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Acute Ischemic Stroke As The Presenting Feature Of Covid-19 In The Young And Pregnant, Nermila A. Ballmick, Jiri F. Kubac, Hossein Akhondi 2020 MountainView Hospital-Nevada

Acute Ischemic Stroke As The Presenting Feature Of Covid-19 In The Young And Pregnant, Nermila A. Ballmick, Jiri F. Kubac, Hossein Akhondi

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Introduction: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an emerging and rapidly evolving public health issue that has become globally widespread and an overwhelming pandemic. Clinical manifestations of the disease include asymptomatic carrier states, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and even multiorgan dysfunction. Here, we present a unique and rare case of an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in an asymptomatic pregnant woman with no predisposing medical illnesses.

Discussion: An 18-year-old G2P1 African American woman at 7 weeks gestational age with no significant medical or family history presenting to the Emergency Department during the initial phases of the pandemic with complaints of new onset left ...


Epidemiology And Pathophysiology Of Common Skin Diseases In West Africa: An Immunodermatological Framework, Osazomon Imarenezor 2020 Nova Southeastern University

Epidemiology And Pathophysiology Of Common Skin Diseases In West Africa: An Immunodermatological Framework, Osazomon Imarenezor

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

This capstone reviews the common skin diseases on a global scale. With these dermatoses being further funneled into Africa and then magnified into common West African dermatoses, the meta-analyses of literature available paints a clear picture of the epidemiological & pathological factors and their contribution to the skin disease. Each article analysed in this analysis was taken from a 20-year span of January 2000 to December 2019. The selection of articles was fine-tuned by identifying the distribution of skin disease, revealing the populations affected (age, gender, ethnicity, etc), the main causes, country of origin, the prognosis of disease, and the pathology ...


FacebookʼS Latest Attempt To Address Vaccine Misinformation — And Why ItʼS Not Enough, Ana Santos Rutschman 2020 Saint Louis University School of Law

FacebookʼS Latest Attempt To Address Vaccine Misinformation — And Why ItʼS Not Enough, Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

On October 13, 2020 Facebook announced the adoption of a series of measures to promote vaccine trust “while prohibiting ads with misinformation that could harm public health efforts.” In the post written by Kang-Xing Jin (head of health) and Rob Leathern (director of product management), the company explained that the new measures were designed with an emphasis on encouraging widespread use of this yearʼs flu vaccine, as well as in anticipation of potential COVID-19 vaccines becoming available in the near future.

The changes focus mainly on the establishment of a multiprong informational campaign about the seasonal flu vaccine, which includes ...


Knowledge And Attitude Toward Common Cold In Beirut, Lebanon, Ghida Itani, Maha Aboul Ela, Souraya Domiati 2020 Clinical Instructor, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon

Knowledge And Attitude Toward Common Cold In Beirut, Lebanon, Ghida Itani, Maha Aboul Ela, Souraya Domiati

BAU Journal - Health and Wellbeing

Background Common cold is a self- limiting condition targeting the upper respiratory tract. Even though it resolves on its own yet it accounts for 40% of absentees from work and a large number of visits to the physician clinic. The most common sign and symptoms include sore throat, coryza, runny nose or congestion, muscle pain, and sometimes cough. Symptomatic treatment of this minor ailment can be either by herbal products or over the counter drugs. Nevertheless, it is always mistaken for Influenza or bacterial infection. The proper knowledge of this condition could prevent mistreatment and would keep the country’s ...


Three Decades Of Research: The Case For Comprehensive Sex Education, Eva Goldfarb, Lisa D. Lieberman 2020 Montclair State University

Three Decades Of Research: The Case For Comprehensive Sex Education, Eva Goldfarb, Lisa D. Lieberman

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Purpose

School-based sex education plays a vital role in the sexual health and well-being of young people. Little is known, however, about the effectiveness of efforts beyond pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease prevention. The authors conducted a systematic literature review of three decades of research on school-based programs to find evidence for the effectiveness of comprehensive sex education.

Methods

Researchers searched the ERIC, PsycINFO, and MEDLINE. The research team identified papers meeting the systematic literature review criteria. Of 8,058 relevant articles, 218 met specific review criteria. More than 80% focused solely on pregnancy and disease prevention and were excluded ...


Three Decades Of Research: The Case For Comprehensive Sex Education, Eva Goldfarb, Lisa D. Lieberman 2020 Montclair State University

Three Decades Of Research: The Case For Comprehensive Sex Education, Eva Goldfarb, Lisa D. Lieberman

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Purpose

School-based sex education plays a vital role in the sexual health and well-being of young people. Little is known, however, about the effectiveness of efforts beyond pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease prevention. The authors conducted a systematic literature review of three decades of research on school-based programs to find evidence for the effectiveness of comprehensive sex education.

