Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Epidemiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

3,998 Full-Text Articles 10,093 Authors 963,291 Downloads 161 Institutions

All Articles in Epidemiology

Faceted Search

3,998 full-text articles. Page 1 of 160.

Changes In Student Behaviors And Policy Opinion Regarding E-Cigarettes At A Kentucky University From 2014 To 2018, Jason W. Marion, Alina Strand, Elliott Baldridge 2021 Eastern Kentucky University

Changes In Student Behaviors And Policy Opinion Regarding E-Cigarettes At A Kentucky University From 2014 To 2018, Jason W. Marion, Alina Strand, Elliott Baldridge

EKU Faculty and Staff Scholarship

The behaviors and opinions regarding e-cigarette use and campus policies prohibiting vaping vary greatly among college students nationally. Kentucky is one of the four U.S. states with the highest tobacco use prevalence, and characterizing e-cigarette use, trends and policy opinions among Kentucky undergraduates may inform interventions. To characterize population-level differences in e-cigarette-related behaviors and policy opinions among undergraduates from 2014 to 2018, results from two cross-sectional surveys (2014 and 2018) from a public regional university in south-central Kentucky were analyzed. Students from randomly selected undergraduate general studies courses completed a 5-minute in-class survey. Data were obtained from 514 and ...


Comparing The Health And Welfare Of Refugees And Non-Refugees At The Outset Of The Covid-19 Pandemic: The Results Of A Community Needs Assessment., Matthew J. Lyons, Mary Helen O'Connor, Iris Feinberg, Daniel J. Whitaker, Michael Eriksen, Ashli Owen-Smith, Saiza Jivani, Mohammad Tamer, Esther Kim, Ganaro Makor 2021 Georgia State University

Comparing The Health And Welfare Of Refugees And Non-Refugees At The Outset Of The Covid-19 Pandemic: The Results Of A Community Needs Assessment., Matthew J. Lyons, Mary Helen O'Connor, Iris Feinberg, Daniel J. Whitaker, Michael Eriksen, Ashli Owen-Smith, Saiza Jivani, Mohammad Tamer, Esther Kim, Ganaro Makor

Journal of Refugee & Global Health

Refugees are a vulnerable population who experience significant health disparities. They may also be at disproportionately high risk of adverse outcomes due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper presents the results of a community needs assessment to investigate the impact of the pandemic on health and welfare in a refugee relocation community in the United States. A multilingual data collection team made up of refugees surveyed 179 participants (128 refugees vs. 51 non-refugees). Only 55.9% of refugee respondents said they would be able to provide enough food for their family this week, compared with 84.0% of non-refugees (p ...


The Population Affected By The Syndemic Of Covid-19 And Poverty Is More Likely To Be Hospitalized With Sars-Cov-2 Pneumonia, Julio A. Ramirez, Stephen P. Furmanek, Meredith Cahill, Stephen S. Hanson, Ruth Carrico, Forest W. Arnold 2021 University of Louisville

The Population Affected By The Syndemic Of Covid-19 And Poverty Is More Likely To Be Hospitalized With Sars-Cov-2 Pneumonia, Julio A. Ramirez, Stephen P. Furmanek, Meredith Cahill, Stephen S. Hanson, Ruth Carrico, Forest W. Arnold

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Background

Lockdown measures to control COVID-19 have exacerbated the poverty epidemic. We hypothesized that the synergistic interaction of COVID-19 and poverty epidemics favors the development of more severe forms of COVID-19 in the population living in poverty. To test this hypothesis, we assessed whether an ecological association exists between the geographic distribution of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and markers of poverty in the city of Louisville, KY.

Methods

Using the geomasked home addresses of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in the city of Louisville, a kernel density heatmap was created. Kuldorff’s spatial scan statistic was used to calculate ...


Exploring Covid-19 Case Fatality In Relation To The Prevalence Of Chronic Conditions And Health Behaviors In Appalachian Kentucky, W. Jay Christian 2021 University of Kentucky

Exploring Covid-19 Case Fatality In Relation To The Prevalence Of Chronic Conditions And Health Behaviors In Appalachian Kentucky, W. Jay Christian

Journal of Appalachian Health

Background: Research has demonstrated that common chronic conditions, especially those related to cardiovascular health, are important risk factors for severe COVID-19 symptoms or hospitalization. Population prevalence rates of such conditions have not previously been examined in relation to COVID-19 case fatality rates in the Central Appalachian region.

