness In Carbon Ion Radiotherapy, Shannon Hartzell

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

One of the largest inconsistencies in dose delivered during carbon ion therapy is due to uncertainties in relative biological effectiveness (RBE), a value that is calculated via one of several clinically implemented algorithms. This study investigates the uncertainty in measured microdosimetric parameters for RBE calculation by the Microdosimetric Kinetic Model (MKM), Repair Misrepair Fixation model (RMF), and Local Effect Model I (LEM) using a Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC).

Microdosimetric spectra, kinetic energy spectra, and dose fragment contributions were calculated using Monte Carlo (GEANT IV) for monoenergetic and SOBP carbon beams of clinical energy. From microdosimetric spectra, lineal energy values ...


Modeling Proton Relative Biological Effectiveness Using Monte Carlo Simulations Of Microdosimetry, Mark A. Newpower 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Modeling Proton Relative Biological Effectiveness Using Monte Carlo Simulations Of Microdosimetry, Mark A. Newpower

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Proton therapy is a radiotherapy modality that can offer a better physical dose distribution when compared to photon radiotherapy by taking advantage of the Bragg peak, a narrow region of rapid energy loss. Proton therapy is also known to offer an enhanced relative biological effectiveness (RBE) compared to photons. In the current clinical standard, RBE is fixed at 1.1 at all points along the proton beam, meaning protons are assumed to require 10% less dose than photons to achieve target coverage and organ at risk (OAR) sparing. However, there is mounting clinical evidence, and a significant number of in ...


Impact Of Excitation-Inhibition Balance/Imbalance On Dynamics Of Cortical Neural Networks, Vidit Agrawal 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Impact Of Excitation-Inhibition Balance/Imbalance On Dynamics Of Cortical Neural Networks, Vidit Agrawal

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this research is to study the implications of Excitation/Inhibition balance and imbalance on the dynamics of ongoing (spontaneous) neural activity in the cerebral cortex region of the brain.

The first research work addresses the question that why among the continuum of Excitation-Inhibition balance configurations, particular configuration should be favored? We calculate the entropy of neural network dynamics by studying an analytically tractable network of binary neurons. Our main result from this work is that the entropy maximizes at regime which is neither excitation-dominant nor inhibition-dominant but at the boundary of both. Along this boundary we see ...


Commissioning Of Micro-Cube Thermoluminescent Dosimeters For Small Field Dosimetry Quality Assurance In Radiotherapy, Brandon Luckett 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Commissioning Of Micro-Cube Thermoluminescent Dosimeters For Small Field Dosimetry Quality Assurance In Radiotherapy, Brandon Luckett

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Small field dosimetry presents complications and uncertainties that could be circumvented by using detectors which are smaller than the radiation field. This study evaluates the reproducibility and accuracy of TLD micro-cubes for use in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) remote auditing quality assurance (QA) for treatment centers participating in clinical trials. This study tested the hypothesis that TLD micro-cubes could be commissioned to evaluate small field dosimetry, and provide reproducibility within 3%, as well as assure agreement between measured dose and calculated doses to within 5%.

The aims of this thesis were to characterize and commission TLD micro-cubes as well as to ...


A Comprehensive Assessment Of The Low-Temperature Thermal Properties And Thermodynamic Functions Of Ceo2, Tyler D. Morrison, Elizabeth Sooby Wood, Phillippe F. Weck, Eunja Kim, Sung Oh Woo, Andrew T. Nelson, Donald G. Naugle 2019 Texas A&M University

A Comprehensive Assessment Of The Low-Temperature Thermal Properties And Thermodynamic Functions Of Ceo2, Tyler D. Morrison, Elizabeth Sooby Wood, Phillippe F. Weck, Eunja Kim, Sung Oh Woo, Andrew T. Nelson, Donald G. Naugle

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

Reported is an experimental and computational investigation of the low temperature heat capacity, thermodynamic functions, and thermal conductivity of stoichiometric, polycrystalline CeO2. The experimentally measured heat capacity at T... (See full abstract in article).


Linear-Scaling Ab Initio Simulations Of Spin Diffusion In Rotating Solids, Frédéric A. Perras, Marek Pruski 2019 Ames Laboratory

Linear-Scaling Ab Initio Simulations Of Spin Diffusion In Rotating Solids, Frédéric A. Perras, Marek Pruski

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

We investigated the utility of locally restricting the basis sets involved in low-order correlations in Liouville space (LCL) calculations of spin diffusion. Using well-known classical models of spin diffusion, we describe a rationale for selecting the optimal basis set for such calculations. We then show that the use of these locally restricted basis sets provides the same computational accuracy as the full LCL set while reducing the computational time by several orders of magnitude. Speeding up the calculations also enables us to use higher maximum spin orders and increase the computational accuracy. Furthermore, unlike exact and full LCL calculations, locally ...


Response To “Comment On ‘Theoretical Prediction Of Crystallization Kinetics Of A Supercooled Lennard-Jones Fluid’” [J.Chem.Phys. 151, 017101 (2019)], K. G. S. H. Gunawardana, Xueyu Song 2019 Ames Laboratory and University of Ruhuna

Response To “Comment On ‘Theoretical Prediction Of Crystallization Kinetics Of A Supercooled Lennard-Jones Fluid’” [J.Chem.Phys. 151, 017101 (2019)], K. G. S. H. Gunawardana, Xueyu Song

Chemistry Publications

The Classical Nucleation Theory (CNT) describes the Gibbs free energy cost to create a crystallite of N atoms out of a metastable phase as follows:

ΔG = −N|Δμ| + γA. (1)

The first term gives the Gibbs free energy cost to create a crystallite of N atoms in its bulk phase. The term Δμ = μc − μl is the thermodynamic driving force, where μc and μl are the chemical potentials of bulk crystal and liquid phases. The second part is the contribution from the solid-liquid interface, where γ is the solid-liquid interfacial free energy and A is the area of the interface ...


Reactive And Stimuli-Responsive Sulfonium-Based Polymer Zwitterions, Cristiam Santa Chalarca 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Reactive And Stimuli-Responsive Sulfonium-Based Polymer Zwitterions, Cristiam Santa Chalarca

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation describes the synthesis and characterization of novel monomers and (co)polymer zwitterions that incorporate trialkylsulfonium cations. The novel materials presented herein constitute a unique type of polymer zwitterions that exhibit salt- and temperature-dependent water solubility as well as inherent reactivity. The behavior of these polymers in aqueous solutions, as nanostructures, and at liquid-liquid interfaces was studied; in all cases, the inherent reactivity of the polymers was harnessed towards the fabrication of novel polymers and soft materials.

Following an introductory chapter, Chapter 2 describes the synthesis of sulfonium sulfonate monomers and polymer zwitterions. Both styrenic and methacrylic monomers were ...


Quantifying Complex Systems Via Computational Fly Swarms, Troy Taylor 2019 Linfield College

Quantifying Complex Systems Via Computational Fly Swarms, Troy Taylor

Senior Theses

Complexity is prevalent both in natural and in human-made systems, yet is not well understood quantitatively. Qualitatively, complexity describes a phenomena in which a system composed of individual pieces, each having simple interactions with one another, results in interesting bulk properties that would otherwise not exist. One example of a complex biological system is the bird flock, in particular, a starling murmuration. Starlings are known to move in the direction of their neighbors and avoid collisions with fellow starlings, but as a result of these simple movement choices, the flock as a whole tends to exhibit fluid-like movements and form ...


Topics In Three-Dimensional Imaging, Source Localization And Super-Resolution, Zhixian Yu 2019 University of New Mexico

Topics In Three-Dimensional Imaging, Source Localization And Super-Resolution, Zhixian Yu

Physics & Astronomy ETDs

The realization that twisted light beams with helical phasefronts could carry orbital angular momentum (OAM) that is in excess of the photon's spin angular momentum (SAM) has spawned various important applications. One example is the design of novel imaging systems that achieve three-dimensional (3D) imaging in a single snapshot via the rotation of point spread function (PSF).

