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Socio-Demographic Determinants Of Non-Utilisation Of Antenatal Care Services By Women In The Northern Region Of Nigeria, Abubakar Yakubu Abbani, Yothin Sawangdee, Olusola Akintoye Omisakin, Maretalinia Maretalinia 2023 Ph.D. Program, Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, Thailand

Socio-Demographic Determinants Of Non-Utilisation Of Antenatal Care Services By Women In The Northern Region Of Nigeria, Abubakar Yakubu Abbani, Yothin Sawangdee, Olusola Akintoye Omisakin, Maretalinia Maretalinia

Journal of Health Research

Background: A large proportion of women in the northern region of Nigeria do not utilise antenatal care (ANC) services. As a result, the region has the worst maternal and child health indicators. This study aims to identify the socio-demographic determinants of the non-utilisation of ANC services by pregnant women to provide evidence for policymakers to base decisions towards addressing the problem.

Methods: Data from the 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey was used with a sample of 14,421 women with a pregnancy history. Descriptive, bivariate, and hierarchical regression analyses were applied to the data using STATA software version 15.

Results: …


Effectiveness Of Interactive Text Message Service At The Thailand National Quitline: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Suwimon Rojnawee, Chollada Jongsomjitt, Jintana Yunibhand 2023 Faculty of Nursing, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok,Thailand

Effectiveness Of Interactive Text Message Service At The Thailand National Quitline: A Randomized Controlled Trial, Suwimon Rojnawee, Chollada Jongsomjitt, Jintana Yunibhand

Journal of Health Research

Background: Automatic instant messaging systems are currently a well-known smoking reduction tool for public health. However, smokers’ engagement is lacking, as many prefer to communicate with experts during the quitting period so they can receive advice on dealing with the consequences of nicotine abstinence. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an interactive text messaging service at the Thailand National Quitline.

Method: The study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial. A total of 314 smokers were eligible, 153 of whom were randomly assigned to receive two-way short messages encouraging them to quit smoking. After the date of …


Spatial And Spatio-Temporal Epidemiological Approaches To Inform Covid-19 Surveillance And Control: A Systematic Review Of Statistical And Modelling Methods In Africa, Julius Nyerere Odhiambo, Carrie B. Dolan, Lydia Troup, Nathaly Perez Rojas 2023 William & Mary

Spatial And Spatio-Temporal Epidemiological Approaches To Inform Covid-19 Surveillance And Control: A Systematic Review Of Statistical And Modelling Methods In Africa, Julius Nyerere Odhiambo, Carrie B. Dolan, Lydia Troup, Nathaly Perez Rojas

Arts & Sciences Articles

Objective Various studies have been published to better understand the underlying spatial and temporal dynamics of COVID-19. This review sought to identify different spatial and spatio-temporal modelling methods that have been applied to COVID-19 and examine influential covariates that have been reportedly associated with its risk in Africa.

Design Systematic review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines.

Data sources Thematically mined keywords were used to identify refereed studies conducted between January 2020 and February 2022 from the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE via Proquest, CINHAL via EBSCOhost and Coronavirus Research Database via ProQuest. A manual …


Nonlinear Relationships Between The Environment And Health, Levi N. Bonnell 2023 University of Vermont

Nonlinear Relationships Between The Environment And Health, Levi N. Bonnell

Graduate College Dissertations and Theses

Relationships between the environment and health outcomes are complex and likely nonlinear in nature. However, until recently, most studies used ordinary linear regression to model these relationships. The overall goal of this research was to investigate nonlinear relationships between the environment and health. To accomplish this goal, we used several large, national datasets across varying populations and local environments.

Destination accessibility is an important measure of the built environment that is associated with active transport and body mass index (BMI). In the first study, we sought to determine the relationship between the density of nonresidential destinations (a proxy for walkability) …


Nasal Host Response-Based Screening For Undiagnosed Respiratory Viruses: A Pathogen Surveillance And Detection Study, Nagarjuna R. Cheemarla, Amelia Hanron, Joseph R. Fauver, Jason Bishai, Timothy A. Watkins, Anderson F. Brito, Dejian Zhao, Tara Alpert, Chantal B. F. Vogels, Albert I. Ko, Wade L. Schulz, Marie L. Landry, Nathan D. Grubaugh, David van Dijk, Ellen F. Foxman 2023 Yale School of Medicine

Nasal Host Response-Based Screening For Undiagnosed Respiratory Viruses: A Pathogen Surveillance And Detection Study, Nagarjuna R. Cheemarla, Amelia Hanron, Joseph R. Fauver, Jason Bishai, Timothy A. Watkins, Anderson F. Brito, Dejian Zhao, Tara Alpert, Chantal B. F. Vogels, Albert I. Ko, Wade L. Schulz, Marie L. Landry, Nathan D. Grubaugh, David Van Dijk, Ellen F. Foxman

Journal Articles: Epidemiology

BACKGROUND: Symptomatic patients who test negative for common viruses are an important possible source of unrecognised or emerging pathogens, but metagenomic sequencing of all samples is inefficient because of the low likelihood of finding a pathogen in any given sample. We aimed to determine whether nasopharyngeal CXCL10 screening could be used as a strategy to enrich for samples containing undiagnosed viruses.

