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Influenza Virus Vaccines Commons

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Evaluation Of Antibody Response Against G4 And G1 Eurasian Avian-Like H1n1 Strains With Ha Vaccination In Swine., Callie Jo Olson 2022 University of South Dakota

Evaluation Of Antibody Response Against G4 And G1 Eurasian Avian-Like H1n1 Strains With Ha Vaccination In Swine., Callie Jo Olson

Honors Thesis

We are investigating the use of the Huber laboratory H1N1 influenza broad-antibody response vaccine product candidates HA-111 and HA-113 against emerging swine H1N1 virus variants G1 and G4 that are circulating in China. The question is, what would happen in the event that the G1 and/or G4 viruses were to jump from swine to humans and become transmissible between humans? As a subtype of influenza A viruses, H1N1 viruses have pandemic potential due to their ability to infect a variety of hosts other than humans and acquire new gene segments from those other reservoirs. Broad-coverage influenza vaccines are of ...


On Efficacy And Effectiveness Of Vaccines: A Mathematical Approach Based On Conditional Probability With Applications To The Covid-19 Context, Flavius Guias 2022 Dortmund University of Applied Sciences and Arts

On Efficacy And Effectiveness Of Vaccines: A Mathematical Approach Based On Conditional Probability With Applications To The Covid-19 Context, Flavius Guias

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

This paper presents a mathematically formalized approach which points out the relation between efficacy and effectiveness of vaccines. The first term denotes the relative degree of protection in clinical trials or under ideal conditions, while the latter is based on observed real-life data. We define the efficacy by a similar formula to the effectiveness, but the probabilities involved in the relative risk are conditional with respect to the exposure to the virus. If exposure and vaccination status are independent, the two quantities are equal. Otherwise, the observed value of the effectiveness is a biased one, as it could be seen ...


Creation Of An Influenza A Virus Neuraminidase Consensus Vaccine In An Adenoviral Vector, Leigh Jahnke 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Creation Of An Influenza A Virus Neuraminidase Consensus Vaccine In An Adenoviral Vector, Leigh Jahnke

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

In the last decade, the estimated annual burden of the flu includes 12,000-52,000 deaths, 140,000-710,000 hospitalizations, and 9 million – 41 million illnesses (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Disease burden of the flu). Influenza A virus can mutate and infect a variety of different hosts, which results in frequent antigenic changes and even pandemics. This has led to increased attention on the creation of a universal Influenza A vaccine containing broader immunogenic coverage than current vaccines. Our research involved detailing the steps of the cloning process utilizing a consensus neuraminidase antigen. We utilized the pAdEasy Adenoviral ...


An Epidemiological, Strategic And Response Analysis Of The Covid-19 Pandemic In South Asia: A Population-Based Observational Study, Hafiz Muhammad Salman, Javaria Syed, Atif Riaz, Zouina Sarfraz, Azza Sarfraz, Syed Hashim Abbas Ali Bokhari, Ivan Cherrez Ojeda 2022 Service Institute of Medical Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

An Epidemiological, Strategic And Response Analysis Of The Covid-19 Pandemic In South Asia: A Population-Based Observational Study, Hafiz Muhammad Salman, Javaria Syed, Atif Riaz, Zouina Sarfraz, Azza Sarfraz, Syed Hashim Abbas Ali Bokhari, Ivan Cherrez Ojeda

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Introduction: South Asia has had a dynamic response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The overall burden and response have remained comparable across highly-burdened countries within the South Asian Region.
Methodology: Using a population-based observational design, all eight South Asian countries were analyzed using a step-wise approach. Data were obtained from government websites and publicly-available repositories for population dynamics and key variables.
Results: South Asian countries have a younger average age of their population. Inequitable distribution of resources centered in urban metropolitan cities within South Asia is present. Certain densely populated regions in these countries have better testing and healthcare facilities ...