Purpose: This study examined prevalence rates of selected chronic conditions and COVID-19 case fatality rates to determine whether the relationship between them is consistent across Appalachian and non-Appalachian regions of Kentucky.

Methods: Data from Kentucky’s Behavioral Risk Factor Survey (KyBRFS) were used to calculate prevalence rates of asthma, diabetes, influenza vaccination, hypertension ...


The Effect Of Fiber And Omega-6:Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio On Asthma And Asthma-Related Symptoms In An Adult U.S. Population, Korie AS Nelson 2021 University of Nebraska Medical College

The Effect Of Fiber And Omega-6:Omega-3 Fatty Acid Ratio On Asthma And Asthma-Related Symptoms In An Adult U.S. Population, Korie As Nelson

Capstone Experience

Asthma is one of the most common diseases in the world affecting more than 10% of adults in many westernized countries and 339 million globally. Studies have shown a positive association between increased dietary fiber and improvement in asthma-related inflammation. Omega-3 fatty acids have also been shown to help mitigate inflammation in general. No identified studies have looked at the synergistic effect of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids alone and as a ratio with fiber on asthma, lung function, and respiratory morbidities. A positive association could mean that dietary interventions of fiber and fatty acids could significantly improve asthma and ...


The Migration Of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii From The Battlefields Of Iraq And Afghanistan To The Healthcare Facilities Of The Veterans Health Administration, Jeffery Rogers 2021 University of Nebraska Medical Center

The Migration Of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii From The Battlefields Of Iraq And Afghanistan To The Healthcare Facilities Of The Veterans Health Administration, Jeffery Rogers

Capstone Experience

Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) pose a great threat to health across the globe. That threat is also felt in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Wounded warriors returning home from the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan may have brought with them MDROs, such as the bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii, as they have transitioned from military service into the VHA facilities. This study investigates the interconnectedness of military service in the Department of Defense (DoD) and a lifetime of care at VHA through a longitudinal tracking of a linked cohort of combat veterans with battlefield injuries and subsequent MDR infections of A. baumannii. This ...


The Epidemiology Of Clostridioides Difficile In Nebraska - A Descriptive Study Between 2018-2020, Storm Keffer 2021 University of Nebraska Medical Center

The Epidemiology Of Clostridioides Difficile In Nebraska - A Descriptive Study Between 2018-2020, Storm Keffer

Capstone Experience

Objectives: Clostridioides difficile (C. diff) is a common but challenging infection both financially and medically. Due to these difficulties, Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) caused by C. diff is a mandatory reportable disease in Nebraska and as such has been a priority disease targeted by various disease control practices across many hospitals. All CDI laboratory results are reported electronically through the Nebraska Electronic Disease Surveillance System (NEDSS). However, capturing and conceptualizing the true burden of CDIs in Nebraska has not been adequately accomplished since monitoring of CDIs began. The objective of this study is to examine the trends of C. diff ...


On The Front Line: Uri's Response To Covid-19 And The Role Of The Student-Run Emergency Medical Services, Michael C. Brennan 2021 University of Rhode Island

On The Front Line: Uri's Response To Covid-19 And The Role Of The Student-Run Emergency Medical Services, Michael C. Brennan

Senior Honors Projects

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all aspects of society, including universities, and we are just beginning to understand its impacts. This project looks at how universities have responded to the pandemic by focusing on the University of Rhode Island, the largest university in the state of Rhode Island. A key aspect of this project is a timeline that documents the policies implemented by URI leadership and relevant policies adopted by the State of Rhode Island. The timeline also includes data about the number of cases at URI and state-wide, as well as figures for the number of students in isolation ...