METHODS: In this pathogen surveillance and detection study, we measured CXCL10 concentrations from nasopharyngeal swabs from patients in the Yale New Haven health-care system, which had been tested at the Yale New Haven Hospital Clinical Virology Laboratory (New Haven, …


Twitter Sentiment Analysis: Applications In Healthcare And Finance, Jiali Wang 2022 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Twitter Sentiment Analysis: Applications In Healthcare And Finance, Jiali Wang

Dissertations

This research explores the influence of Twitter sentiment on healthcare and finance industries. It assesses how Twitter sentiment and culture measure influence COVID-19 statistics, and it investigates the impact of Twitter sentiment on S&P 1500 stock mispricing. Furthermore, it examines how tweet sentiment predicts major industry returns.

The first part examines how Hofstede’s Culture Dimensions (HCD) and Twitter economic uncertainty index (TEU) relate to COVID-19 infection rate and death rate. The results show certain aspects in HCD, such as power distance index (PDI) and masculinity (MAS) both are negatively and significantly associated with the infection rate, while indulgence (IVR) and …


Association Of Socioeconomic, Racial, And Regional Factors With In-Hospital Management And Outcomes Of Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients In The United States: National Analyses Of 2.8 Million Admissions, Olivia Haldenby 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Association Of Socioeconomic, Racial, And Regional Factors With In-Hospital Management And Outcomes Of Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients In The United States: National Analyses Of 2.8 Million Admissions, Olivia Haldenby

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Social determinants of health contribute to variations in clinical outcomes among acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients. Using the National Inpatient Sample, we conducted retrospective cohort analyses to evaluate the association of income, race, and geography with in-hospital mortality and revascularization procedures among AMI admissions in the United States from 2015 to 2019. Multilevel logistic regression models were used while accounting for hospital clustering and relevant predictors. A sequential model-building approach produced model 1 (unadjusted patient-level exposures), model 2 (lifestyle factors), model 3 (clinical characteristics), and model 4 (fully adjusted hospital-level factors). We identified 2,798,225 AMI hospitalizations (≥18 years) with 1,567,575 …


Severe Lower Extremity Trauma In Ontario: A Linked Population-Based Analysis, Stephanie M. Kim 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Severe Lower Extremity Trauma In Ontario: A Linked Population-Based Analysis, Stephanie M. Kim

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Open tibia fractures (OTF) are a management challenge. Admission to a trauma center (TC) and a coordinated approach to bony fixation and soft-tissue reconstruction (STR) have been shown to improve outcomes. The objective of this study was to describe patients who had OTF in Ontario and analyze their outcomes. Linked population data pertaining to patients who had OTF between the years 2009-2020 were examined. Demographic information, admission location, and management course were collected. 4240 patients were found. The mean age was 47, and majority were males. Patients admitted to TC had greater proportion of having Injury Severity Score >15, and …


The Prevalence Of Sars-Cov-2 Antibodies Within The Community Of A Private Tertiary University In The Philippines: A Serial Cross Sectional Study, Lourdes S. Tanchanco, Jenica Clarisse Y. Sy, Angel Belle C. Dy, Myla D. Levantino, Arianna Maever L. Amit, John Wong, Kirsten Angeles, John Paul Vergara 2022 Ateneo School of Medicine and Public Health, Ateneo de Manila University

The Prevalence Of Sars-Cov-2 Antibodies Within The Community Of A Private Tertiary University In The Philippines: A Serial Cross Sectional Study, Lourdes S. Tanchanco, Jenica Clarisse Y. Sy, Angel Belle C. Dy, Myla D. Levantino, Arianna Maever L. Amit, John Wong, Kirsten Angeles, John Paul Vergara

Ateneo School of Medicine and Public Health Publications

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a public health emergency in all sectors of society, including universities and other academic institutions. This study determined the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among administrators, faculty, staff, and students of a private tertiary academic institution in the Philippines over a 7 month period. It employed a serial cross-sectional method using qualitative and quantitative COVID-19 antibody test kits. A total of 1,318 participants were tested, showing 47.80% of the study population yielding IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 virus. A general increase in seroprevalence was observed from June to December 2021, which coincided with the vaccine roll-out of …


