Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biological and Chemical Physics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

848 Full-Text Articles 1,757 Authors 288,241 Downloads 118 Institutions

All Articles in Biological and Chemical Physics

Faceted Search

848 full-text articles. Page 3 of 31.

Protein Motifs For Proton Transfers That Build The Transmembrane Proton Gradient, Divya Kaur, Umesh Khaniya, Yingying Zhang, M. R. Gunner 2021 CUNY City College

Protein Motifs For Proton Transfers That Build The Transmembrane Proton Gradient, Divya Kaur, Umesh Khaniya, Yingying Zhang, M. R. Gunner

Publications and Research

Biological membranes are barriers to polar molecules, so membrane embedded proteins control the transfers between cellular compartments. Protein controlled transport moves substrates and activates cellular signaling cascades. In addition, the electrochemical gradient across mitochondrial, bacterial and chloroplast membranes, is a key source of stored cellular energy. This is generated by electron, proton and ion transfers through proteins. The gradient is used to fuel ATP synthesis and to drive active transport. Here the mechanisms by which protons move into the buried active sites of Photosystem II (PSII), bacterial RCs (bRCs) and through the proton pumps, Bacteriorhodopsin (bR), Complex I and Cytochrome ...


Electrochemical And Spectroscopic Characterization Of Cerium Salts And Nanoceria Material, Emily Velarde, Wei Zhou 2021 Kennesaw State University

Electrochemical And Spectroscopic Characterization Of Cerium Salts And Nanoceria Material, Emily Velarde, Wei Zhou

Symposium of Student Scholars

The nanoscale form of cerium oxide, nanoceria (nano-CeOx), has drawn great attention in recent years in electrochemical, nanomaterial research and medicinal studies due to its antibacterial properties, UV absorption, and its biochemical function as possible radical scavenger. Many new synthesis methods have achieved uniform and biocompatible nanoceria particles, and our lab has created cerium oxide particles that shows UV/Vis. absorption and X-ray patterns similar to the commercial nanoceria and nanoceria made in other research laboratories with novel synthetic methods.

This study focuses on charactering and comparing electrochemical properties of cerium inorganic salts and synthesized nanoceria. Preliminary results have ...


Raman Spectroscopic Characterisation Of Non Stimulated And Stimulated Human Whole Saliva, Genecy Calado, Isha Behl, Hugh Byrne, Fiona Lyng 2021 Technological University Dublin

Raman Spectroscopic Characterisation Of Non Stimulated And Stimulated Human Whole Saliva, Genecy Calado, Isha Behl, Hugh Byrne, Fiona Lyng

Articles

Human saliva is a unique biofluid which can reflect the physiopathological state of an individual. The wide spectrum of molecules present in saliva, compounded by the close association of salivary composition to serum metabolites, can provide valuable information for clinical diagnostic applications through highly sensitive vibrational spectroscopic techniques such as Raman spectroscopy. However, the nature of saliva, in terms of collection and patient-related characteristics, can be considered factors which may strongly affect the Raman spectral profile of salivary samples and disrupt the search for specific salivary biomarkers in the detection of diseases. The main objective of this study was to ...


Abhd5 Induced Morphological Changes On Model Membrane Systems, Nasser S. Junedi 2021 Wayne State University

Abhd5 Induced Morphological Changes On Model Membrane Systems, Nasser S. Junedi

Honors College Theses

Proper regulation of neutral lipid storage (lipogenesis) and release (lipolysis) are critical molecular processes localized to an organelle called the Lipid Droplet (LD). The LD consists of a core with neutral lipids such as triacylglycerols (TAGs) and sterol esters surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer. Dysregulation of the processes localized to the LD are involved in the pathology of various diseases such as Neutral Lipid Storage Disease, diabetes, stroke and cancer. The non-enzymatic protein ABHD5 (α-β Hydrolase Domain-Containing Protein 5), is thought to play a key role in the process of lipolysis by forming homo-oligomers on the surface of the LD ...


Synthetic Heterosynaptic Plasticity Enhances The Versatility Of Memristive Systems Emulating Bio-Synapse Structure And Function, William T. McClintic 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Synthetic Heterosynaptic Plasticity Enhances The Versatility Of Memristive Systems Emulating Bio-Synapse Structure And Function, William T. Mcclintic

Doctoral Dissertations

Memristive systems occur in nature and are hallmarked via pinched hysteresis, the difference in the forward and reverse pathways for a given phenomenon. For example, neurons of the human brain are composed of synapses which apply the properties of memristance for neuronal communication, learning, and memory consolidation. Modern technology has much to gain from the characteristics of memristive systems, including lower power operation, on-chip memory, and bio-inspired computing. What is more, a relationship between memristive systems and synaptic plasticity exists and can be investigated focusing on homosynaptic and heterosynaptic plasticity. Where homosynaptic plasticity applies to interactions between neurons at a ...