Methods

Researchers searched the ERIC, PsycINFO, and MEDLINE. The research team identified papers meeting the systematic literature review criteria. Of 8,058 relevant articles, 218 met specific review criteria. More than 80% focused solely on pregnancy and disease prevention and were excluded ...


Bear River Health Department: Covid-19 Contact Tracing, Mike Dixon, Zach Rusk 2020 Utah State University

Bear River Health Department: Covid-19 Contact Tracing, Mike Dixon, Zach Rusk

Huntsman School of Business Teaching Scholarship Series

This case introduces students to a highly variable process that has uncertain demand and processing times. It describes the contact tracing efforts as a response to positive Covid-19 cases in a rural health district in the state of Utah during the first 9 months of the pandemic of 2020. The case puts students in the shoes of the managing director of a health department trying to decide how to best manage a team of contact tracers who are increasingly unable to timely complete their work that is vital to stopping the spread of the disease.


The Occupational Depression Inventory: A New Tool For Clinicians And Epidemiologists, Renzo Bianchi, Irvin Sam Schonfeld 2020 Université de Neuchâtel

The Occupational Depression Inventory: A New Tool For Clinicians And Epidemiologists, Renzo Bianchi, Irvin Sam Schonfeld

Publications and Research

Background: Depressive symptoms induced by insurmountable job stress and sick leave for mental health reasons have become a focal concern among occupational health specialists. The present study introduces the Occupational Depression Inventory (ODI), a measure designed to quantify the severity of work-attributed depressive symptoms and establish provisional diagnoses of job-ascribed depression. The ODI comprises nine symptom items and a subsidiary question assessing turnover intention. Methods: A total of 2254 employed individuals were recruited in the U.S., New Zealand, and France. We examined the psychometric and structural properties of the ODI as well as the nomological network of work-attributed depressive ...


Prevalence Of Tuberculosis In District Haveli, Azad Jammu And Kashmir, Abu ul Hassan Faiz, Ghazal Tariq, Ayesha Faiz, Lariab Zahra Faiz 2020 Department of Zoology, Women University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Bagh, Pakistan

Prevalence Of Tuberculosis In District Haveli, Azad Jammu And Kashmir, Abu Ul Hassan Faiz, Ghazal Tariq, Ayesha Faiz, Lariab Zahra Faiz

Journal of Bioresource Management

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease with a common occurrence in population of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The current study was designed to find out the prevalence of TB among the general population of a less developed District Haveli. Samples were collected from different hospitals and TB centers located in district Haveli and tested through sputum smear microscopy for conformation of positive for TB. The three-year (2015 to 2018) study was conducted to record prevalence of tuberculosis in selected area of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The trend line of prevalence was made by using (SPSS software). Results produced linear trends yearly ...


A Retrospective Analysis Of Sex Education Messages Received By Lgb Youth, Jacqueline Bible, Alejandra Kaplan, Lisa D. Lieberman, Eva Goldfarb 2020 Illinois State University

A Retrospective Analysis Of Sex Education Messages Received By Lgb Youth, Jacqueline Bible, Alejandra Kaplan, Lisa D. Lieberman, Eva Goldfarb

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Using focus groups, this qualitative study asked thirty-five gay, lesbian, and bisexual (LGB) young adults to reflect on messages they received about sex and sexuality around the time they first had sex. Focus groups were conducted, recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Through thematic analysis, the authors identified two messaging sources identified by participants: (1) formal education sources (i.e., school and parents), and (2) informal education sources (e.g., internet, peers). Formal sources often included messages perpetuating heteronormative assumptions, emphasizing abstinence, pregnancy and HIV/STI prevention, or silence as a form of messaging. Informal sources consisted of LGB-specific information. These findings ...


Clinically Meaningful Change In Quality Of Life And Associated Factors Among Older Patients With Atrial Fibrillation, Hawa Ozien Abu, Jane S. Saczynski, Jordy Mehawej, Mayra Tisminetzky, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg, David D. McManus 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Clinically Meaningful Change In Quality Of Life And Associated Factors Among Older Patients With Atrial Fibrillation, Hawa Ozien Abu, Jane S. Saczynski, Jordy Mehawej, Mayra Tisminetzky, Catarina I. Kiefe, Robert J. Goldberg, David D. Mcmanus

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Background: Among older patients with atrial fibrillation, there are limited data examining clinically meaningful changes in quality of life (QoL). We examined the extent of, and factors associated with, clinically meaningful change in QoL over 1-year among older adults with atrial fibrillation.