Clinical Influenza Testing Practices In Hospitalized Children At United States Medical Centers, 2015-2018., Mark W. Tenforde, Angela P. Campbell, Marian G. Michaels, Christopher J. Harrison, Eileen J. Klein, Janet A. Englund, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Natasha B. Halasa, Laura S. Stewart, Geoffrey A. Weinberg, John V. Williams, Peter G. Szilagyi, Mary A. Staat, Julie A. Boom, Leila C. Sahni, Monica N. Singer, Parvin H. Azimi, Richard K. Zimmerman, Monica M. McNeal, H Keipp Talbot, Arnold S. Monto, Emily T. Martin, Manjusha Gaglani, Fernanda P. Silveira, Donald B. Middleton, Jill M. Ferdinands, Melissa A. Rolfes 2022 Children's Mercy Hospital

Clinical Influenza Testing Practices In Hospitalized Children At United States Medical Centers, 2015-2018., Mark W. Tenforde, Angela P. Campbell, Marian G. Michaels, Christopher J. Harrison, Eileen J. Klein, Janet A. Englund, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Natasha B. Halasa, Laura S. Stewart, Geoffrey A. Weinberg, John V. Williams, Peter G. Szilagyi, Mary A. Staat, Julie A. Boom, Leila C. Sahni, Monica N. Singer, Parvin H. Azimi, Richard K. Zimmerman, Monica M. Mcneal, H Keipp Talbot, Arnold S. Monto, Emily T. Martin, Manjusha Gaglani, Fernanda P. Silveira, Donald B. Middleton, Jill M. Ferdinands, Melissa A. Rolfes

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

At nine US hospitals that enrolled children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness (ARI) during 2015-2016 through 2017-2018 influenza seasons, 50% of children with ARI received clinician-initiated testing for influenza and 35% of cases went undiagnosed due to lack of clinician-initiated testing. Marked heterogeneity in testing practice was observed across sites.


Covid-19 Vaccine Brand Hesitancy And Other Challenges To Vaccination In The Philippines, Arianna Maever L. Amit, Veincent Christian F. Pepito, Lourdes S. Tanchanco, Manuel Dayrit 2022 Ateneo School of Medicine and Public Health, Ateneo de Manila University

Covid-19 Vaccine Brand Hesitancy And Other Challenges To Vaccination In The Philippines, Arianna Maever L. Amit, Veincent Christian F. Pepito, Lourdes S. Tanchanco, Manuel Dayrit

Ateneo School of Medicine and Public Health Faculty Publications

Effective and safe COVID-19 vaccines have been developed at a rapid and unprecedented pace to control the spread of the virus, and prevent hospitalisations and deaths. However, COVID-19 vaccine uptake is challenged by vaccine hesitancy and anti-vaccination sentiments, a global shortage of vaccine supply, and inequitable vaccine distribution especially among low- and middle-income countries including the Philippines. In this paper, we explored vaccination narratives and challenges experienced and observed by Filipinos during the early vaccination period. We interviewed 35 individuals from a subsample of 1,599 survey respondents 18 years and older in the Philippines. The interviews were conducted in ...


Characteristics Of Covid-19 Vaccine-Hesitant Ucf College Students And Potential Avenues For Increasing Vaccination Rates, Justin A. Barthel 2022 University of Central Florida

Characteristics Of Covid-19 Vaccine-Hesitant Ucf College Students And Potential Avenues For Increasing Vaccination Rates, Justin A. Barthel

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The COVID-19 pandemic has been an ongoing disaster that has devasted millions of lives. With the development of COVID-19 vaccines in late 2020, there was a potential for populations to gain artificial active immunity in order to prevent future outbreaks. However, despite successful clinical trials, millions of citizens have been hesitant to receive the COVID-19 vaccines (Khubchandani et al., 2021). Demographics of the most prominent US vaccine-hesitant populations consist of ethnic/racial minorities and Republicans groups (Khubchandani et al., 2021). Little information is known about COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in colleges and universities. Colleges provide an elevated risk for infection through ...