Identifying Skeletal Puberty Stages In A Modern Sample From The United States, Jordan T. Wright 2021 University of South Florida

Identifying Skeletal Puberty Stages In A Modern Sample From The United States, Jordan T. Wright

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Investigating the onset and progression of puberty can provide insight and evidence for social changes regarding the transition to adulthood. There are also many social factors that can lead to variation in the timing of the onset and progression of puberty. Methods created by Mary Lewis and Fiona Shapland for assessing changes in skeletal development associated with pubertal timing were applied to computerized tomography scans (n=400) from the New Mexico Decedent Image Database and recorded in an attempt to identify adolescent growth trends in a modern skeletal sample from the United States. This is a novel study using the ...


Pregnancy And Fertility Amongst Women With The Mthfr C677t Polymorphism: An Anthropological Review, Caroline A. MacLean 2021 University of South Florida

Pregnancy And Fertility Amongst Women With The Mthfr C677t Polymorphism: An Anthropological Review, Caroline A. Maclean

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Effects of the MTHFR C677T allele on reproduction include multiple complications. The frequency of births with neural tube defects, Down Syndrome, or recurrent pregnancy loss of CC, CT, and TT mothers was measured using data collected from existing literature. Total participants n=2605 (n=1111 cases, n=1494 controls). Results show that folic acid supplementation did not prevent the incidence of NTD pregnancy in CT women. Furthermore, CT women are more fecund overall, producing more pregnancies than CC and TT women. While CT case women did have higher incidences of RPL, NTD pregnancy and DS pregnancy, this is due to ...


Listening To Women: Using A Mixed-Methods Approach To Understanding Women’S Desires And Experience During Childbirth, Nicole Loraine Falk Smith 2021 University of South Florida

Listening To Women: Using A Mixed-Methods Approach To Understanding Women’S Desires And Experience During Childbirth, Nicole Loraine Falk Smith

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation is based on evolutionary medicine and applied anthropological research where the narratives and biology of modern women are used to inform evolutionary theory, specifically obligate midwifery, and modern birth practices. Improvements to the US maternity care systems are needed as rates of maternal mortality and morbidity are continually higher than rates in other technologically advanced nations. Additionally, women birthing under the technocratic model of care, as is predominant in the US, report trauma and post-traumatic stress disorders due to their birthing experience, and more women are experiencing postpartum depression. Thus, I seek to use an evolutionary medicine perspective ...


Toward Improving Understanding Of The Structure And Biophysics Of Glycosaminoglycans, Elizabeth K. Whitmore 2021 University of New England

Toward Improving Understanding Of The Structure And Biophysics Of Glycosaminoglycans, Elizabeth K. Whitmore

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are the linear carbohydrate components of proteoglycans (PGs) that mediate PG bioactivities, including signal transduction, tissue morphogenesis, and matrix assembly. To understand GAG function, it is important to understand GAG structure and biophysics at atomic resolution. This is a challenge for existing experimental and computational methods because GAGs are heterogeneous, conformationally complex, and polydisperse, containing up to 200 monosaccharides. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations come close to overcoming this challenge but are only feasible for short GAG polymers. To address this problem, we developed an algorithm that applies conformations from unbiased all-atom explicit-solvent MD simulations of short GAG polymers ...


Remotely Controlled Enzyme Behavior Using Localized Thermal Gradients, Sarah Brown 2021 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Remotely Controlled Enzyme Behavior Using Localized Thermal Gradients, Sarah Brown

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

No existing model describes an identified special case of enzyme behavior when directly stimulated with thermal energy via an RF field.

The ability to remotely influence cellular functions and outcomes is a new approach to targeted medicine. Nano-medicine and biotechnology are the future of medical diagnostics and treatment. The ability to remotely influence cellular functions and outcomes is a new approach to targeted medicine. Direct heating of an enzyme vs bulk heating changes the enzyme activity.

I tested how direct transfer of thermal energy changes rates of enzyme reactions. We created samples of enzymes, attached to ferrous (magnetic) nano-particles, and ...


Alternative View Of Oxygen Reduction On Porous Carbon Electrocatalysts: The Substance Of Complex Oxygen-Surface Interactions, Giacomo de Falco, Marc Florent, Jacek Jagiello, Yongqiang Cheng, Luke L. Daemen, Anibal J. Ramirez-Cuesta, Teresa J. Bandosz 2021 CUNY City College

Alternative View Of Oxygen Reduction On Porous Carbon Electrocatalysts: The Substance Of Complex Oxygen-Surface Interactions, Giacomo De Falco, Marc Florent, Jacek Jagiello, Yongqiang Cheng, Luke L. Daemen, Anibal J. Ramirez-Cuesta, Teresa J. Bandosz

Publications and Research

Electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is an important energy-related process requiring alternative catalysts to expensive platinum-based ones. Although recently some advancements in carbon catalysts have been reported, there is still a lack of understanding which surface features might enhance their efficiency for ORR. Through a detailed study of oxygen adsorption on carbon molecular sieves and using inelastic neutron scattering, we demonstrated here that the extent of oxygen adsorption/interactions with surface is an important parameter affecting ORR. It was found that both the strength of O2 physical adsorption in small pores and its specific interactions with surface ether functionalities in ...


Diagnostics Of A Large Volume Pin-To-Plate Atmospheric Plasma Source For The Study Of Plasma Species Interactions With Cancer Cell Cultures, Laurence Scally, Chaitanya Sarangapani, Brijesh Tiwari, Renee Malone, Hugh Byrne, James Curtin, P.J. Cullen 2021 Technological University Dublin, BioPlasma Research Group, Dublin, Ireland

Diagnostics Of A Large Volume Pin-To-Plate Atmospheric Plasma Source For The Study Of Plasma Species Interactions With Cancer Cell Cultures, Laurence Scally, Chaitanya Sarangapani, Brijesh Tiwari, Renee Malone, Hugh Byrne, James Curtin, P.J. Cullen

Articles

A large gap pin-to-plate, atmospheric pressure plasma reactor is demonstrated as means of in vitro study of plasma species interactions with cell cultures. By employing optical emission and optical absorption spectroscopy, we report that the pin-to-pate plasma array had an optimal discharge frequency for cell death of 1000 Hz in ambient air for the target cancer cell line; human glioblastoma multiform (U-251MG). The detected plasma chemistry contained reactive oxygen and nitrogen species including OH, N2, N2+, and O3. We show that, by varying the plasma discharge frequency, the plasma chemistry can be tailored to contain up to ...


Impact Of Dynamic Sub-Populations Within Grafted Chains On The Protein Binding And Colloidal Stability Of Pegylated Nanoparticles, Delyan Hristov, Hender Lopez, Yannick Ortin, Kate O'Sullivan, Kenneth A. Dawson, Dermot F. Brougham 2021 University College Dublin

Impact Of Dynamic Sub-Populations Within Grafted Chains On The Protein Binding And Colloidal Stability Of Pegylated Nanoparticles, Delyan Hristov, Hender Lopez, Yannick Ortin, Kate O'Sullivan, Kenneth A. Dawson, Dermot F. Brougham

Articles

Polyethylene glycol grafting has played a central role in preparing the surfaces of nano-probes for biological interaction, to extend blood circulation times and to modulate protein recognition and cellular uptake. However, the role of PEG graft dynamics and conformation in determining surface recognition processes is poorly understood primarily due to the absence of a microscopic picture of the surface presentation of the polymer. Here a detailed NMR analysis reveals three types of dynamic ethylene glycol units on PEG-grafted SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) of the type commonly evaluated as long-circulating theranostic nano-probes; a narrow fraction with fast dynamics associated with the chain ...


Determination Of The Rydberg Constant From The Emission Spectra Of H And He+, Kyle D. Shaffer 2021 Department of Chemistry, West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Determination Of The Rydberg Constant From The Emission Spectra Of H And He+, Kyle D. Shaffer

Ramifications

Abstract

In this experiment, the Rydberg constants for the hydrogen atom and He+ were determined by analysis of the emission spectra of Hand He, respectively, in comparison to the principal quantum numbers of each transition. Using both a hydrogen and then a helium atomic lamp attached to a 0.5 m grating spectrometer and a photomultiplier detector (PMT), a change in voltage detected by the PMT can be paired with a corresponding wavelength passing through the spectrometer from each emission peak in the visible to ultraviolet range. The peaks acquired from this change in voltage were analyzed to find their ...


The Potential Of Raman Spectroscopy In The Diagnosis Of Dysplastic And Malignant Oral Lesions, Ola Ibrahim, M. Toner, Steven Flint, Hugh Byrne, Fiona Lyng 2021 Technological University Dublin

The Potential Of Raman Spectroscopy In The Diagnosis Of Dysplastic And Malignant Oral Lesions, Ola Ibrahim, M. Toner, Steven Flint, Hugh Byrne, Fiona Lyng

Articles

Early diagnosis, treatment and/or surveillance of oral premalignant lesions are important in preventing progression to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The current gold standard is through histopathological diagnosis, which is limited by inter and intra observer and sampling errors. The objective of this work was to use Raman spectroscopy to discriminate between benign, mild, moderate and severe dysplasia and OSCC in formalin fixed paraffin preserved (FFPP) tissues. The study included 72 different pathologies from which 17 were benign lesions, 20 mildly dysplastic, 20 moderately dysplastic, 10 severely dysplastic and 5 invasive OSCC. The glass substrate and paraffin wax background ...


Biomedical Applications Of Vibrational Spectroscopy: Oral Cancer Diagnostics, Hugh Byrne, Isha Behl, Genecy Calado, Ola Ibrahim, M. Toner, Sheila Galvin, Claire M. Healy, Steven Flint, Fiona Lyng 2021 Technological University Dublin

Biomedical Applications Of Vibrational Spectroscopy: Oral Cancer Diagnostics, Hugh Byrne, Isha Behl, Genecy Calado, Ola Ibrahim, M. Toner, Sheila Galvin, Claire M. Healy, Steven Flint, Fiona Lyng

Articles

Vibrational spectroscopy, based on either infrared absorption or Raman scattering, has attracted increasing attention for biomedical applications. Proof of concept explorations for diagnosis of oral potentially malignant disorders and cancer are reviewed, and recent advances critically appraised. Specific examples of applications of Raman microspectroscopy for analysis of histological, cytological and saliva samples are presented for illustrative purposes, and the future prospects, ultimately for routine, chairside in vivo screening are discussed.


Using The Marcus Inverted Region And Artificial Cofactors To Create A Charge Separated State In De Novo Designed Proteins, Eskil ME Andersen 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Using The Marcus Inverted Region And Artificial Cofactors To Create A Charge Separated State In De Novo Designed Proteins, Eskil Me Andersen

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

To create an efficient de novo photosynthetic protein it is important to create long lived charge separated states. Achieving stable charge separation leads to an increase in the efficiency of the photosynthetic reaction which in turn leads to higher yields of end products, such as biofuels, electrical charge, or synthetic chemicals. In an attempt to create charge separated states in de novo proteins we hypothesized that we could engineer the free energy gaps in the proteins from excited primary donor (PD) to acceptor (A), and A back to ground state PD such that the forward electron transfer (ET) would be ...


Frozen In Time: A Numerical Modeling Approach To The Study Of Ice Bearing Planetesimals Through Carbonaceous Chondrites, Jasmine M. Bayron 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Frozen In Time: A Numerical Modeling Approach To The Study Of Ice Bearing Planetesimals Through Carbonaceous Chondrites, Jasmine M. Bayron

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Icy planetesimals are significant objects of study for meteoritics, planetary science, and astrobiology due to their connections to the origins of life and liquid water on Earth. An existing closed system aqueous alteration model was adapted to simulate several scenarios involving early Solar System geologic processes occurring in an icy planetesimal interior. The model described in this work has been developed not only to test the validity of constraints currently thought to apply to CM1 parent bodies, but to directly compare the implications of these constraints for the isotopic composition and the modal mineralogy of carbonaceous chondrites. Isotopic ratios of ...


Monitoring Stem Cell Differentiation Using Raman Microspectroscopy: Chondrogenic Differentiation, Towards Cartilage Formation, Francesca Ravera, Esen Efeoglu, Hugh Byrne 2021 Technological University Dublin

Monitoring Stem Cell Differentiation Using Raman Microspectroscopy: Chondrogenic Differentiation, Towards Cartilage Formation, Francesca Ravera, Esen Efeoglu, Hugh Byrne

Articles

Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) have the ability to differentiate into chondrocytes, the only cellular components of cartilage and are therefore ideal candidates for cartilage and tissue repair technologies. Chondrocytes are surrounded by cartilage-like extracellular matrix (ECM), a complex network rich in glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans, and collagen, which, together with a multitude of intracellular signalling molecules, trigger the chondrogenesis and allow the chondroprogenitor to acquire the spherical morphology of the chondrocytes. However, although the mechanisms of the differentiation of MSCs have been extensively explored, it has been difficult to provide a holistic picture of the process, in situ. Raman Micro Spectroscopy (RMS ...


Enhancement And Evaluation Of Proton Pencil Beam Spot Placement Algorithms, Mahboob Ur Rehman 2021 University of Central Florida

Enhancement And Evaluation Of Proton Pencil Beam Spot Placement Algorithms, Mahboob Ur Rehman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) in the form of pencil beam scanning (PBS) has shown improvement in treatment plan quality as compared to conventional proton and photon-based radiotherapy techniques. However, in IMPT maintaining a sharp lateral dose falloff is crucial for sparing organs at risk (OARs), especially when they are in close proximity to the target volume. The most common approach to improve lateral dose falloff is through the use of physical beam shaping devices, such as brass apertures or collimator-based systems. This work has shown that IMPT can be further improved by implementation of advanced spot placement techniques by ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress