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Electrochemical And Spectroscopic Characterization Of Cerium Salts And Nanoceria Material, Emily Velarde, Wei Zhou 2021 Kennesaw State University

Electrochemical And Spectroscopic Characterization Of Cerium Salts And Nanoceria Material, Emily Velarde, Wei Zhou

Symposium of Student Scholars

The nanoscale form of cerium oxide, nanoceria (nano-CeOx), has drawn great attention in recent years in electrochemical, nanomaterial research and medicinal studies due to its antibacterial properties, UV absorption, and its biochemical function as possible radical scavenger. Many new synthesis methods have achieved uniform and biocompatible nanoceria particles, and our lab has created cerium oxide particles that shows UV/Vis. absorption and X-ray patterns similar to the commercial nanoceria and nanoceria made in other research laboratories with novel synthetic methods.

This study focuses on charactering and comparing electrochemical properties of cerium inorganic salts and synthesized nanoceria. Preliminary results have ...


Abhd5 Induced Morphological Changes On Model Membrane Systems, Nasser S. Junedi 2021 Wayne State University

Abhd5 Induced Morphological Changes On Model Membrane Systems, Nasser S. Junedi

Honors College Theses

Proper regulation of neutral lipid storage (lipogenesis) and release (lipolysis) are critical molecular processes localized to an organelle called the Lipid Droplet (LD). The LD consists of a core with neutral lipids such as triacylglycerols (TAGs) and sterol esters surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer. Dysregulation of the processes localized to the LD are involved in the pathology of various diseases such as Neutral Lipid Storage Disease, diabetes, stroke and cancer. The non-enzymatic protein ABHD5 (α-β Hydrolase Domain-Containing Protein 5), is thought to play a key role in the process of lipolysis by forming homo-oligomers on the surface of the LD ...


Physics 516: Electromagnetic Phenomena (Spring 2020), Philip C. Nelson 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Physics 516: Electromagnetic Phenomena (Spring 2020), Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

These course notes are made publicly available in the hope that they will be useful. All reports of errata will be gratefully received. I will also be glad to hear from anyone who reads them, whether or not you find errors: pcn@upenn.edu.


Toward Improving Understanding Of The Structure And Biophysics Of Glycosaminoglycans, Elizabeth K. Whitmore 2021 University of New England

Toward Improving Understanding Of The Structure And Biophysics Of Glycosaminoglycans, Elizabeth K. Whitmore

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are the linear carbohydrate components of proteoglycans (PGs) that mediate PG bioactivities, including signal transduction, tissue morphogenesis, and matrix assembly. To understand GAG function, it is important to understand GAG structure and biophysics at atomic resolution. This is a challenge for existing experimental and computational methods because GAGs are heterogeneous, conformationally complex, and polydisperse, containing up to 200 monosaccharides. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations come close to overcoming this challenge but are only feasible for short GAG polymers. To address this problem, we developed an algorithm that applies conformations from unbiased all-atom explicit-solvent MD simulations of short GAG polymers ...


Statistics Of Velocity Fluctuations In A Homogeneous Liquid Fluidized Bed, Elise Alméras, Frédéric Risso, Olivier Masbernat, Rodney O. Fox 2021 Université de Toulouse

Statistics Of Velocity Fluctuations In A Homogeneous Liquid Fluidized Bed, Elise Alméras, Frédéric Risso, Olivier Masbernat, Rodney O. Fox

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

This work reports an experimental investigation of a liquid-solid fluidized bed involving inertial particles at a large Reynolds number. Owing to optical techniques and index matching, the statistics of the velocity fluctuations of both the particles and the liquid are measured for a wide range of the particle volume fraction αp. The dynamics of the fluctuations suggests that the flow possesses the following three properties: (1) The liquid volume involves a wake region in which vertical fluctuations are negative and an interstitial region where they are positive. (2) The statistics of the horizontal fluctuations are similar to vertical ones, except ...


Determination Of The Rydberg Constant From The Emission Spectra Of H And He+, Kyle D. Shaffer 2021 Department of Chemistry, West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Determination Of The Rydberg Constant From The Emission Spectra Of H And He+, Kyle D. Shaffer

Ramifications

Abstract

In this experiment, the Rydberg constants for the hydrogen atom and He+ were determined by analysis of the emission spectra of Hand He, respectively, in comparison to the principal quantum numbers of each transition. Using both a hydrogen and then a helium atomic lamp attached to a 0.5 m grating spectrometer and a photomultiplier detector (PMT), a change in voltage detected by the PMT can be paired with a corresponding wavelength passing through the spectrometer from each emission peak in the visible to ultraviolet range. The peaks acquired from this change in voltage were analyzed to find their ...


Competitive Formation Of Intercalated Versus Supported Metal Nanoclusters During Deposition On Layered Materials With Surface Point Defects, Yong Han, Ann Lii-Rosales, Michael C. Tringides, James W. Evans 2021 Ames Laboratory

Competitive Formation Of Intercalated Versus Supported Metal Nanoclusters During Deposition On Layered Materials With Surface Point Defects, Yong Han, Ann Lii-Rosales, Michael C. Tringides, James W. Evans

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Intercalated metal nanoclusters (NCs) can be formed under the surface of graphite after sputtering to generate surface “portal” defects that allow deposited atoms to reach the subsurface gallery. However, there is a competition between formation of supported NCs on top of the surface and intercalated NCs under the surface, the latter only dominating at sufficiently high temperature. A stochastic model incorporating appropriate system thermodynamics and kinetics is developed to capture this complex and competitive nucleation and growth process. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation shows that the model captures experimental trends observed for Cu and other metals and reveals that higher temperatures ...


Shallow-Circuit Variational Quantum Eigensolver Based On Symmetry-Inspired Hilbert Space Partitioning For Quantum Chemical Calculations, Feng Zhang, Niladri Gomes, Noah F. Berthusen, Peter P. Orth, Cai-Zhuang Wang, Kai-Ming Ho, Yong-Xin Yao 2021 Ames Laboratory

Shallow-Circuit Variational Quantum Eigensolver Based On Symmetry-Inspired Hilbert Space Partitioning For Quantum Chemical Calculations, Feng Zhang, Niladri Gomes, Noah F. Berthusen, Peter P. Orth, Cai-Zhuang Wang, Kai-Ming Ho, Yong-Xin Yao

Physics and Astronomy Publications

Development of resource-friendly quantum algorithms remains highly desirable for noisy intermediate-scale quantum computing. Based on the variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) with unitary coupled-cluster Ansatz, we demonstrate that partitioning of the Hilbert space made possible by the point-group symmetry of the molecular systems greatly reduces the number of variational operators by confining the variational search within a subspace. In addition, we found that instead of including all subterms for each excitation operator, a single-term representation suffices to reach required accuracy for various molecules tested, resulting in an additional shortening of the quantum circuit by a factor of 4–8. With these ...


Power Amplification Strategies Across Animals, Rayhan Asif 2021 The University of Akron

Power Amplification Strategies Across Animals, Rayhan Asif

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Animals use muscles for movement, but some have evolved mechanisms to exceed maximum power used in a motion known as power amplification. In this literature review, I analyzed and compared the evolution of structures capable of power amplification between species. Structures capable of power amplification were broken down into the basic components of the engine, amplifier, and tool. The species analyzed were found to possess necessary structures for power amplification which were relatively similar to each other in morphology, but varied greatly in function. The ease with which these structures evolved was evaluated based on the amount of divergence which ...


Predicting Material Properties: Applications Of Multi-Scale Multiphysics Numerical Modeling To Transport Problems In Biochemical Systems And Chemical Process Engineering, Tom Pace 2021 University of Kentucky

Predicting Material Properties: Applications Of Multi-Scale Multiphysics Numerical Modeling To Transport Problems In Biochemical Systems And Chemical Process Engineering, Tom Pace

Theses and Dissertations--Physics and Astronomy

Material properties are used in a wide variety of theoretical models of material behavior. Descriptive properties quantify the nature, structure, or composition of the material. Behavioral properties quantify the response of the material to an imposed condition. The central question of this work concerns the prediction of behavioral properties from previously determined descriptive properties through hierarchical multi-scale, multiphysics models implemented as numerical simulations. Applications covered focus on mass transport models, including sequential enzyme-catalyzed reactions in systems biology, and an industrial chemical process in a common reaction medium.


