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The Association Between Dengue Virus Infection And Liver And Kidney Function Among Cambodian Children, Ashley Moineau 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Association Between Dengue Virus Infection And Liver And Kidney Function Among Cambodian Children, Ashley Moineau

Masters Theses

Severe liver and kidney dysfunction are prevalent in 10%-30% of the Southeast Asian population. Dengue virus infection has been reported as a modifiable risk factor for liver and kidney dysfunction, especially among children in Southeast Asia. Epidemiologic studies assessing this relationship are sparse, often failed to include children, and did not adjust for important covariates. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between dengue virus infection and liver and kidney dysfunction among hospitalized children in Cambodia (n=551). Participants with a serologically confirmed dengue virus infection were categorized according to increasing severity of infection (i.e. dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever ...


Is Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Transmitted In Maine?, Eric J. Ray 2020 Maine Medical Center

Is Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Transmitted In Maine?, Eric J. Ray

Journal of Maine Medical Center

Introduction:

Tickborne disease occurs worldwide with recent recognition of changes in tick vector distributions. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever (RMSF) is already widespread across the United States; however, it is being monitored for introduction to non-endemic areas.

Clinical Findings:

A 65-year-old male with a history of psoriatic arthritis on adalimumab and local tick exposures but no known recent bites presented to the emergency department with fevers, myalgias, arthralgias, and a maculopapular rash of unclear etiology. Initial testing showed transaminitis, worsened chronic thrombocytopenia, and slight neutropenia with absolute neutrophil count 2,330 (reference value: 2,400-7,600 cells per µL); however, he ...


Predictors Of Biologic Use And Satisfaction Among Patients With Psoriasis: An Analysis And Geographic Visualization Of The 2016 And 2017 National Psoriasis Foundation Annual Surveys, Clinton W. Enos, Hadiza I. Galadima, Arjun Saini, Stacie Bell, Michael Siegel, Abby S. Van Voorhees 2020 Old Dominion University

Predictors Of Biologic Use And Satisfaction Among Patients With Psoriasis: An Analysis And Geographic Visualization Of The 2016 And 2017 National Psoriasis Foundation Annual Surveys, Clinton W. Enos, Hadiza I. Galadima, Arjun Saini, Stacie Bell, Michael Siegel, Abby S. Van Voorhees

Community & Environmental Health Faculty Publications

Background: There are an increasing number of biologic therapies approved for the treatment of psoriasis. Previous reports have identified undertreatment as a concern in the United States. Undertreatment has been associated with decreased patient satisfaction and increased morbidity.

Objectives: Assess biologic use and satisfaction among respondents to the 2016 and 2017 National Psoriasis Foundation (NPF) Annual Surveys.

Methods: Retrospective data analysis of the 2016 and 2017 NPF Annual Survey responses from individuals with psoriasis. ArcGIS Pro software was utilized to generate maps and perform an optimized hot spot analysis of moderate-to-severe psoriasis and biologic use.

Results: There were 427 patients ...


Characterization Of Molecular Pattern In Sensory Pain Signaling Following Mustard Exposure On Mouse Ear Vesicant Model, Hong-Duck Kim, Diane E. Heck 2020 New York Medical College

Characterization Of Molecular Pattern In Sensory Pain Signaling Following Mustard Exposure On Mouse Ear Vesicant Model, Hong-Duck Kim, Diane E. Heck

Annual SHSP Student Research and Scholarship Day

No abstract provided.


Translating Clinical And Patient-Reported Data To Tailored Shared Decision Reports With Predictive Analytics For Knee And Hip Arthritis, Patricia D. Franklin, Hua Zheng, Christina Bond, Danielle C. Lavallee 2020 Northwestern University

Translating Clinical And Patient-Reported Data To Tailored Shared Decision Reports With Predictive Analytics For Knee And Hip Arthritis, Patricia D. Franklin, Hua Zheng, Christina Bond, Danielle C. Lavallee

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

INTRODUCTION: New informatics tools can transform evidence-based information to individualized predictive reports to serve shared decisions in clinic. We developed a web-based system to collect patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and medical risk factors and to compare responses to national registry data. The system generates predicted outcomes for individual patients and a report for use in clinic to support decisions. We present the report development, presentation, and early experience implementing this PRO-based, shared decision report for knee and hip arthritis patients seeking orthopedic evaluation.

METHODS: Iterative patient and clinician interviews defined report content and visual display. The web-system supports: (a) collection of ...


We Are Not Alone In Trying To Be Alone, Patricia C. Lopes 2020 Chapman University

We Are Not Alone In Trying To Be Alone, Patricia C. Lopes

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Certain diseases, like colds, tend not to stop us. A paracetamol here, an ibuprofen there, and we are on the go. That is, until we, as a species, are faced with a virus that not only spreads through social contact, but has an estimated reproductive number of 2 to 2.5 and potentially kills 3–4% of those infected (WHO, 2020). To reduce transmission probability of COVID-19, governmental agencies around the world have recommended or enforced measures to decrease social contact; early evidence suggests these measures produce the intended effect (Kucharski et al., 2020).


Ophthalmology Lecture 1: Ophthalmology Fundamentals, Louis Oteng-Gyimah 2020 Sunyani SDA Hospital

Ophthalmology Lecture 1: Ophthalmology Fundamentals, Louis Oteng-Gyimah

PEER Liberia Project

The goals of this presentation are: to provide an introduction to the responsibilities of an ophthalmologist and to ophthalmology as a medical specialty; to review the clinically relevant anatomy of the eye; to review the epidemiology of blindness and visual impairment; and to provide an overview of refractive errors and presbyopia.


Predicting Mortality In Children With Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Incidence And Epidemiology Study, Nadir Yehya, Stacey L. Valentine 2020 University of Pennsylvania

Predicting Mortality In Children With Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Incidence And Epidemiology Study, Nadir Yehya, Stacey L. Valentine

Pediatric Publications

OBJECTIVES: Pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome is heterogeneous, with a paucity of risk stratification tools to assist with trial design. We aimed to develop and validate mortality prediction models for patients with pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome.

DESIGN: Leveraging additional data collection from a preplanned ancillary study (Version 1) of the multinational Pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress syndrome Incidence and Epidemiology study, we identified predictors of mortality. Separate models were built for the entire Version 1 cohort, for the cohort excluding neurologic deaths, for intubated subjects, and for intubated subjects excluding neurologic deaths. Models were externally validated in a cohort of ...


Laws Restricting Access To Abortion Services And Infant Mortality Risk In The United States, Roman Pabayo, Amy Ehntholt, Daniel M. Cook, Megan Reynolds, Peter Muennig, Sze Yan Liu 2020 University of Edmonton

Laws Restricting Access To Abortion Services And Infant Mortality Risk In The United States, Roman Pabayo, Amy Ehntholt, Daniel M. Cook, Megan Reynolds, Peter Muennig, Sze Yan Liu

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Objectives: Since the US Supreme Court′s 1973 Roe v. Wade decision legalizing abortion, states have enacted laws restricting access to abortion services. Previous studies suggest that restricting access to abortion is a risk factor for adverse maternal and infant health. The objective of this investigation is to study the relationship between the type and the number of state-level restrictive abortion laws and infant mortality risk. Methods: We used data on 11,972,629 infants and mothers from the US Cohort Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Files 2008–2010. State-level abortion laws included Medicaid funding restrictions, mandatory parental involvement, mandatory ...


Association Between Racial Discrimination And Health‐Related Quality Of Life And The Impact Of Social Relationships, Sze Yan Liu, Genevieve Bergeron, Nneka Lundy De La Cruz, L. Hannah Gould, Amber Levanon Seligson 2020 Montclair State University

Association Between Racial Discrimination And Health‐Related Quality Of Life And The Impact Of Social Relationships, Sze Yan Liu, Genevieve Bergeron, Nneka Lundy De La Cruz, L. Hannah Gould, Amber Levanon Seligson

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Purpose: Interpersonal racial discrimination is associated with poor health. Social relationships may moderate the impact of discrimination and represent modifiable behaviors that can be targeted by public health interventions. We described citywide associations between self-reported racial discrimination and health-related quality of life among the overall New York City (NYC) adult residential population and by four main race/ethnicity groups and explored whether social relationships moderated health effects of discrimination.

Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional survey data from 2335 adults weighted to be representative of the NYC population. We measured exposures to lifetime interpersonal racial discrimination in nine domains using a modifed ...


Modified Cha2ds2-Vasc Score Predicts In-Hospital Mortality And Procedural Complications In Acute Coronary Syndrome Treated With Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, Ashraf Abugroun, Abdalla Hassan, Safwan Gaznabi, Hakeem Ayinde, Ahmed Subahi, Mohammed Samee, Adhir Shroff, Lloyd W. Klein 2020 Wayne State University

Modified Cha2ds2-Vasc Score Predicts In-Hospital Mortality And Procedural Complications In Acute Coronary Syndrome Treated With Percutaneous Coronary Intervention, Ashraf Abugroun, Abdalla Hassan, Safwan Gaznabi, Hakeem Ayinde, Ahmed Subahi, Mohammed Samee, Adhir Shroff, Lloyd W. Klein

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Background: Current risk prediction models in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing PCI are mathematically complex. This study was undertaken to assess the accuracy of a modified CHA2DS2-VASc score, comprised of easily accessible clinical factors in predicting adverse events.

Methods: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) was queried for ACS patients who underwent PCI between 2010 and 2014. We developed a modified CHA2DS2-VASc score for risk prediction in ACS patients. Multivariate mixed effect logistic regression was utilized to study the adjusted risk for adverse outcomes based on the score. The primary outcome evaluated was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes assessed were stroke ...


Tobacco Smoke Exposures And Fertility-Related Outcomes Among Females Seeking Fertility Care, And The Interaction With N-Acetyltransferase 2 (Nat2).., T'shura S. A. Ali 2020 University of Louisville

Tobacco Smoke Exposures And Fertility-Related Outcomes Among Females Seeking Fertility Care, And The Interaction With N-Acetyltransferase 2 (Nat2).., T'Shura S. A. Ali

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cigarette smoke contains thousands of harmful substances and is one of the leading preventable causes of mortality and morbidity in the United States. Past studies examining tobacco smoke exposures on fecundability and pregnancy outcomes are inconsistent. NAT2 is an important enzyme in the metabolism of xenobiotic substances found within tobacco smoke. This preconception cohort study examines associations between active smoking and secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) on fecundability and spontaneous abortion (SA), and explores a possible interaction with NAT2 acetylator status. A total of 223 women seeking fertility care were followed for up to 2.3 years. Preconception tobacco smoke exposures ...


Epidemiologic Survey Of Legionella Urine Antigen Testing Within A Large Wisconsin-Based Health Care System, Caroline P. Toberna, Hannah M. William, Jessica J. F. Kram, Kayla Heslin, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2020 Aurora Research Institute; Center for Urban Population Health; Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Epidemiologic Survey Of Legionella Urine Antigen Testing Within A Large Wisconsin-Based Health Care System, Caroline P. Toberna, Hannah M. William, Jessica J. F. Kram, Kayla Heslin, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Legionella pneumophila pneumonia is a life-threatening, environmentally acquired infection identifiable via Legionella urine antigen tests (LUAT). We aimed to identify cumulative incidence, demographic distribution, and undetected disease outbreaks of Legionella pneumonia via positive LUAT in a single eastern Wisconsin health system, with a focus on urban Milwaukee County.

Methods: A multilevel descriptive ecologic study was conducted utilizing electronic medical record data from a large integrated health care system of patients who underwent LUAT from 2013 to 2017. A random sample inclusive of all positive tests was reviewed to investigate geodemographic differences among patients testing positive versus negative. Statistical comparisons ...


Effect Of Poverty Level On The Relationship Between Hyperlipidemia And Cardiorenal Syndrome, Sri K. Banerjee MD, PhD, Raymond Panas, James Diegel, Karen Banerjee 2020 Walden University, Core Faculty, Program Director Designee, College of Health Sciences

Effect Of Poverty Level On The Relationship Between Hyperlipidemia And Cardiorenal Syndrome, Sri K. Banerjee Md, Phd, Raymond Panas, James Diegel, Karen Banerjee

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Purpose. Elevated cholesterol is known to be associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) independently. Cardiorenal syndrome (CRS), a recently defined syndrome, is characterized by renal failure that is closely interrelated to cardiac dysfunction. The effect of socioeconomic status on cardiorenal syndrome has not been explored in a multi-ethnic population. In this retrospective secondary analysis, the hypothesis was tested if socioeconomic status modifies the effect of hyperlipidemia on CRS.

Methods. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a cross sectional survey done on the non-institutionalized population of the United States. All patients from the NHANES ...


Vaccines In Current Culture: The Hpv Vaccine Controversy, Alyssa Johnston 2020 Liberty University

Vaccines In Current Culture: The Hpv Vaccine Controversy, Alyssa Johnston

Senior Honors Theses

The use of vaccinations has drastically decreased mortality and morbidity rates related to infectious disease and has become an intrinsic part of modern health care. However, the fear of risks related to vaccines has been partially responsible for the decisions of many parents to delay or avoid vaccinating their children. The human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine specifically is one of the most controversial vaccines in current culture due to reports of new onset or exacerbation of autoimmune diseases, infertility, and even death following its administration. This review synthesizes information regarding the relevance and safety of the HPV vaccine, as well ...


Alcohol_Focused Drowning Prevention Campaigns: What Do We Know And What Should We Do Now?, Hannah Calverley, Lauren Petrass, Jennifer Blitvich 2020 Federation University, Austalia

Alcohol_Focused Drowning Prevention Campaigns: What Do We Know And What Should We Do Now?, Hannah Calverley, Lauren Petrass, Jennifer Blitvich

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Alcohol and drugs have been identified as key risk factors for youth (aged 15-24 years) and adult drownings in high-income countries (HIC). Whilst alcohol specific drowning prevention education programs have been developed and implemented, youth continue to be over-represented in drowning statistics, including those linked with alcohol. Therefore, this project aimed to: (i) review and assess all alcohol themed drowning prevention campaigns within HICs; (ii) determine whether the campaign had undergone evaluation for effectiveness; and (iii) provide recommendations to improve the effectiveness of future interventions. For each of the eighty-one HICs identified for the 2019 fiscal year, searches of peer-reviewed ...


Socio-Ecological Nature Of Drowning In Low- And Middle-Income Countries: A Review To Inform Health Promotion Approaches, Muthia Cenderadewi, Richard Charles Franklin, Susan Devine 2020 James Cook University, Australia; the University of Mataram, Indonesia

Socio-Ecological Nature Of Drowning In Low- And Middle-Income Countries: A Review To Inform Health Promotion Approaches, Muthia Cenderadewi, Richard Charles Franklin, Susan Devine

International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education

Most deaths by drowning (91%) have occurred in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), particularly in Southeast Asia (35%) and Africa (20%), in proportion to total drowning deaths worldwide. Poor data collection in LMICs hinders the planning, implementation, and evaluation of prevention strategies. The objective of this study was to review the rates and risk factors of unintentional drowning in LMICs and to identify drowning prevention strategies within a socio-ecological health promotion framework. A systematic search, guided by PRISMA, was conducted on Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, Informit health, PsycINFO (ProQuest), Scopus, SafetyLit, Google Scholar, and BioMed Central databases for all relevant studies ...


Comorbidity Factors Influence Covid-19 Mortality Much More Than Age, Steven Gjerstad, Andrea Molle 2020 Chapman University

Comorbidity Factors Influence Covid-19 Mortality Much More Than Age, Steven Gjerstad, Andrea Molle

ESI Working Papers

This paper demonstrates that once we control for comorbidity factors, age has a minor effect on COVID-19 mortality. This has implications for the treatment of current and recovered COVID-19 patients, including health screenings of recovered COVID-19 patients, triage decisions for patients in critical care, and prioritization of vaccinations when one is developed. The coronavirus epidemic in Italy has strained hospital resources, including ICU beds and ventilators for those experiencing acute respiratory failure. Studies of COVID-19 in China [1], Italy [2], and the United States [3] show that fatality rates increase rapidly with age, especially beyond age 60. The same studies ...


Novel Coronavirus (2019-Ncov) In Disguise, Qian Zhang, Annyella Douglas, Zain U. Abideen, Shristi Khanal, Stephanie Tzarnas 2020 Thomas Jefferson University

Novel Coronavirus (2019-Ncov) In Disguise, Qian Zhang, Annyella Douglas, Zain U. Abideen, Shristi Khanal, Stephanie Tzarnas

Abington Jefferson Health Papers

Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pandemic is currently one of the most influential topics as it not only impacts the field of medicine but most importantly, it affects the lives of many individuals throughout the world. We report an interesting 2019-nCoV case in a tertiary community hospital with the initial concern of acute pyelonephritis without respiratory symptoms that ultimately led to the quarantine of a number of healthcare providers. This case emphasizes the importance of radiological evidence in diagnosing 2019-nCoV in the setting of an initial atypical presentation. It also serves as an example of how healthcare providers may need to increase ...


Optimisation Of Vitamin D Status For Enhanced Immuno-Protection Against Covid-19, Daniel McCartney, Declan G. Byrne 2020 Technological University Dublin

Optimisation Of Vitamin D Status For Enhanced Immuno-Protection Against Covid-19, Daniel Mccartney, Declan G. Byrne

Articles

Abstract

Background

Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25(OH)D<50nmol/l) is common in Ireland, particularly amongst older adults, hospital inpatients and nursing home residents. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of acute viral respiratory infection and community acquired pneumonia, with several molecular mechanisms proposed to explain this association. Vitamin D supplementation has also been shown to reduce the risk of respiratory infection.

Vitamin D and Covid-19

Correction of vitamin D deficiency is thought to suppress CD26, a putative adhesion molecule for Covid-19 host cell invasion. Vitamin D may also attenuate interferon gamma (IFNγ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) inflammatory responses, both potent predictors of poorer outcome in critically-ill ventilated patients including those with Covid-19.

Vitamin D Requirements

Irish adults require 25-30μg/d of vitamin D3, an intake not achievable by diet alone, to reliably maintain serum 25(OH)D levels >50nmol/l. Supplementation with doses up to 100μg/d has been shown to be safe ...


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