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The Reactivity Of Metal Phosphites: Oxidative Rate Analysis, Jamie Kitchens 2021 Kennesaw State University

The Reactivity Of Metal Phosphites: Oxidative Rate Analysis, Jamie Kitchens

Symposium of Student Scholars

Phosphorous compounds are involved in many of the biomolecular processes deemed fundamental for life. DNA, ATP, and phospholipids are a few of the molecules where phosphates can be found in the body. Phosphates are geochemically characterized by their low solubility and poor reactivity. This has led to the investigation of reaction mechanisms that could lead to the formation of the phosphorous compounds found in organisms. The oxidation of phosphite into phosphate could be how phosphates were introduced to life, due to phosphites being more soluble and more reactive than phosphates. We will present the synthesis and oxidation reactivity of four ...


Cu-Promoted C-H Bond Hydroxylation Inspired By Cu-Dependent Metalloenzymes, Rachel Trammell 2021 Southern Methodist University

Cu-Promoted C-H Bond Hydroxylation Inspired By Cu-Dependent Metalloenzymes, Rachel Trammell

Chemistry Theses and Dissertations

From 2003 to 2015, Schӧnecker and Baran proposed a dinuclear Cu/O2 species in their mechanistic proposal for the hydroxylation of sp3 C-H bonds within their systems (proposed based on yields). Inspired from the site selectivity of this methodology and poor analysis of the mechanism, the first project was inspired to re-examine the sp3 C-H bond hydroxylation by Schrӧnecker and Baran and perform an intensive investigation into understanding how Cu/O2 interact which led us to propose a new mechanism based on the evidence collected (i.e., LCuII-hydroperoxide species that undergoes homolytic O-O bond ...


Suzuki Coupling Catalyzed By (8-(Dimesitylboryl)Quinoline)Palladium(0) Species: A Theoretical Analysis, Haley S. Rust 2021 University of South Dakota

Suzuki Coupling Catalyzed By (8-(Dimesitylboryl)Quinoline)Palladium(0) Species: A Theoretical Analysis, Haley S. Rust

Honors Thesis

The Suzuki reaction is a catalyzed cross-coupling reaction which is of upmost importance in the formation of carbon-carbon (C-C) bonds in modern organic synthesis. Recently a new catalyst including an 8-(dimesitylboryl)quinoline for the coupling of aryl halides with phenylboronic acids was synthetized. We synthesized ligand that includes a frustrated Lewis pair, (quinolin-8-yl)dimesitylborane (DMBQ), complexed it with group X metals (nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), and platinum (Pt)), and studied the process of oxidative addition with carbon-fluorine (C-F) bonds and activation towards Suzuki coupling. Mayer bond analysis and electron localization function maps showed a bond between the boron center ...


Computational And Experimental Studies Of Functionalized Phenolic Tertiary Phosphine Oxides As Organocatalysts For The Redox-Neutral Mitsunobu Reaction, Sadie Brown 2021 Duquesne University

Computational And Experimental Studies Of Functionalized Phenolic Tertiary Phosphine Oxides As Organocatalysts For The Redox-Neutral Mitsunobu Reaction, Sadie Brown

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this thesis was the identification of a more efficient catalyst analog that could perform the redox-neutral Mitsunobu reaction, which was achieved via two synthetic pathways: elimination-addition and addition-rearrangement. Furthermore, a computational investigation was conducted on the conflicting interpretations of the catalytic cycle. Our research group replicated Houk et al. work, as well as expanded the computations to examine the influence different functional groups had on the ground state and transition state structures. Important ground state and transition state structures were determined, which provided a more energetically favorable pathway of the catalytic cycle. Experimental work demonstrated that both ...


Structure Determination Of Pd2sin (N = 1 - 9) Clusters, Ryan Carlin 2021 Murray State University

Structure Determination Of Pd2sin (N = 1 - 9) Clusters, Ryan Carlin

Honors College Theses

The geometry and relative stability of small Pd2Sin (n = 1 - 9) clusters are determined using the B3LYP hybrid density functional theory method. Candidate structures are identified by the utilization of unbiased global optimization procedures. From the lowest energy geometries, binding energy, fragmentation energy, second-order energy difference, and frontier orbital gap energy are calculated to determine cluster stability. Pd2Sin (n = 8 and 9) adapts new lowest energy geometric configurations that have previously not been considered. Pd2Si5 is determined to have a high relative stability of the clusters within this size range.