Addressing Production Gaps For Vaccines In African Countries, Anna Mia Ekström, Göran Tomson, Rhoda K. Wanyenze, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Catherine Kyobutungi, Agnes Binagwaho, Ole Petter Ottersen 2021 Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Addressing Production Gaps For Vaccines In African Countries, Anna Mia Ekström, Göran Tomson, Rhoda K. Wanyenze, Zulfiqar Ahmed Bhutta, Catherine Kyobutungi, Agnes Binagwaho, Ole Petter Ottersen

Institute for Global Health and Development

No abstract provided.


Thrombosis With Thrombocytopenia Syndrome After Administration Of Azd1222 Or Ad26.Cov2.S Vaccine For Covid-19: A Systematic Review, Usama Waqar, Shaheer Ahmed, Syed M H Ali Gardezi, Muhammad Sarmad Tahir, Zain Ul Abidin, Ali Hussain, Natasha Bahadur Ali, Syed Faisal Mahmood 2021 Aga Khan University

Thrombosis With Thrombocytopenia Syndrome After Administration Of Azd1222 Or Ad26.Cov2.S Vaccine For Covid-19: A Systematic Review, Usama Waqar, Shaheer Ahmed, Syed M H Ali Gardezi, Muhammad Sarmad Tahir, Zain Ul Abidin, Ali Hussain, Natasha Bahadur Ali, Syed Faisal Mahmood

Medical College Documents

Background: Cases of thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) have been reported following vaccination with AZD1222 or Ad26.COV2.S. This review aimed to explore the pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, management, and prognosis of TTS.
Methods: A systematic review was conducted to identify evidence on TTS till 4th September 2021. Case reports and series reporting patient-level data were included. Descriptive statistics were reported and compared across patients with different sexes, age groups, vaccines, types of thrombosis, and outcomes.
Findings: Sixty-two studies reporting 160 cases were included from 16 countries. Patients were predominantly females with a median age of 42.50 (22) years ...


Covid-19 Bbibp-Corv Vaccine And Transient Heart Block - A Phenomenon By Chance Or A Possible Correlation - A Case Report, Pirbhat Shams, Jamshed Ali, Sheema Saadia, Aamir Hameed Khan, Fateh Ali Tipoo Sultan, Javed Tai 2021 Aga Khan University

Covid-19 Bbibp-Corv Vaccine And Transient Heart Block - A Phenomenon By Chance Or A Possible Correlation - A Case Report, Pirbhat Shams, Jamshed Ali, Sheema Saadia, Aamir Hameed Khan, Fateh Ali Tipoo Sultan, Javed Tai

Section of Cardiology

Importance: Bradyarrhythmia during COVID19 illness carries prognostic significance. Electrophysiological side effects of COVID19 vaccine remain largely unknown. It is imperative to report nature of cardiovascular side effects of the vaccine.
Case presentation: An 80 years-old-man presented with complains of dizziness, trepidation and shortness of breath following his first shot of COVID-19 BBIBP-CorV (Sino-pharm). ECG on arrival showed 2:1 atrioventricular block with an underlying old left bundle branch block. The AV block changed into Mobitz type-I over the course of next 2 days and into a sinus 1:1 conduction on fourth day of presentation. However, our patient underwent permanent ...


Non-Compliance To Social Distancing During Covid-19 Pandemic: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study Between The Developed And Developing Countries, Faiqa Binte Aamir, Syeda Maria Ahmad Zaidi, Saadia Abbas, Syed Roohan Aamir, Syed Nauman Ahmad Zaidi, Karishma Kanhya Lal, Syeda Sadia Fatima 2021 Aga Khan University

Non-Compliance To Social Distancing During Covid-19 Pandemic: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study Between The Developed And Developing Countries, Faiqa Binte Aamir, Syeda Maria Ahmad Zaidi, Saadia Abbas, Syed Roohan Aamir, Syed Nauman Ahmad Zaidi, Karishma Kanhya Lal, Syeda Sadia Fatima

Medical College Documents

Background: Despite mass vaccination campaigns, the world has seen a steady rise in the number of SARS-CoV-2 cases, with 178,765,626 cases and 3,869,994 COVID-19 related deaths by June 19th, 2021. Therefore, it is important to enforce social distancing to control its spread. With the variation observed in the severity of the pandemic in different countries, it is also imperative to study the social distancing behaviors amongst the population in developed and developing countries.
Design and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 384 participants from 14 different countries were surveyed via an online REDCap ...


Covid-19 Vaccination In Sindh Province, Pakistan: A Modelling Study Of Health Impact And Cost-Effectiveness, Carl A B. Pearson, Fiammetta Bozzani, Simon R. Procter, Nicholas G. Davies, Maryam Huda, Henning Tarp Jensen, Marcus Keogh-Brown, Muhammad Khalid, Sedona Sweeney, Sergio Torres-Rueda 2021 London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

Covid-19 Vaccination In Sindh Province, Pakistan: A Modelling Study Of Health Impact And Cost-Effectiveness, Carl A B. Pearson, Fiammetta Bozzani, Simon R. Procter, Nicholas G. Davies, Maryam Huda, Henning Tarp Jensen, Marcus Keogh-Brown, Muhammad Khalid, Sedona Sweeney, Sergio Torres-Rueda

Community Health Sciences

Background: Multiple Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines appear to be safe and efficacious, but only high-income countries have the resources to procure sufficient vaccine doses for most of their eligible populations. The World Health Organization has published guidelines for vaccine prioritisation, but most vaccine impact projections have focused on high-income countries, and few incorporate economic considerations. To address this evidence gap, we projected the health and economic impact of different vaccination scenarios in Sindh Province, Pakistan (population: 48 million).
Methods and findings: We fitted a compartmental transmission model to COVID-19 cases and deaths in Sindh from 30 April to 15 ...


Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Loneliness And Social Isolation: A Multi-Country Study, Roger O’Sullivan, Annette Burns, Gerard Leavey, Iracema Leroi, Vanessa Burholt, James Lubben, Julianne Holt-Lunstad, Christina Victor, Brian Lawlor, Mireya Vilar-Compte, Carla M. Perissinotto, Mark A. Tully, Mary Pat Sullivan, Michael Rosato, Joanna McHugh Power, Elisa Tiilikainen, Thomas R. Prohaska 2021 Institute of Public Health

Impact Of The Covid-19 Pandemic On Loneliness And Social Isolation: A Multi-Country Study, Roger O’Sullivan, Annette Burns, Gerard Leavey, Iracema Leroi, Vanessa Burholt, James Lubben, Julianne Holt-Lunstad, Christina Victor, Brian Lawlor, Mireya Vilar-Compte, Carla M. Perissinotto, Mark A. Tully, Mary Pat Sullivan, Michael Rosato, Joanna Mchugh Power, Elisa Tiilikainen, Thomas R. Prohaska

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

The COVID-19 global pandemic and subsequent public health social measures have challenged our social and economic life, with increasing concerns around potentially rising levels of social isolation and loneliness. This paper is based on cross-sectional online survey data (available in 10 languages, from 2 June to 16 November 2020) with 20,398 respondents from 101 different countries. It aims to help increase our understanding of the global risk factors that are associated with social isolation and loneliness, irrespective of culture or country, to support evidence-based policy, services and public health interventions. We found the prevalence of severe loneliness was 21 ...


Simulating Influenza Epidemics With Waning Vaccine Immunity, Chun-Miin Chen, Alia C. Stanciu 2021 Bucknell University

Simulating Influenza Epidemics With Waning Vaccine Immunity, Chun-Miin Chen, Alia C. Stanciu

Faculty Journal Articles

In this study, we simulate an influenza epidemic that considers the effects of waning immunity by fitting epidemiological models to CDC secondary historical data aggregated on a weekly basis, and derive the transmission rates at which susceptible individuals become infected over the course of the influenza season. Using a system of differential equations, we define four groups of individuals in a population: susceptible, vaccinated, infected, and recovered. We show that a larger number of initially infected individuals might not only bring the influenza season to an end sooner but also reduce the epidemic size. Moreover, any influenza virus that entails ...


Usability And Acceptability Of A Mobile App For Behavior Change And To Improve Immunization Coverage Among Children In Pakistan: A Mixed-Methods Study, Abdul Momin Kazi, Nazia Ahsan, Waliyah Mughis, Saima Jamal, Raheel Allana, Mehreen Raza, Sahrish Muneer, Muhammad Ayub Khan Mughal, Hussain Kalimuddin, Fareeha Sameen 2021 Aga Khan University

Usability And Acceptability Of A Mobile App For Behavior Change And To Improve Immunization Coverage Among Children In Pakistan: A Mixed-Methods Study, Abdul Momin Kazi, Nazia Ahsan, Waliyah Mughis, Saima Jamal, Raheel Allana, Mehreen Raza, Sahrish Muneer, Muhammad Ayub Khan Mughal, Hussain Kalimuddin, Fareeha Sameen

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Pakistan's immunization uptake rates are still significantly lower than anticipated despite several initiatives. Lack of awareness, forgetting about vaccination schedule, and vaccine misconception/misinformation are a few of the major drivers that mitigate the rates of immunization. The current COVID-19 pandemic emphasizes the importance of immunization. The significant reductions in regular childhood vaccination during pandemic have increased the risk of outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases. Concerns among parents over possibly exposing their children to COVID-19 during child visits may have contributed to the reported declines. Innovative and cost-effective mHealth interventions must be implemented in order to address the problem ...


Acceptance Rates And Beliefs Toward Covid-19 Vaccination Among The General Population Of Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey, Farah Yasmin, Waleed Asghar, Maryam Salma Babar, Hiba Khan, Shoaib Ahmad, Zaid Hameed, Muhammad Sohaib Asghar, Hamza Nauman, Abdullah Khan Khattak 2021 Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan

Acceptance Rates And Beliefs Toward Covid-19 Vaccination Among The General Population Of Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Survey, Farah Yasmin, Waleed Asghar, Maryam Salma Babar, Hiba Khan, Shoaib Ahmad, Zaid Hameed, Muhammad Sohaib Asghar, Hamza Nauman, Abdullah Khan Khattak

Medical College Documents

Developing countries like Pakistan have previously suffered from barriers to acceptance of vaccination by the public because of financial and belief barriers. This study aims to explore these beliefs and highlight concerns regarding vaccine hesitancy in the general population of Pakistan since they are a hindrance to an effective coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) immunization in the country. A cross-sectional study was performed involving 1,778 participants from all four provinces of Pakistan. Results from the study showed more than half of the participants to be unsure of the safety (50%) and efficacy (51%) of the vaccine, whereas 42% were concerned about ...


Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Mortality Among Young Infants In Karachi, Pakistan: A Prospective Postmortem Surveillance Study, Abdul Momin Kazi, Obianuju G. Aguolu, Waliyah Mughis, Nazia Ahsan, Saima Jamal, Ayub Khan, Hanya M. QureshI, Inci Yildirim, Fauzia A. Malik, Saad B. Omer 2021 Aga Khan University

Respiratory Syncytial Virus-Associated Mortality Among Young Infants In Karachi, Pakistan: A Prospective Postmortem Surveillance Study, Abdul Momin Kazi, Obianuju G. Aguolu, Waliyah Mughis, Nazia Ahsan, Saima Jamal, Ayub Khan, Hanya M. Qureshi, Inci Yildirim, Fauzia A. Malik, Saad B. Omer

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an important cause of infant morbidity and mortality and a potential target for maternal immunization strategies. However, data on the role of RSV in young infant deaths in developing countries are limited.
Methods: We conducted a community-based mortality surveillance from August 2018-March 2020 for infants ≤6 months in Karachi, Pakistan. We tested (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) nasopharyngeal swabs from deceased infants for presence of RSV. We performed verbal autopsies and calculated odds of RSV-associated mortality with 95% CIs and used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate associations.
Results: We collected 490 nasopharyngeal specimens from 1280 ...


Effectiveness Of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Against Culture-Confirmed Salmonella Enterica Serotype Typhi In An Extensively Drug-Resistant Outbreak Setting Of Hyderabad, Pakistan: A Cohort Study, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Sultan Karim, Sonia Qureshi, Abdul Momin Kazi, Hina Memon, Amber Junejo, Zohra Khawaja, Najeeb Ur Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Ansari, Rafey Ali, Heera Mani Lohana, Farah Naz Qamar 2021 Aga Khan University

Effectiveness Of Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine Against Culture-Confirmed Salmonella Enterica Serotype Typhi In An Extensively Drug-Resistant Outbreak Setting Of Hyderabad, Pakistan: A Cohort Study, Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Sultan Karim, Sonia Qureshi, Abdul Momin Kazi, Hina Memon, Amber Junejo, Zohra Khawaja, Najeeb Ur Rehman, Muhammad Sajid Ansari, Rafey Ali, Heera Mani Lohana, Farah Naz Qamar

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Background: Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S Typhi) is a major public health problem in low-income and middle-income countries. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness and impact of the typhoid conjugate vaccine Typbar-TCV against S Typhi among children in an outbreak setting of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) S Typhi in Pakistan.
Methods: This cohort study was done from Feb 21, 2018, to Dec 31, 2019. A census survey of all households located in the Qasimabad and Latifabad subdistricts of Hyderabad, Pakistan, was done at baseline, and 174 005 households were registered in the census. The Typbar-TCV immunisation campaign was initiated at temporary ...


Determinants Of Vaccine Hesitancy In Indonesia: A Scoping Review, Nuril Hanifah, Ike Herdiana, Rahkman Ardi 2021 Faculty of Psychology, Universitas Airlangga, Kota Surabaya 60286, Indonesia

Determinants Of Vaccine Hesitancy In Indonesia: A Scoping Review, Nuril Hanifah, Ike Herdiana, Rahkman Ardi

Makara Human Behavior Studies in Asia

Complete children immunization coverage in Indonesia declined from 59.2% in 2013 to 57.9% in 2016. Therefore, a study on understanding the vaccination barrier is necessary to improve future coverage. This scoping review aims to identify the determinants of vaccine hesitancy using the model of the World Health Organization-Strategic Advisory Group of Expert (WHO-SAGE) working group and to map them on the basis of region, target population, and vaccine. This research used publications from seven databases (Science Direct, Wiley, Scopus, SAGE, PubMed, Springer, and Taylor & Francis) from 2015 to 2020. A total of 10,212 publications were identified and ...


Impact Of Coronavirus Disease 2019 On Prevention And Elimination Strategies For Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C, Syed Tabish Rehman, Hareem Rehman, Shahab Abid 2021 Aga Khan University

Impact Of Coronavirus Disease 2019 On Prevention And Elimination Strategies For Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C, Syed Tabish Rehman, Hareem Rehman, Shahab Abid

Section of Pulmonary & Critical Care

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality since its first case was discovered in December 2019. Since then, multiple countries have witnessed a healthcare system collapse due to the overwhelming demand for COVID-19 care. Drastic measures have been taken globally in order to curb the spread of the virus. However, those measures have led to the disruption of other aspects of healthcare, increasing the burden due to other medical conditions. We have also stepped back in achieving the ambitious goal set in place by World Health Organization to eliminate viral hepatitis as a public ...


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