Enhancement And Evaluation Of Proton Pencil Beam Spot Placement Algorithms, Mahboob Ur Rehman 2021 University of Central Florida

Enhancement And Evaluation Of Proton Pencil Beam Spot Placement Algorithms, Mahboob Ur Rehman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

Intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) in the form of pencil beam scanning (PBS) has shown improvement in treatment plan quality as compared to conventional proton and photon-based radiotherapy techniques. However, in IMPT maintaining a sharp lateral dose falloff is crucial for sparing organs at risk (OARs), especially when they are in close proximity to the target volume. The most common approach to improve lateral dose falloff is through the use of physical beam shaping devices, such as brass apertures or collimator-based systems. This work has shown that IMPT can be further improved by implementation of advanced spot placement techniques by ...


Dual Beam Frequency Comb Ftir Spectroscopy, Connor Kelly 2021 University of Central Florida

Dual Beam Frequency Comb Ftir Spectroscopy, Connor Kelly

Electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2020-

A visible and Infrared (IR) range dual beam frequency comb Fourier transform spectrometer was developed. Using dual mode-locked Ti:Sapphire lasers a comb-interferogram was generated in the visible range. This spectrum was calculated and used to measure the transmittance of a Nd-doped crystal. The system was further developed to generate an IR interferogram by Difference Frequency Generation (DFG) using a Gallium Selenide (GaSe) crystal placed in the mode-locked pump beam. Numerical work was done to calculate the expected DFG spectrum confirming the necessary IR range can be reached. This has been conducted in support of an IR holographic spectroscopic microscopy ...


The Effects Of Increasing Positively Charged Metal Ions Within Synovial Fluid, Kandisi Anyabwile 2021 The University of Akron

The Effects Of Increasing Positively Charged Metal Ions Within Synovial Fluid, Kandisi Anyabwile

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that affects 10% of men and 13% of women over age of 60. It is the degradation of the cartilage between two bones; obesity, age, overuse, or injury are major contributors to the development of this disease. The joint is incapsulated by the synovial sac filled with a viscous solution that aids in lubrication referred to as synovial fluid. If the synovial sac is ruptured due to injury, positive ions (K+, Na+, Ca2+, and Fe3+) may affect viscoelastic properties within the sac. The purpose of this study was to understand how positive ...


Numerical Simulations Of Capsule Deformation Using A Dual Time-Stepping Lattice Boltzmann Method, Charles Armstrong, Yan Peng 2021 Old Dominion University

Numerical Simulations Of Capsule Deformation Using A Dual Time-Stepping Lattice Boltzmann Method, Charles Armstrong, Yan Peng

Mathematics & Statistics Faculty Publications

In this work a quasisteady, dual time-stepping lattice Boltzmann method is proposed for simulation of capsule deformation. At each time step the steady-state lattice Boltzmann equation is solved using the full approximation storage multigrid scheme for nonlinear equations. The capsule membrane is modeled as an infinitely thin shell suspended in an ambient fluid domain with the fluid structure interaction computed using the immersed boundary method. A finite element method is used to compute the elastic forces exerted by the capsule membrane. Results for a wide range of parameters and initial configurations are presented. The proposed method is found to reduce ...


Development And Characterization Of Nb₃N/Al₂0₃ Superconducting Multilayers For Particle Accelerators, Chris Sundahl, Junki Makita, Paul B. Welander, Yi-Feng Su, Fumitake Kametani, Lin Xie, Huimin Zhang, Lian Li, Alex Gurevich, Chang-Beom Eom 2021 Old Dominion University

Development And Characterization Of Nb₃N/Al₂0₃ Superconducting Multilayers For Particle Accelerators, Chris Sundahl, Junki Makita, Paul B. Welander, Yi-Feng Su, Fumitake Kametani, Lin Xie, Huimin Zhang, Lian Li, Alex Gurevich, Chang-Beom Eom

Physics Faculty Publications

Superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) resonator cavities provide extremely high quality factors > 1010 at 1-2 GHz and 2 K in large linear accelerators of high-energy particles. The maximum accelerating field of SRF cavities is limited by penetration of vortices into the superconductor. Present state-of-the-art Nb cavities can withstand up to 50 MV/m accelerating gradients and magnetic fields of 200-240 mT which destroy the low-dissipative Meissner state. Achieving higher accelerating gradients requires superconductors with higher thermodynamic critical fields, of which Nb3Sn has emerged as a leading material for the next generation accelerators. To overcome the problem of low vortex ...


Physical Models Of Living Systems 2nd Ed, New Chapter: Demographic Variation In Epidemic Spread, Philip C. Nelson 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Physical Models Of Living Systems 2nd Ed, New Chapter: Demographic Variation In Epidemic Spread, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

This chapter extends the first edition of Physical Models of Living Systems (WH Freeman 2015). This preliminary version is made freely available as-is in the hope that it will be useful.


Composite Network Of Actin And Microtubule Filaments, Self-Organization And Steady-State Dynamics, Leila Farhadi 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Composite Network Of Actin And Microtubule Filaments, Self-Organization And Steady-State Dynamics, Leila Farhadi

Doctoral Dissertations

Actin and microtubule filaments, with their auxiliary proteins, enable the cytoskeleton to perform vital processes in the cell by tuning the organizational, mechanical properties and dynamics of the network. Despite their critical importance and interactions in cells, we are only beginning to uncover information about the composite network. Here, I use florescence microscopy to explore the role of filaments characteristics, interactions and activities in the self-organization and steady-state dynamics of the composite network of filaments. First, I discuss active self-organization of semiflexible actin and rigid microtubule filaments in the 2D composite network while myosin II and kinesin-1 motor proteins propel ...


Controlled Membrane Remodeling By Nanospheres And Nanorods: Experiments Targeting The Design Principles For Membrane-Based Materials, Sarah Zuraw-Weston 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Controlled Membrane Remodeling By Nanospheres And Nanorods: Experiments Targeting The Design Principles For Membrane-Based Materials, Sarah Zuraw-Weston

Doctoral Dissertations

In this thesis we explore two experimental systems probing the interactions of nanoparticles with lipid bilayer membranes. Inspired by the ability of cell membranes to alter their shape in response to bound particles, we report two experimental studies: one of nanospheres the other of long, slender nano-rods binding to lipid bilayer vesicles and altering the membrane shape. Our work illuminates the role of particle geometry, particle concentration, adhesion strength and membrane tension in how membrane morphology is determined. We combine giant unilamellar vesicles with oppositely charged nanoparticles, carefully tuning adhesion strength, membrane tension and particle concentration.

In the case of ...


Live Cell Super-Resolution Microscopy Quanitifies An Interaction Between Influenza Hemagglutinin And Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate, Jaqulin N. Wallace 2020 The University of Maine

Live Cell Super-Resolution Microscopy Quanitifies An Interaction Between Influenza Hemagglutinin And Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate, Jaqulin N. Wallace

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Influenza virus, colloquially known as the flu, is an acute respiratory disease that infects several millions of individuals each year in the U.S. and kills tens of thousands of those infected. Yearly viral vaccines are widely available, however, due to the virus’s high mutation rate, their efficacy varies greatly. Due to the variability in vaccine efficiency against seasonal influenza, and the potential for even more pathogenic versions of influenza to emerge at any time, there is a high demand for a universal treatment option.

Influenza virus hijacks a variety of host cell components in order to replicate. The ...


Physical Models Of Living Systems 2nd Ed, New Chapter: Random Walks On An Energy Landscape, Philip C. Nelson 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Physical Models Of Living Systems 2nd Ed, New Chapter: Random Walks On An Energy Landscape, Philip C. Nelson

Department of Physics Papers

This chapter extends the first edition of Physical Models of Living Systems (WH Freeman 2015). This preliminary version is made freely available as-is in the hope that it will be useful.


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