Urban/Rural Disparities Of Thyroid Cancer Using The Integrated Cancer Repository For Cancer Research (Icare2), Sunita Regmi 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Urban/Rural Disparities Of Thyroid Cancer Using The Integrated Cancer Repository For Cancer Research (Icare2), Sunita Regmi

Capstone Experience

Abstract:

Background and objective: Multiple studies have shown that the place of residence and the distance to travel from one's residence to nearby health care providers impact cancer diagnosis and treatment. The stage of cancer at the time of diagnosis is paramount for cancer treatment and affects survival. Disparities in cancer treatment exist which affect the outcome disproportionately to certain segments of the population. To date, much of the focus has been on the racial and socioeconomic disparities in the management of thyroid cancer. The effect of geography and location (urban-rural status) on thyroid cancer stage diagnosis has …


Healthcare Service Utilization And Life Satisfaction In South Africa, Tamara Chavez-Lindell 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Healthcare Service Utilization And Life Satisfaction In South Africa, Tamara Chavez-Lindell

Doctoral Dissertations

South Africa has achieved improvements in many health measures over the past 30 years, yet significant disparities in healthcare utilization and health outcomes persist. There is evidence that healthcare utilization has a strong influence on health outcomes and life satisfaction. Unfortunately, rural areas tend to have poorer accessibility and utilization of health services, leading to disparities in health outcomes. In rapidly urbanizing countries such as South Africa, identification of disparities and predictors of public healthcare utilization and life satisfaction may provide information that can be used to guide development of programs aimed at improving population health outcomes, quality-of-life, and overall …


Perinatal Health In North Dakota: Emerging Issues, Grace N. Njau 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Perinatal Health In North Dakota: Emerging Issues, Grace N. Njau

Doctoral Dissertations

Preterm birth, newborn screening refusal, and postpartum depression represent three emerging areas of concern that have not been previously investigated in North Dakota. Their potential impact creates significant social, behavioral, and economic burdens. Although various studies have investigated preterm birth and postpartum depression, to the best of my knowledge, newborn screening refusal in the United States has not been previously investigated. In alignment with the role of Title V of the Social Security Act (Maternal and Child Health) Programs to conduct ongoing statewide needs assessments, the objectives of this study was to investigate and identify predictors of preterm birth, newborn …


Lessons Learned: Covid-19 In Post-Corrections Secured Behavioral Rehabilitation, Jennifer G. Jones, Maria deValpine, Erica J. Lewis 2022 James Madison University

Lessons Learned: Covid-19 In Post-Corrections Secured Behavioral Rehabilitation, Jennifer G. Jones, Maria Devalpine, Erica J. Lewis

Virginia Journal of Public Health

Background: The COVID-19 case rate on June 5, 2020, for prisoners in the United States (US) was 5.5 times higher than the US population case rate (Saloner et al., 2020). Secure facilities were challenged to mitigate the spread of COVID-19. One secure behavioral rehabilitation facility made many changes to facility and program protocols to meet this challenge.

Methods: The purpose of this program evaluation was to assess newly implemented infection control measures at a secure behavioral rehabilitation facility and to inform policy and procedure recommendations for the mitigation of COVID-19 transmission in congregate living facilities in the future. Case rates, …


Association Between The Health Belief Model, Exercise, And Nutrition Behaviors During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Keagan Kiely, Bill Mase, Andrew R. Hansen, Jessica S. Schwind 2022 Georgia Southern University, Jiann-Ping Hsu College of Public Health

Association Between The Health Belief Model, Exercise, And Nutrition Behaviors During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Keagan Kiely, Bill Mase, Andrew R. Hansen, Jessica S. Schwind

Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Environmental Health Sciences Faculty Publications

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected our nation’s health further than the infection it causes. Physical activity levels and dietary intake have suffered while individuals grapple with the changes in behavior to reduce viral transmission. With unique nuances regarding the access to physical activity and nutrition during the pandemic, the constructs of Health Belief Model (HBM) may present themselves differently in nutrition and exercise behaviors compared to precautions implemented to reduce viral transmission studied in previous research. The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent of exercise and nutritional behavior change during the COVID-19 pandemic and explain the …


Pandemic Fatigue Impedes Mitigation Of Covid-19 In Hong Kong, Zhanwei Du, Lin Wang, Songwei Shan, Dickson Lam, Tim K. Tsang, Jingyi Xiao, Huizhi Gao, Bingyi Yang, Sheikh Taslim Ali, Sen Pei, Isaac Chun-Hai Fung, Eric H. Y. Lau, Qiuyan Liao, Peng Wu, Lauren Ancel Meyers, Gabriel M. Leung, Benjamin Cowling 2022 University of Hong Kong

Pandemic Fatigue Impedes Mitigation Of Covid-19 In Hong Kong, Zhanwei Du, Lin Wang, Songwei Shan, Dickson Lam, Tim K. Tsang, Jingyi Xiao, Huizhi Gao, Bingyi Yang, Sheikh Taslim Ali, Sen Pei, Isaac Chun-Hai Fung, Eric H. Y. Lau, Qiuyan Liao, Peng Wu, Lauren Ancel Meyers, Gabriel M. Leung, Benjamin Cowling

Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Environmental Health Sciences Faculty Publications

Hong Kong has implemented stringent public health and social measures (PHSMs) to curb each of the four COVID-19 epidemic waves since January 2020. The third wave between July and September 2020 was brought under control within 2 m, while the fourth wave starting from the end of October 2020 has taken longer to bring under control and lasted at least 5 mo. Here, we report the pandemic fatigue as one of the potential reasons for the reduced impact of PHSMs on transmission in the fourth wave. We contacted either 500 or 1,000 local residents through weekly random-digit dialing of landlines …


Assessing Impact Of Covid-19 Pandemic On Receipt And Timeliness Of Newborn Hearing Screening And Diagnostic Services Among Infants Born In Four States, SUHANA EMA, Sana Charania, Xidong Deng, Charles Rose, Craig A. Mason, Marcus Gaffney, Brandt Culpepper, Michael Lo, Tri Tran, Marcia Fort 2022 National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA

Assessing Impact Of Covid-19 Pandemic On Receipt And Timeliness Of Newborn Hearing Screening And Diagnostic Services Among Infants Born In Four States, Suhana Ema, Sana Charania, Xidong Deng, Charles Rose, Craig A. Mason, Marcus Gaffney, Brandt Culpepper, Michael Lo, Tri Tran, Marcia Fort

Journal of Early Hearing Detection and Intervention

The study compares receipt and timeliness of newborn hearing screening and follow-up diagnostic services between the pre-pandemic birth cohort and the pandemic birth cohort in four participating states. Findings from this study will help inform state Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI) programs in the future should major public health event occur again.


A Review Of Risk Concepts And Models For Predicting The Risk Of Primary Stroke, Elizabeth Hunter, John D. Kelleher 2022 Technological University Dublin

A Review Of Risk Concepts And Models For Predicting The Risk Of Primary Stroke, Elizabeth Hunter, John D. Kelleher

Articles

Predicting an individual's risk of primary stroke is an important tool that can help to lower the burden of stroke for both the individual and society. There are a number of risk models and risk scores in existence but no review or classification designed to help the reader better understand how models differ and the reasoning behind these differences. In this paper we review the existing literature on primary stroke risk prediction models. From our literature review we identify key similarities and differences in the existing models. We find that models can differ in a number of ways, including the …


Modeling The Role Of Land Conversion On The Spread Of An Epizootic Disease, Dustin Padilla 2022 Arizona State University

Modeling The Role Of Land Conversion On The Spread Of An Epizootic Disease, Dustin Padilla

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


An Agent-Based Model Of Environmental Transmission Of Clostridioides Difficile In Healthcare Settings, Max Lewis, Laila Mahrat, Cara Sulyok, Brittany Stephenson 2022 Lewis University

An Agent-Based Model Of Environmental Transmission Of Clostridioides Difficile In Healthcare Settings, Max Lewis, Laila Mahrat, Cara Sulyok, Brittany Stephenson

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Programmatic Impacts Of Utilizing Various Staffing Options For Covid-19 Contact Tracers: Recommendations And Lessons Learned, Michael Wiese, Alison Oberne, Laura Rusnak, Patrick Rodriguez, Matawal Makut 2022 University of South Florida

Programmatic Impacts Of Utilizing Various Staffing Options For Covid-19 Contact Tracers: Recommendations And Lessons Learned, Michael Wiese, Alison Oberne, Laura Rusnak, Patrick Rodriguez, Matawal Makut

Florida Public Health Review

Background: The rapidly expanding COVID-19 pandemic created an immediate demand for the Department of Health in Hillsborough County (DOH-Hillsborough) Epidemiology Program to supplement its contact tracing workforce; and, because of the long duration of the response, a sustained workforce was needed. The DOH-Hillsborough Epidemiology Program’s COVID-19 response, broadly referred to as “contact tracing”, included case investigations, outbreaks, and identification and notifications to exposed individuals. To meet contact tracing staffing needs, several staffing options were utilized, including Core Epidemiology Staff, Reassigned DOH-Hillsborough staff (Reassigned Staff), Contracted staffing agency hires (Contract Staff), State of Florida hires (State Level Hires), County hires (DOH-Hillsborough …


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