Investigating The Role Of Charge Separation In Triplet State Formation In Zinc Dipyrrin Photosensitizers, Irene Y. Dzaye 2021 East Tennessee State University

Investigating The Role Of Charge Separation In Triplet State Formation In Zinc Dipyrrin Photosensitizers, Irene Y. Dzaye

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

About 85% of the world’s energy is derived from non-renewable sources—coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Solar photocatalysis is one way to potentially generate cheap renewable fuels by harnessing energy from the sun using a photosensitizer and converting it into chemical energy. The efficiency of a photosensitizer depends on its capacity to form a prolonged triplet excited state. Zinc dipyrrin complexes have the potential to be efficient sensitizers for reductive photochemistry, but their ability to form long-lived triplet excited states still needs extensive research. The overall aim of this research is to probe the role charge separation plays in ...


Synthesis Of A Zinc Dipyrrin Complex For Photocatalytic Reduction Of Co2, Sylvia Meredith 2021 East Tennessee State University

Synthesis Of A Zinc Dipyrrin Complex For Photocatalytic Reduction Of Co2, Sylvia Meredith

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Zinc dipyrrin complexes have the potential to act as cheap, effective photosensitizers. Synthesizing and studying different types could lead to more efficient solar energy harvesting processes, especially the production of solar fuel. Here, two attempts to synthesize 1,3,7,9-tetraphenyl-5-mesityldipyrromethene are reported and discussed. According to 1H NMR, the first synthesis attempt was not successful. The second synthesis attempt was not purified effectively, so 1H NMR produced inconclusive results. Further purification strategies or alternate synthesis methods are required.


Periodic Tabletalks: The Elements Never Go Out Of Style, Javier Vela, Emily A. Weiss 2021 Iowa State University

Periodic Tabletalks: The Elements Never Go Out Of Style, Javier Vela, Emily A. Weiss

Chemistry Publications

With the cancelation of the Spring ACS National meeting in 2020—and subsequent in-person meetings—because of the COVID-19 pandemic, the Division of Inorganic Chemistry (DIC) sought new ways to connect with its membership and continue to showcase the fantastic research carried out by inorganic chemists. The DIC executive committee thus initiated monthly Zoom webinars with two speakers each, typically one junior investigator and one more-established researcher, selected with input from each of the DIC subdivisions: Bioinorganic, Coordination, Solid-State, Organometallic, Nanoscience, and Sustainable Energy & Environment.


Visible Light Generation And Mechanistic Investigation Of High-Valent Metal-Oxo Species Supported By Different Ligands, Seth Ellis Klaine 2021 Western Kentucky University

Visible Light Generation And Mechanistic Investigation Of High-Valent Metal-Oxo Species Supported By Different Ligands, Seth Ellis Klaine

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Numerous transition metal catalysts have been designed as biomimetic model compounds for the active site of metalloenzymes found throughout Nature, most notably cytochrome P450 monooxygenases that carry out the oxidative transformations of organic substrates with near-perfect chemo-, regio-, and stereo-selectivity. The primary active oxidants in catalytic and enzymatic cycles are fleeting high-valent metal-oxo intermediates where the oxo ligand can transfer to an organic substrate in a process known as oxygen atom transfer (OAT).

In the present work, porphyrin-manganese(III), salen-chromium(III), and salenmanganese( III) derivatives were successfully synthesized and spectroscopically characterized using 1H NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopies. A facile photochemical ...


Synthesis And Catalytic Oxidation Of Organic Substrates By Light-Harvesting Metalloporphyrins, Christian Alcantar 2021 Western Kentucky University

Synthesis And Catalytic Oxidation Of Organic Substrates By Light-Harvesting Metalloporphyrins, Christian Alcantar

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

note: Some notation in this abstract may not appear exactly as formatted in the thesis.

In this work, ruthenium, iron, and manganese light-harvesting metalloporphyrins have been successfully synthesized to serve as biomimetic models of the active site of Cytochrome P450 for the development of a green and efficient oxidation catalyst. The covalent introduction of light-harvesting boron-dipyrrin (BODIPY) fluorophores on the porphyrin macrocycle allows for the absorption of a broader range of visible light in addition to that captured by the porphyrin aromatic system alone. It is expected that this core-antenna system will increase the absorbed light energy and transfer it ...


Interactions Of Organic Fluorophores With Plasmonic Surface Lattice Resonances, Robert J. Collison 2021 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Interactions Of Organic Fluorophores With Plasmonic Surface Lattice Resonances, Robert J. Collison

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

It is common knowledge that metals, alloys and pure elements alike, are lustrous and reflective, the more so when a metal surface is flat, polished, and free from oxidation and surface fouling. However, some metals reflect visible light, in the 380 nm to 740 nm range of wavelengths, much more strongly than others. In particular, some metals reflect wavelengths in certain portions of the ultraviolet (UV), visible, and near-infrared (NIR) regime, let us say 200 nm to 2000 nm, while absorbing light strongly in other segments of this range. There are several factors that account for this difference between various ...


Continuing The Metalation And Ring Closure Of Biliazine, Joshua Villers 2021 The University of Akron

Continuing The Metalation And Ring Closure Of Biliazine, Joshua Villers

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Continuing previous research conducted by Dr. Ziegler and his Graduate Students in which different metals were selected to metalate the compound Biliazine as well as finding metals that could be used to close the ring system in Biliazine.


The Rational Synthesis Of Lanthanum Manganite Nanomaterials For Magnetic Refrigeration Applications, Caitlin Hunt 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Rational Synthesis Of Lanthanum Manganite Nanomaterials For Magnetic Refrigeration Applications, Caitlin Hunt

Theses and Dissertations

Refrigeration systems for the cooling of commercial and residential buildings are a major drain on energy resources and source of greenhouse gas emissions. Magnetic refrigeration, which employs the magnetocaloric effect, has the potential to mitigate the energy drain and greenhouse gas emissions for air conditioning. In order to commercialize magnetic refrigerators, a material with a high magnetic entropy change, ΔS, near room temperature which is simple and inexpensive to create is needed.1 Current options for this solid refrigerant are either expensive, difficult to synthesize, or have a ΔS or Tc (the Curie Temperature, where ΔS is maximized) below ...


Lithium Nickel Borides: Evolution Of [Nib] Layers Driven By Li Pressure, Volodymyr Gvozdetskyi, Yang Sun, Xin Zhao, Gourab Bhaskar, Scott L. Carnahan, Colin P. Harmer, Feng Zhang, Raquel A. Ribeiro, Paul C. Canfield, Aaron J. Rossini, Cai-Zhuang Wang, Kai-Ming Ho, Julia V. Zaikina 2021 Iowa State University

Lithium Nickel Borides: Evolution Of [Nib] Layers Driven By Li Pressure, Volodymyr Gvozdetskyi, Yang Sun, Xin Zhao, Gourab Bhaskar, Scott L. Carnahan, Colin P. Harmer, Feng Zhang, Raquel A. Ribeiro, Paul C. Canfield, Aaron J. Rossini, Cai-Zhuang Wang, Kai-Ming Ho, Julia V. Zaikina

Chemistry Publications

Here we show the effect of Li chemical pressure on the structure of layered polymorphs with LiNiB composition: RT-LiNiB (room temperature polymorph) and HT-LiNiB (high temperature polymorph), resulting in stabilization of the novel RT-Li1+xNiB (x ∼ 0.17) and HT-Li1+yNiB (y ∼ 0.06) phases. Depending on the synthesis temperature and initial Li content, precisely controlled via hydride route synthesis, [NiB] layers undergo structural deformations, allowing for extra Li atoms to be accommodated between the layers. In situ variable temperature synchrotron and time-dependent laboratory powder X-ray diffraction studies suggest Li step-wise deintercalation processes: RT-Li1+xNiB → RT-LiNiB (high temp.) → LiNi3B1.8 ...


The Effects Of Increasing Positively Charged Metal Ions Within Synovial Fluid, Kandisi Anyabwile 2021 The University of Akron

The Effects Of Increasing Positively Charged Metal Ions Within Synovial Fluid, Kandisi Anyabwile

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that affects 10% of men and 13% of women over age of 60. It is the degradation of the cartilage between two bones; obesity, age, overuse, or injury are major contributors to the development of this disease. The joint is incapsulated by the synovial sac filled with a viscous solution that aids in lubrication referred to as synovial fluid. If the synovial sac is ruptured due to injury, positive ions (K+, Na+, Ca2+, and Fe3+) may affect viscoelastic properties within the sac. The purpose of this study was to understand how positive ...


Synthesis Of A Series Of Ag(I)-Nhc Complexes For Future Antibacterial Studies, Alyssa Malto 2021 Rollins College

Synthesis Of A Series Of Ag(I)-Nhc Complexes For Future Antibacterial Studies, Alyssa Malto

Honors Program Theses

For thousands of years, silver (Ag) has been widely used for medicinal purposes due to its broad-spectrum antimicrobial properties. While medicinal silver usage declined with the advent of antibiotics, there has been a renewed interest in therapeutic silver coordination compounds to combat the spread of antibiotic resistance. N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) are promising ligands for silver metallodrugs due to their wide structural variety that allows for tunability of the complex’s overall steric and electronic properties and previously established bioactivity against various pathogens and cancer cell lines. There is potential for efficacy against biofilms, a type of microbial growth pattern that ...


Fluorinated Phthalonitriles And Phthalocyanines: Synthesis And Spectroscopic Properties, Marius Pelmus 2020 Seton Hall University

Fluorinated Phthalonitriles And Phthalocyanines: Synthesis And Spectroscopic Properties, Marius Pelmus

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

Since their discovery at the beginning of the 20th century, phthalocyanines (Pc) have come a long way; today they are replacing the porphyrins (natural products) in most of their applications. The functionalization of the organic macrocycle, the use of different metals, and the change of the axial ligands resulted in Pc applications in a wide range of fields, ranging from photochemistry, paints, catalysis, to fuel cells and cosmetic products.

In Dr. Gorun’s group was developed a series of electron-deficient Pcs that benefit from a Teflon-like chemical shield, meant also to break the π-π interactions, namely the F64 ...


Integration And Optimization Of A 3d Printed Continuous Flow Reactor In An Inorganic Complexation Reaction, Calli Burnell 2020 State University of New York College at Brockport

Integration And Optimization Of A 3d Printed Continuous Flow Reactor In An Inorganic Complexation Reaction, Calli Burnell

Senior Honors Theses

Current inorganic lab setups do not allow students to use time in lab efficiently and does not allow students to do repeat runs of reactions due to time and material restraints. By implementing a 3D printed continuous flow reactor into the experiment students would be able to redo experiments in class without creating large amounts of waste, all while using a system that was created on campus at a reasonable price. It was found that a mixing chamber with an isobaric design created an environment that allowed complete mixing before reaching a point at which measurements are taken.


Ru(Ii)-Diimine Complexes And Cytochrome P450 Working Hand-In-Hand, Celine Eidenschenk, Lionel Cheruzel 2020 Genentech

Ru(Ii)-Diimine Complexes And Cytochrome P450 Working Hand-In-Hand, Celine Eidenschenk, Lionel Cheruzel

Faculty Publications, Chemistry

With a growing interest in utilizing visible light to drive biocatalytic processes, several light-harvesting units and approaches have been employed to harness the synthetic potential of heme monooxygenases and carry out selective oxyfunctionalization of a wide range of substrates. While the fields of cytochrome P450 and Ru(II) photochemistry have separately been prolific, it is not until the turn of the 21st century that they converged. Non-covalent and subsequently covalently attached Ru(II) complexes were used to promote rapid intramolecular electron transfer in bacterial P450 enzymes. Photocatalytic activity with Ru(II)-modified P450 enzymes was achieved under reductive conditions with ...


An Investigation Of Antenna, Ligand Side-Chain, And Metal Ion Effects On The Optical And Mri Properties Of Bimodal Lanthanide (Iii) Complexes, Marisa Poveda 2020 The University of San Francisco

An Investigation Of Antenna, Ligand Side-Chain, And Metal Ion Effects On The Optical And Mri Properties Of Bimodal Lanthanide (Iii) Complexes, Marisa Poveda

Master's Theses

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a leading anatomical imaging modality for disease diagnosis. With the aid of Gd3+ based contrast agents, high resolution images of biological structures can be obtained. However, there is an increased need for contrast agents that are responsive to specific analytes and chemical environments. Paramagnetic Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (PARACEST) agents that utilize a paramagnetic lanthanide ion chelated with a ligand have shown great promise in this area. Lanthanide ions also possess luminescence properties that do not suffer from common limitations of conventional optical imaging agents such as autofluorescence and photobleaching. The projects described in ...


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