Adherence To Mediterranean Diet Among Adolescents Attending Public Schools In North Lebanon, Rosy Mitri, Fouad Ziade 2021 Rosi Mitri, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Health Sciences, Beirut Arab University, Beirut, Lebanon

Adherence To Mediterranean Diet Among Adolescents Attending Public Schools In North Lebanon, Rosy Mitri, Fouad Ziade

BAU Journal - Health and Wellbeing

The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a model of a healthy diet and healthy lifestyle. Adherence to the MD has been correlated with a reduction in many metabolic disorders including cancers. The factors associated with adolescents’ adherence to the MD in North Lebanon using the KIDMED index have never been explored. The objective of this study was to examine the factors associated with the Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence among a sample of Lebanese adolescents. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the city of Tripoli, North Lebanon. A total of 298 students, aged 11-18 years, were randomly selected from public schools in ...


Prevalence And Impacts Of Musculoskeletal Pain Among The Elderly Living In The East Coast Region Of Peninsular Malaysia, Muhammad Kamil Che Hasan, Nur Nabila Izzati Asmera, Suliza Sulaiman, Mohd Said Nurumal, Nik Noor Kaussar Nik Mohd Hatta 2021 Kulliyyah of Nursing, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan 25200, Malaysia

Prevalence And Impacts Of Musculoskeletal Pain Among The Elderly Living In The East Coast Region Of Peninsular Malaysia, Muhammad Kamil Che Hasan, Nur Nabila Izzati Asmera, Suliza Sulaiman, Mohd Said Nurumal, Nik Noor Kaussar Nik Mohd Hatta

Makara Journal of Health Research

Background: Musculoskeletal pain commonly affects the elderly, but the extent of this problem within the Malaysian community remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and impact of musculoskeletal pain among the elderly living in the community.

Methods: Elderly individuals aged 60 years and above with musculoskeletal pain and intact cognition were recruited for this study. Musculoskeletal pain was scored using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, and functional ability was assessed via the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living scale. Mental wellbeing was evaluated using the Short Warwick–Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing scale, and risk of falling was determined via the ...


Prevalence And Associated Factors Of Urinary Incontinence Among Elderly In Pekanbaru, Indonesia, Wulan Sari 2021 Public Health Program, STIKes Hang Tuah Pekanbaru, Pekanbaru 28281, Indonesia

Prevalence And Associated Factors Of Urinary Incontinence Among Elderly In Pekanbaru, Indonesia, Wulan Sari

Makara Journal of Health Research

Background: The proportion of the elderly in Riau Province was 4.8% higher than that (4.2%) in 2011. Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common health problem among the elderly. This study aims to determine the prevalence and associated factors for UI among the elderly (≥60 years).

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 20 public health centers in Pekanbaru City in 2018. A total of 351 elderly meeting the inclusion criteria were enrolled. Gender, age, education, occupation, marital status, obesity, depression, cognitive impairment, smoking status, history of chronic cough, and history of lower abdominal surgery served as the independent ...


Soft Drink Consumption Patterns Of Middle School Students In North Okkalarpa, Moh Moh Thwe, Sein Yaw May, Min Htike Aung 2021 Department of Community Health Nursing, University of Nursing, Yangon 11131, Myanmar

Soft Drink Consumption Patterns Of Middle School Students In North Okkalarpa, Moh Moh Thwe, Sein Yaw May, Min Htike Aung

Makara Journal of Health Research

Background: Urbanization and economic development in Myanmar have brought about culture and dietary transition from a traditional to a westernized diet. The health of the nation, especially the youth, may influence the changing dietary patterns: i.e., the higher the soft drink consumption, the higher the prevalence of soft drink-related diseases.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 250 middle school students in North Okkalarpa Township, Yangon Region. Data were collected using self-structured questionnaires, and respondents were selected by using simple random sampling method.

Results: In this study, 81.2% of the students consumed soft drink once a day ...


Effects Of Ectodermal Dysplasia On The Maxilla: A Study Of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography, Beyza Karadede Ünal 2021 Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, İzmir Katip Çelebi University, İzmir 35640, Turkey

Effects Of Ectodermal Dysplasia On The Maxilla: A Study Of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography, Beyza Karadede Ünal

Makara Journal of Health Research

Background: This study aimed to examine the effects of ectodermal dysplasia (ED) on the transverse width of the maxillary bone.