Methods and Results: Patients from cardiology, electrophysiology, and primary care clinics in Massachusetts and Georgia were enrolled in a cohort study (2015-2018). The Atrial Fibrillation Effect on Quality-of-Life questionnaire was used to assess overall QoL and across 3 subscales: symptoms, daily activities, and treatment concern. Clinically meaningful change in QoL (ie, difference between 1-year and baseline QoL score ...


State-Level Income Inequality And The Odds For Meeting Fruit And Vegetable Recommendations Among Us Adults, Masako Horino, Sze Yan Liu, Eun-Young Lee, Ichiro Kawachi, Roman Pabayo 2020 John Hopkins University

State-Level Income Inequality And The Odds For Meeting Fruit And Vegetable Recommendations Among Us Adults, Masako Horino, Sze Yan Liu, Eun-Young Lee, Ichiro Kawachi, Roman Pabayo

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Background

Previous research indicates that income inequality is associated with risk for mortality, self-rated health status, chronic conditions, and health behavior, such as physical activity. However, little is known about the relationship between income inequality and dietary intake, which is a major risk factor for common chronic diseases including heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and certain types of cancers. The objective of this study is to determine the association between US state income inequality and fruit and vegetable consumption among adults.

Methods

Cross-sectional data on 270,612 U.S. adults from the U.S. 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was ...


Bayesian Variable Selection For High Dimensional Predictors And Self-Reported Outcomes, Xiangdong Gu, Mahlet G. Tadesse, Andrea S. Foulkes, Yunsheng Ma, Raji Balasubramanian 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Bayesian Variable Selection For High Dimensional Predictors And Self-Reported Outcomes, Xiangdong Gu, Mahlet G. Tadesse, Andrea S. Foulkes, Yunsheng Ma, Raji Balasubramanian

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: The onset of silent diseases such as type 2 diabetes is often registered through self-report in large prospective cohorts. Self-reported outcomes are cost-effective; however, they are subject to error. Diagnosis of silent events may also occur through the use of imperfect laboratory-based diagnostic tests. In this paper, we describe an approach for variable selection in high dimensional datasets for settings in which the outcome is observed with error.

METHODS: We adapt the spike and slab Bayesian Variable Selection approach in the context of error-prone, self-reported outcomes. The performance of the proposed approach is studied through simulation studies. An illustrative ...


Intensive Animal Farming Conditions Are A Major Threat To Global Health, Cynthia Schuck-Paim 2020 Independent Researcher

Intensive Animal Farming Conditions Are A Major Threat To Global Health, Cynthia Schuck-Paim

Animal Sentience

Wiebers & Feigin accurately propose that reducing the risks posed by infectious disease outbreaks and other global health challenges will depend critically on transitioning away from intensive animal farming practices. Creating the right incentive structure for this transition to happen is one of the great challenges in the years to come, but a much-needed step to ensure the health and well-being of current and future generations.


Factors Associated With Binge Drinking During The Transition Into Adulthood: Exploring Associations Within Two Distinct Young Adult Age Ranges, Tamara Leech, Sarah Jacobs, Denis Watson 2020 Montclair State University

Factors Associated With Binge Drinking During The Transition Into Adulthood: Exploring Associations Within Two Distinct Young Adult Age Ranges, Tamara Leech, Sarah Jacobs, Denis Watson

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Background:

Binge drinking among young adults aged 18-21 years has declined over the past decade, but binge drinking rates among people 22-25 years old have remained largely the same. This steady trend in later years represents a departure from the traditional course of maturing out of risky alcohol use, perhaps because young adults are delaying the transition into adulthood.

Aims:

This paper explores the relationship between binge drinking and aspects of the transition into adulthood that could inform interventions targeting these two distinct groups of young adults.

Methods:

We use survey data on 1,081 young adults aged 18-25 living ...


Pterygium Recurrence And Corneal Stabilization Point After Pterygium Excision Using The Controlled Partial Avulsion Fibrin Glue Technique, Mohd Radzi Hilmi, Khairidzan Mohd Kamal, Mohd Zulfaezal Che Azemin 2020 Department of Optometry and Visual Science, Kulliyyah of Allied Health Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan 53100, Malaysia

Pterygium Recurrence And Corneal Stabilization Point After Pterygium Excision Using The Controlled Partial Avulsion Fibrin Glue Technique, Mohd Radzi Hilmi, Khairidzan Mohd Kamal, Mohd Zulfaezal Che Azemin

Makara Journal of Health Research

Background: This study aimed to evaluate the pterygium recurrence rate and corneal stabilization point after pterygium excision via the controlled partial avulsion fibrin glue technique using multiple corneal parameters.

Methods: One hundred eyes of 100 patients who had undergone primary pterygium excision surgery via the controlled partial avulsion fibrin glue technique were retrospectively reviewed. Corneal stabilization points were determined over four follow-up sessions (i.e., the 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months after surgery) based on changes in Simulated-K, corneal irregularity measurement, shape factor, and toric mean keratometry. Post-operative courses were followed for 12 months after surgery. Recurrence was defined ...


Treading Water: Coping With Uncertainty During A Novel Pandemic, Sachin Patel 2020 WakeMed Health & Hospitals

Treading Water: Coping With Uncertainty During A Novel Pandemic, Sachin Patel

Patient Experience Journal

The abruptness with which the COVID-19 pandemic has changed the delivery of healthcare will have a lasting effect on patients and families of intensive care unit survivors. Using the best science and epidemiology healthcare systems developed protocols and policies to implement the highest level of care but mitigate disease spread. Out of these initiatives the “no visitor” policy was born. The impact of COVID-19 causing florid respiratory failure immediately derailed the lives of a happily retired couple. While on mechanical ventilation for sixteen days, Betty was unable to connect with her husband of over 40 years. In that time, the ...


Housing Stability And Diabetes Among People Living In New York City Public Housing, Sungwoo Lim, Sze Yan Liu, Melanie H. Jacobson, Eugenie Poirot, Aldo Crossa, Sean Locke, Jennifer Brite, Elizabeth Hamby, Zinzi Bailey, Stephanie Farquhar 2020 New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene

Housing Stability And Diabetes Among People Living In New York City Public Housing, Sungwoo Lim, Sze Yan Liu, Melanie H. Jacobson, Eugenie Poirot, Aldo Crossa, Sean Locke, Jennifer Brite, Elizabeth Hamby, Zinzi Bailey, Stephanie Farquhar

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Public housing provides affordable housing and, potentially, housing stability for low-income families. Housing stability may be associated with lower incidence or prevalence and better management of a range of health conditions through many mechanisms. We aimed to test the hypotheses that public housing residency is associated with both housing stability and reduced risk of diabetes incidence, and the relationship between public housing and diabetes risk varies by levels of housing stability. Using 2004-16 World Trade Center Health Registry data, we compared outcomes (housing stability measured by sequence analysis of addresses, self-reported diabetes diagnoses) between 730 New York City public housing ...


Uptake Of Direct Acting Antivirals For Hepatitis C Virus In A New England Medicaid Population, 2014-2017, Karen M. Clements, Parag Kunte, Bonnie C. Greenwood, Carter Pratt, Laura A. Sefton, Melissa Clark, Sharina D. Person, Deborah Gurewich 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Uptake Of Direct Acting Antivirals For Hepatitis C Virus In A New England Medicaid Population, 2014-2017, Karen M. Clements, Parag Kunte, Bonnie C. Greenwood, Carter Pratt, Laura A. Sefton, Melissa Clark, Sharina D. Person, Deborah Gurewich

University of Massachusetts Medical School Publications

Introduction

Introduction of the direct acting antiviral (DAA) sofosbuvir (SOV) in 2013 offered significant improvement over previous options for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment. Initial uptake was low in Medicaid and other populations, perhaps in part due to high drug cost and prior authorization (PA) restrictions related to fibrosis stage, prescribing provider specialty, and sobriety. Both the subsequent introduction of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOV), an all-oral regimen for most genotypes, and lifting of PA restrictions were expected to increase overall uptake, but little is known about recent prescribing patterns. We examined trends in DAA uptake in a Medicaid population and ...


Addressing Decontaminated Respirators: Some Methods Appear To Damage Mask Integrity And Protective Function, Richard E. Peltier, Jiayuan Wang, Brian L. Hollenbeck, Jennifer Lanza, Ryan M. Furtado, Jay Cyr, Richard T. Ellison III, Kimiyoshi J. Kobayashi 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Addressing Decontaminated Respirators: Some Methods Appear To Damage Mask Integrity And Protective Function, Richard E. Peltier, Jiayuan Wang, Brian L. Hollenbeck, Jennifer Lanza, Ryan M. Furtado, Jay Cyr, Richard T. Ellison Iii, Kimiyoshi J. Kobayashi

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Decontamination of N95 respirators is being used by clinicians in the face of a global shortage of these devices. Some treatments for decontamination, such as some vaporized hydrogen peroxide methods or ultraviolet methods, had no impact on respiratory performance, while other treatments resulted in substantial damage to masks.


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