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Biophysical Analysis Of The Structure And Aggregation Of Amyloid Beta Peptide, Faisal Abedin 2021 University of Central Florida

Biophysical Analysis Of The Structure And Aggregation Of Amyloid Beta Peptide, Faisal Abedin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia and is characterized by neuronal death and brain atrophy. The amyloid ß (Aß) peptide is tightly associated with neuronal dysfunction during AD, but the molecular mechanism underlying the neurotoxic effect of Aß is poorly understood. Extracellular fibrillar deposits (plaques) of Aß were initially believed to be the cause of AD, but currently there is overwhelming evidence that the prefibrillar Aß oligomers are the major toxic entities. Structural characterization of Aß oligomers and fibrils is important for understanding the structural features determining the toxic potency of the peptide. This project has ...


Dual Beam Frequency Comb Ftir Spectroscopy, Connor Kelly 2021 University of Central Florida

Dual Beam Frequency Comb Ftir Spectroscopy, Connor Kelly

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

A visible and Infrared (IR) range dual beam frequency comb Fourier transform spectrometer was developed. Using dual mode-locked Ti:Sapphire lasers a comb-interferogram was generated in the visible range. This spectrum was calculated and used to measure the transmittance of a Nd-doped crystal. The system was further developed to generate an IR interferogram by Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) using a Gallium Selenide (GaSe) crystal placed in the mode-locked pump beam. Numerical work was done to calculate the expected DFG spectrum confirming the necessary IR range can be reached. This has been conducted in support of an IR holographic spectroscopic microscopy ...


Power Amplification Strategies Across Animals, Rayhan Asif 2021 The University of Akron

Power Amplification Strategies Across Animals, Rayhan Asif

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Animals use muscles for movement, but some have evolved mechanisms to exceed maximum power used in a motion known as power amplification. In this literature review, I analyzed and compared the evolution of structures capable of power amplification between species. Structures capable of power amplification were broken down into the basic components of the engine, amplifier, and tool. The species analyzed were found to possess necessary structures for power amplification which were relatively similar to each other in morphology, but varied greatly in function. The ease with which these structures evolved was evaluated based on the amount of divergence which ...


The Effects Of Increasing Positively Charged Metal Ions Within Synovial Fluid, Kandisi Anyabwile 2021 The University of Akron

The Effects Of Increasing Positively Charged Metal Ions Within Synovial Fluid, Kandisi Anyabwile

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that affects 10% of men and 13% of women over age of 60. It is the degradation of the cartilage between two bones; obesity, age, overuse, or injury are major contributors to the development of this disease. The joint is incapsulated by the synovial sac filled with a viscous solution that aids in lubrication referred to as synovial fluid. If the synovial sac is ruptured due to injury, positive ions (K+, Na+, Ca2+, and Fe3+) may affect viscoelastic properties within the sac. The purpose of this study was to understand how positive ...


Structure Of Unmodified And Pyroglutamylated Amyloid Beta Peptide In Lipid Membranes, Rowan Hassan 2021 University of Central Florida

Structure Of Unmodified And Pyroglutamylated Amyloid Beta Peptide In Lipid Membranes, Rowan Hassan

Honors Undergraduate Theses

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by brain atrophy, neuronal and synaptic loss, cognitive decline, trouble handling activities of daily life, and ultimately leads to death. Worldwide, at least 30 million people suffer from AD, with 5.8 million suffering in the US alone. Despite extensive basic and clinical research, the underlying molecular mechanisms behind AD remain largely unknown. There are four FDA-approved compounds are used for alleviating symptoms but have no curative potency. The first potentially disease-modifying AD drug, aducanumb, was approved by FDA in June 2021. The main histopathological traits of AD ...


Modeling Disorder In Proteins Yields Insights Into The Evolution Of Stability And Function, Jonathan Huihui 2021 University of Denver

Modeling Disorder In Proteins Yields Insights Into The Evolution Of Stability And Function, Jonathan Huihui

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The central dogma of molecular biology dictates that a DNA sequence codes for an RNA sequence, which in turn codes for a sequence of amino acids that comprises a protein. Proteins are responsible with performing myriad functions within living organisms and most proteins require a folded structure in order to perform their function. The protein's structure is the direct link from sequence to function. This is known as the sequence - structure - function paradigm. However, this does not mean that the unfolded state is unimportant. In order to properly model the stability of the folded state, one needs to pay ...


Development And Characterization Of Nb₃N/Al₂0₃ Superconducting Multilayers For Particle Accelerators, Chris Sundahl, Junki Makita, Paul B. Welander, Yi-Feng Su, Fumitake Kametani, Lin Xie, Huimin Zhang, Lian Li, Alex Gurevich, Chang-Beom Eom 2021 Old Dominion University

Development And Characterization Of Nb₃N/Al₂0₃ Superconducting Multilayers For Particle Accelerators, Chris Sundahl, Junki Makita, Paul B. Welander, Yi-Feng Su, Fumitake Kametani, Lin Xie, Huimin Zhang, Lian Li, Alex Gurevich, Chang-Beom Eom

Physics Faculty Publications

Superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) resonator cavities provide extremely high quality factors > 1010 at 1-2 GHz and 2 K in large linear accelerators of high-energy particles. The maximum accelerating field of SRF cavities is limited by penetration of vortices into the superconductor. Present state-of-the-art Nb cavities can withstand up to 50 MV/m accelerating gradients and magnetic fields of 200-240 mT which destroy the low-dissipative Meissner state. Achieving higher accelerating gradients requires superconductors with higher thermodynamic critical fields, of which Nb3Sn has emerged as a leading material for the next generation accelerators. To overcome the problem of low vortex ...


Predicting Material Properties: Applications Of Multi-Scale Multiphysics Numerical Modeling To Transport Problems In Biochemical Systems And Chemical Process Engineering, Tom Pace 2021 University of Kentucky

Predicting Material Properties: Applications Of Multi-Scale Multiphysics Numerical Modeling To Transport Problems In Biochemical Systems And Chemical Process Engineering, Tom Pace

Theses and Dissertations--Physics and Astronomy

Material properties are used in a wide variety of theoretical models of material behavior. Descriptive properties quantify the nature, structure, or composition of the material. Behavioral properties quantify the response of the material to an imposed condition. The central question of this work concerns the prediction of behavioral properties from previously determined descriptive properties through hierarchical multi-scale, multiphysics models implemented as numerical simulations. Applications covered focus on mass transport models, including sequential enzyme-catalyzed reactions in systems biology, and an industrial chemical process in a common reaction medium.


Numerical Simulations Of Capsule Deformation Using A Dual Time-Stepping Lattice Boltzmann Method, Charles Armstrong, Yan Peng 2021 Old Dominion University

Numerical Simulations Of Capsule Deformation Using A Dual Time-Stepping Lattice Boltzmann Method, Charles Armstrong, Yan Peng

Mathematics & Statistics Faculty Publications

In this work a quasisteady, dual time-stepping lattice Boltzmann method is proposed for simulation of capsule deformation. At each time step the steady-state lattice Boltzmann equation is solved using the full approximation storage multigrid scheme for nonlinear equations. The capsule membrane is modeled as an infinitely thin shell suspended in an ambient fluid domain with the fluid structure interaction computed using the immersed boundary method. A finite element method is used to compute the elastic forces exerted by the capsule membrane. Results for a wide range of parameters and initial configurations are presented. The proposed method is found to reduce ...


Physical Models Of Living Systems 2nd Ed, New Chapter: Demographic Variation In Epidemic Spread, Philip C. Nelson 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Physical Models Of Living Systems 2nd Ed, New Chapter: Demographic Variation In Epidemic Spread, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

This chapter extends the first edition of Physical Models of Living Systems (WH Freeman 2015). This preliminary version is made freely available as-is in the hope that it will be useful.


Composite Network Of Actin And Microtubule Filaments, Self-Organization And Steady-State Dynamics, Leila Farhadi 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Composite Network Of Actin And Microtubule Filaments, Self-Organization And Steady-State Dynamics, Leila Farhadi

Doctoral Dissertations

Actin and microtubule filaments, with their auxiliary proteins, enable the cytoskeleton to perform vital processes in the cell by tuning the organizational, mechanical properties and dynamics of the network. Despite their critical importance and interactions in cells, we are only beginning to uncover information about the composite network. Here, I use florescence microscopy to explore the role of filaments characteristics, interactions and activities in the self-organization and steady-state dynamics of the composite network of filaments. First, I discuss active self-organization of semiflexible actin and rigid microtubule filaments in the 2D composite network while myosin II and kinesin-1 motor proteins propel ...


Live Cell Super-Resolution Microscopy Quanitifies An Interaction Between Influenza Hemagglutinin And Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate, Jaqulin N. Wallace 2020 The University of Maine

Live Cell Super-Resolution Microscopy Quanitifies An Interaction Between Influenza Hemagglutinin And Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate, Jaqulin N. Wallace

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Influenza virus, colloquially known as the flu, is an acute respiratory disease that infects several millions of individuals each year in the U.S. and kills tens of thousands of those infected. Yearly viral vaccines are widely available, however, due to the virus’s high mutation rate, their efficacy varies greatly. Due to the variability in vaccine efficiency against seasonal influenza, and the potential for even more pathogenic versions of influenza to emerge at any time, there is a high demand for a universal treatment option.

Influenza virus hijacks a variety of host cell components in order to replicate. The ...


Controlled Membrane Remodeling By Nanospheres And Nanorods: Experiments Targeting The Design Principles For Membrane-Based Materials, Sarah Zuraw-Weston 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Controlled Membrane Remodeling By Nanospheres And Nanorods: Experiments Targeting The Design Principles For Membrane-Based Materials, Sarah Zuraw-Weston

Doctoral Dissertations

In this thesis we explore two experimental systems probing the interactions of nanoparticles with lipid bilayer membranes. Inspired by the ability of cell membranes to alter their shape in response to bound particles, we report two experimental studies: one of nanospheres the other of long, slender nano-rods binding to lipid bilayer vesicles and altering the membrane shape. Our work illuminates the role of particle geometry, particle concentration, adhesion strength and membrane tension in how membrane morphology is determined. We combine giant unilamellar vesicles with oppositely charged nanoparticles, carefully tuning adhesion strength, membrane tension and particle concentration.

In the case of ...


Approaches To Studying Bacterial Biofilms In The Bioeconomy With Nanofabrication Techniques And Engineered Platforms., Michelle Caroline Halsted 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Approaches To Studying Bacterial Biofilms In The Bioeconomy With Nanofabrication Techniques And Engineered Platforms., Michelle Caroline Halsted

Doctoral Dissertations

Studies that estimate more than 90% of bacteria subsist in a biofilm state to survive environmental stressors. These biofilms persist on man-made and natural surfaces, and examples of the rich biofilm diversity extends from the roots of bioenergy crops to electroactive biofilms in bioelectrochemical reactors. Efforts to optimize microbial systems in the bioeconomy will benefit from an improved fundamental understanding of bacterial biofilms. An understanding of these microbial systems shows promise to increase crop yields with precision agriculture (e.g. biosynthetic fertilizer, microbial pesticides, and soil remediation) and increase commodity production yields in bioreactors. Yet conventional laboratory methods investigate these ...


Understanding The Fundamentals Of Ionic Conductivity In Polymer Electrolytes, Eric Wayne Stacy 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Understanding The Fundamentals Of Ionic Conductivity In Polymer Electrolytes, Eric Wayne Stacy

Doctoral Dissertations

The rate of advancement for mobilized electronic technologies is outpacing the development of small efficient batteries. Lithium-ion batteries are currently the most widely used energy storage device for consumer electronics. Traditional lithium-ion batteries use a liquid electrolyte to separate the cathodes and anodes; however, conventional liquid electrolytes have inherent problems, such as consisting of flammable carbonate components, hazardous material, and have a significant cost/weight in the battery. In addition, the liquid electrolyte cannot prevent the growth of lithium dendrites during the charge/discharge cycle of the lithium-ion battery. These dendrites can connect the anode to the cathode of the ...


Nuclear-Targeted Gold Nanoparticles Enhance The Effects Of Radiation Therapy With And Without Liposomal Delivery, Maureen Aliru 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Nuclear-Targeted Gold Nanoparticles Enhance The Effects Of Radiation Therapy With And Without Liposomal Delivery, Maureen Aliru

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Less that 10% of pancreatic cancer patients are eligible for curative resection, and clinical trials evaluating chemoradiation in locally advanced patients with unresectable disease have been largely disappointing. New and creative therapeutic approaches are needed to address the unment need for treatment options. The objective of this thesis is to advance radiosensitization of treatment-resistant densely desmoplastic pancreatic cancer using nanoparticles to surmount biological barriers to effective particle distribution for DNA-targeting.

Clinical translation of radiosensitizing nanoparticles has stalled owing to technical challenges. Current strategies to use AuNPs for radiosensitization require large quantities of gold, kilovoltage x-rays, immediate irradiation after intravenous administration ...


Probing Structure, Function And Dynamics In Bacterial Primary And Secondary Transporter-Associated Binding Proteins, Shantanu Shukla 2020 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Probing Structure, Function And Dynamics In Bacterial Primary And Secondary Transporter-Associated Binding Proteins, Shantanu Shukla

Doctoral Dissertations

Substrate binding proteins (SBPs) are ubiquitous in all life forms and have evolved to perform diverse physiological functions, such as in membrane transport, gene regulation, neurotransmission, and quorum sensing. It is quite astounding to observe such functional diversity among the SBPs even when they are restricted by their fold space. Therefore, the SBPs are an excellent set of proteins that can reveal how proteins evolution novel function in a structurally conserved/constrained fold. This study attempts to understand the phenomenon of affinity and specificity evolution in SBPs by combining a set of biochemical, biophysical, and structural studies on the SBPs ...


Physical Models Of Living Systems 2nd Ed, New Chapter: Random Walks On An Energy Landscape, Philip C. Nelson 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Physical Models Of Living Systems 2nd Ed, New Chapter: Random Walks On An Energy Landscape, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

This chapter extends the first edition of Physical Models of Living Systems (WH Freeman 2015). This preliminary version is made freely available as-is in the hope that it will be useful.


Hyperpolarized Carbon-13 Magnetic Resonance Measurements Of Tissue Perfusion And Metabolism, Keith Michel 2020 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Hyperpolarized Carbon-13 Magnetic Resonance Measurements Of Tissue Perfusion And Metabolism, Keith Michel

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Hyperpolarized Magnetic Resonance Imaging (HP MRI) is an emerging modality that enables non-invasive interrogation of cells and tissues with unprecedented biochemical detail. This technology provides rapid imaging measurements of the activity of a small quantity of molecules with a strongly polarized nuclear magnetic moment. This polarization is created in a polarizer separate from the imaging magnet, and decays continuously towards a non-detectable thermal equilibrium once the imaging agent is removed from the polarizer and administered by intravenous injection. Specialized imaging strategies are therefore needed to extract as much information as possible from the HP signal during its limited lifetime.

In ...


Stability Of Group Four Monochalcogenides In Water And Air, William Shattuck 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Stability Of Group Four Monochalcogenides In Water And Air, William Shattuck

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Previously published works have simulated the behavior of monolayer group IV monochalcogenides and predicted them to have very useful electronic properties. These simulations have also predicted that monolayers of group IV monochalcogenides will degrade quickly when exposed to water, even in extremely low concentrations. We hypothesize that thin samples of these materials will show signs of degradation if left in air and in water for an extended period of time.

Samples of each of the four monochalcogenides (GeS, GeSe, SnS and SnSe) were exfoliated onto clean oxidized silicon substrates. Chemical analysis showed the SnSe samples were contaminated, so they were ...


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