Methods: The ED group was composed of seven people, while the control group consisted of retrospective cone-beam computed tomography images of seven individuals with skeletal class 1 relationship. Images on the sagittal planes were taken, and cross-sections were taken from the longest point of the Anterior Nasal Spine-Posterior Nasal Spine line. The distance between the distal anterior canine teeth from the right buccal cortical bone to the left buccal cortical bone was measured. At the posterior region, the distance between ...


Controlling Dentistry-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders With Ergonomic Interventions In Lahore, Pakistan, Marriyam Nasar, Farwa Rubab, Hazik Bin Shahzad, Minam Qureshi, Maham Shahid, Pakiza Batool 2021 Institute of Social and Cultural Studies, University of the Punjab, Lahore 54590, Pakistan

Controlling Dentistry-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders With Ergonomic Interventions In Lahore, Pakistan, Marriyam Nasar, Farwa Rubab, Hazik Bin Shahzad, Minam Qureshi, Maham Shahid, Pakiza Batool

Makara Journal of Health Research

Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) usually result from a prolonged static position and repetitive movements. A comfortable environment, appropriate working position, and multiple short breaks could alleviate MSDs. While the occasional back or neck ache is not a cause for alarm, regularly occurring pain or discomfort, if ignored, may further develop into an injury or career-ending disability.

Methods: A total of 370 dentists were selected from two dental hospitals and multiple dental clinics in Lahore, Pakistan. Current MSDs were recorded with the Standardized Nordic Questionnaire (SNQ). Information sheets containing dental ergonomics and back and tendon-gliding exercises were distributed among the participants ...


Determinants Of Postnatal Care Service Utilization In Indonesia: A Secondary Analysis Using The Indonesian Health And Demographics Survey, Haerawati Idris, Willyana Syafriyanti 2021 Faculty of Public Health, Sriwijaya University, South Sumatera 30862, Indonesia

Determinants Of Postnatal Care Service Utilization In Indonesia: A Secondary Analysis Using The Indonesian Health And Demographics Survey, Haerawati Idris, Willyana Syafriyanti

Makara Journal of Health Research

Background: The postnatal complication that occurs in the first week after childbirth is one of the causes of maternal death in Indonesia. However, it can be prevented with postnatal care (PNC). This study aims to analyze the determinants of PNC service utilization in Indonesia.

Methods: This quantitative study employed a cross-sectional study design and used secondary data from the Indonesian Health and Demographics Survey of 2017. The sample consisted of 14,724 women aged 15–49 years. We assessed the predictors of PNC service utilization using multivariate logistic regression models.

Results: About 78.4% of the respondents utilized PNC services ...


A Cross-Sectional Study On Bullying And Psychological Disturbances Among Malaysian School Children, Muhammad Lokman Md Isa, Nurfatin Aina Mocktar, Wisam Nabeel Ibrahim, Mohd Said Nurumal, Muhammad Kamil Che Hasan 2021 Kulliyyah of Nursing, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan 25200, Malaysia

A Cross-Sectional Study On Bullying And Psychological Disturbances Among Malaysian School Children, Muhammad Lokman Md Isa, Nurfatin Aina Mocktar, Wisam Nabeel Ibrahim, Mohd Said Nurumal, Muhammad Kamil Che Hasan

Makara Journal of Health Research

Background: Bullying is a common violence in school and has become a major public health and global concern. Bullying influences mental health and is identified as a leading factor of depression. Therefore, this study aimed to identify bullying prevalence and its association toward psychological disturbances (stress, anxiety, and depression).

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in three secondary schools in Kuantan. After obtaining consent from parents/guardians, participants were asked to answer a self-administered questionnaire, including School Climate Bullying Survey, Depression Anxiety Stress Questionnaire-21, Patient Depression Questionnaire, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. Demographic data were self-reported. Data were analyzed using SPSS ...