Based on a scalar-field analysis, a particular simple version of rotating PSF imagery, which was proposed by my advisor Dr. Prasad, furnishes a practical approach to perform 3D source localization using a spiral phase mask that generates a combination of Bessel vortex ...


Magnetic Borophenes From An Evolutionary Search, Meng-Hong Zhu, Xiao-Ji Weng, Guoying Gao, Shuai Dong, Ling-Fang Lin, Wei-Hua Wang, Qiang Zhu, Artem R. Oganov, Xiao Dong, Yongjun Tian, Xiang-Feng Zhou, Hui-Tian Wang 2019 Nankai University

Magnetic Borophenes From An Evolutionary Search, Meng-Hong Zhu, Xiao-Ji Weng, Guoying Gao, Shuai Dong, Ling-Fang Lin, Wei-Hua Wang, Qiang Zhu, Artem R. Oganov, Xiao Dong, Yongjun Tian, Xiang-Feng Zhou, Hui-Tian Wang

Physics & Astronomy Faculty Publications

A computational methodology based on ab initio evolutionary algorithms and spin-polarized density functional theory was developed to predict two-dimensional magnetic materials. Its application to a model system borophene reveals an unexpected rich magnetism and polymorphism. A metastable borophene with nonzero thickness is an antiferromagnetic semiconductor from first-principles calculations, and can be further tuned into a half-metal by finite electron doping. In this borophene, the buckling and coupling among three atomic layers are not only responsible for magnetism, but also result in an out-of-plane negative Poisson's ratio under uniaxial tension, making it the first elemental material possessing auxetic and magnetic ...


Characteristics Of Sulfur Atoms Adsorbed On Ag(100), Ag(110), And Ag(111) As Probed With Scanning Tunneling Microscopy: Experiment And Theory, Peter M. Spurgeon, Da-Jiang Liu, Holly Walen, Junepyo Oh, Hyun Jin Yang, Yousoo Kim, Patricia A. Thiel 2019 Iowa State University

Characteristics Of Sulfur Atoms Adsorbed On Ag(100), Ag(110), And Ag(111) As Probed With Scanning Tunneling Microscopy: Experiment And Theory, Peter M. Spurgeon, Da-Jiang Liu, Holly Walen, Junepyo Oh, Hyun Jin Yang, Yousoo Kim, Patricia A. Thiel

Chemistry Publications

In this paper, we report that S atoms on Ag(100) and Ag(110) exhibit a distinctive range of appearances in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images, depending on the sample bias voltage, VS. Progressing from negative to positive VS, the atomic shape can be described as a round protrusion surrounded by a dark halo (sombrero) in which the central protrusion shrinks, leaving only a round depression. This progression resembles that reported previously for S atoms on Cu(100). We test whether DFT can reproduce these shapes and the transition between them, using a modified version of the Lang–Tersoff–Hamann ...


Seeing Eye To Eye: A Machine Learning Approach To Automated Saccade Analysis, Maigh Attre 2019 University of Connecticut

Seeing Eye To Eye: A Machine Learning Approach To Automated Saccade Analysis, Maigh Attre

Honors Scholar Theses

Abnormal ocular motility is a common manifestation of many underlying pathologies particularly those that are neurological. Dynamics of saccades, when the eye rapidly changes its point of fixation, have been characterized for many neurological disorders including concussions, traumatic brain injuries (TBI), and Parkinson’s disease. However, widespread saccade analysis for diagnostic and research purposes requires the recognition of certain eye movement parameters. Key information such as velocity and duration must be determined from data based on a wide set of patients’ characteristics that may range in eye shapes and iris, hair and skin pigmentation [36]. Previous work on saccade analysis ...


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