Epigenome-Wide Association Study Of Kidney Function Identifies Trans-Ethnic And Ethnic-Specific Loci, Charles E. Breeze, Anna Batorsky, Mi Kyeong Lee, Mindy D. Szeto, Xiaoguang Xu, Daniel L. McCartney, Rong Jiang, Amit Patki, Holly J. Kramer, James M. Eales, Laura Raffield, Leslie Lange, Ethan Lange, Peter Durda, Yongmei Liu, Russ P. Tracy, David Van Den Berg, NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Consortium, TOPMed MESA Multi-Omics Working Group, Kathryn L. Evans, William E. Kraus, Donna K. Arnett 2021 National Cancer Institute

Epigenome-Wide Association Study Of Kidney Function Identifies Trans-Ethnic And Ethnic-Specific Loci, Charles E. Breeze, Anna Batorsky, Mi Kyeong Lee, Mindy D. Szeto, Xiaoguang Xu, Daniel L. Mccartney, Rong Jiang, Amit Patki, Holly J. Kramer, James M. Eales, Laura Raffield, Leslie Lange, Ethan Lange, Peter Durda, Yongmei Liu, Russ P. Tracy, David Van Den Berg, Nhlbi Trans-Omics For Precision Medicine (Topmed) Consortium, Topmed Mesa Multi-Omics Working Group, Kathryn L. Evans, William E. Kraus, Donna K. Arnett

Epidemiology Faculty Publications

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation (DNAm) is associated with gene regulation and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a measure of kidney function. Decreased eGFR is more common among US Hispanics and African Americans. The causes for this are poorly understood. We aimed to identify trans-ethnic and ethnic-specific differentially methylated positions (DMPs) associated with eGFR using an agnostic, genome-wide approach.

METHODS: The study included up to 5428 participants from multi-ethnic studies for discovery and 8109 participants for replication. We tested the associations between whole blood DNAm and eGFR using beta values from Illumina 450K or EPIC arrays. Ethnicity-stratified analyses were performed using linear ...


Bridging The Inequality Gap Among Marginalized Populations In Africa Amid The Covid-19 Pandemic: A Call For Responsible Cooperation, Aanuoluwapo A. Afolabi, Olayinka S. Ilesanmi Dr., Titilope A. Afolabi 2021 Department of Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, n=Nigeria

Bridging The Inequality Gap Among Marginalized Populations In Africa Amid The Covid-19 Pandemic: A Call For Responsible Cooperation, Aanuoluwapo A. Afolabi, Olayinka S. Ilesanmi Dr., Titilope A. Afolabi

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

No abstract provided.


Suppression Of Human Coronavirus 229e Infection In Lung Fibroblast Cells Via Rna Interference, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Jennifer Totonchy, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hasan Uludağ 2021 Chapman University

Suppression Of Human Coronavirus 229e Infection In Lung Fibroblast Cells Via Rna Interference, Hamidreza Montazeri Aliabadi, Jennifer Totonchy, Parvin Mahdipoor, Keykavous Parang, Hasan Uludağ

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Despite extensive efforts to repurpose approved drugs, discover new small molecules, and develop vaccines, COVID-19 pandemic is still claiming victims around the world. The current arsenal of antiviral compounds did not perform well in the past viral infections (e.g., SARS), which casts a shadow of doubt for use against the new SARS-CoV-2. Vaccines should offer the ultimate protection; however, there is limited information about the longevity of the generated immunity and the protection against possible mutations. This study uses Human Coronavirus 229E as a model coronavirus to test the hypothesis that effective delivery of virus-specific siRNAs to infected cells ...


Streptococcus Anginosus Lung Infection And Empyema: A Case Report And Review Of The Literature, Nishita Tripathi, Kuldeep Ghosh, Anupama Raghuram 2021 University of Louisville

Streptococcus Anginosus Lung Infection And Empyema: A Case Report And Review Of The Literature, Nishita Tripathi, Kuldeep Ghosh, Anupama Raghuram

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Streptococcus milleri group (SMG) also referred to as the Streptococcus anginosus group. These are Gram-positive, variable hemolysis, catalase negative, microaerophilic, non-motile facultative anaerobes which have been known to cause abscesses in humans. We report a case of empyema caused by Streptococcus anginosus in a patient with an unresolved pneumonia for over a month. In early October 2018, the patient presented to an emergency room with the complaints of shortness of air, productive cough, chills, subjective fever and weight loss for 4 weeks. A chest X-ray revealed a left lower lobe pneumonia. He was treated with 250 mg of azithromycin for ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress