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Influenza Virus Vaccines Commons

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Predictors Of Covid-19 Vaccination Rate In Usa: A Machine Learning Approach, Syed M. I. Osman, Ahmed Sabit 2022 Sacred Heart University

Predictors Of Covid-19 Vaccination Rate In Usa: A Machine Learning Approach, Syed M. I. Osman, Ahmed Sabit

WCBT Faculty Publications

In this study, we examine state-level features and policies that are most important in achieving a threshold level vaccination rate to curve the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. We employ CHAID, a decision tree algorithm, on three different model specifications to answer this question based on a dataset that includes all the states in the United States. Workplace travel emerges as the most important predictor; however, the governors’ political affiliation (PA) replaces it in a more conservative feature set that includes economic features and the growth rate of COVID-19 cases. We also employ several alternative algorithms as a robustness check. …


Vaccinate: Posters From The Covid-19 Pandemic, Aaron Sutherlen, Judy Diamond, Meghan Leadabrand, Julia McQuillan, St Patrick Reid 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Vaccinate: Posters From The Covid-19 Pandemic, Aaron Sutherlen, Judy Diamond, Meghan Leadabrand, Julia Mcquillan, St Patrick Reid

Zea E-Books Collection

In 2022 we are living through a global pandemic, and vaccines are one of the most effective strategies for slowing the spread of infectious disease, minimizing symptoms, and lowering healthcare demands. In short, vaccines save lives and can reduce the risk of contagion from social interaction.

In the United States in late 2021, after the vaccines had been broadly available for almost a year, one in five adults still chose not to get vaccinated against COVID-19.

Art can disrupt what is embedded in our minds and open us up to new perspectives and insights. We hope to offer access to …


Igg Antibodies To Sars-Cov-2 In Asymptomatic Blood Donors At Two Time Points In Karachi, Muhammad Hasan, Bushra Moiz, Shama Qaiser, Kiran I. Masood, Zara Ghous, Areeba Hussain, Natasha Bahadur Ali, Syed Hani Abidi, Kulsoom Ghias, Erum Khan, Zahra Hasan 2022 Aga Khan University

Igg Antibodies To Sars-Cov-2 In Asymptomatic Blood Donors At Two Time Points In Karachi, Muhammad Hasan, Bushra Moiz, Shama Qaiser, Kiran I. Masood, Zara Ghous, Areeba Hussain, Natasha Bahadur Ali, Syed Hani Abidi, Kulsoom Ghias, Erum Khan, Zahra Hasan

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Introduction: An estimated 1.5 million cases were reported in Pakistan until 23 March, 2022. However, SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing capacity has been limited and the incidence of COVID-19 infections is unknown. Volunteer healthy blood donors can be a control population for assessment of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in the population. We determined COVID-19 seroprevalence during the second pandemic wave in Karachi in donors without known infections or symptoms in 4 weeks prior to enrollment.
Materials and methods: We enrolled 558 healthy blood donors at the Aga Khan University Hospital between December 2020 and February 2021. ABO blood groups were determined. Serum IgG reactivity …


Omicron Spike Function And Neutralizing Activity Elicited By A Comprehensive Panel Of Vaccines, John E. Bowen, Amin Addetia, Ha V Dang, Cameron Stewart, Jack T. Brown, William K. Sharkey, Kaitlin R. Sprouse, Kumail Ahmed, Asefa Shariq Ansari, Najeeha Talat Iqbal 2022 University of Washington, Seattle

Omicron Spike Function And Neutralizing Activity Elicited By A Comprehensive Panel Of Vaccines, John E. Bowen, Amin Addetia, Ha V Dang, Cameron Stewart, Jack T. Brown, William K. Sharkey, Kaitlin R. Sprouse, Kumail Ahmed, Asefa Shariq Ansari, Najeeha Talat Iqbal

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron variant of concern comprises several sublineages, with BA.2 and BA.2.12.1 having replaced the previously dominant BA.1 and with BA.4 and BA.5 increasing in prevalence worldwide. We show that the large number of Omicron sublineage spike mutations leads to enhanced angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) binding, reduced fusogenicity, and severe dampening of plasma neutralizing activity elicited by infection or seven clinical vaccines relative to the ancestral virus. Administration of a homologous or heterologous booster based on the Wuhan-Hu-1 spike sequence markedly increased neutralizing antibody titers and breadth against BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, BA.4, and …


An Evidence-Based Questionnaire To Assess Influenza Vaccine Adherence In Young Adults Ages 19 To 25 Years, Tricia A. Gill 2022 La Salle University

An Evidence-Based Questionnaire To Assess Influenza Vaccine Adherence In Young Adults Ages 19 To 25 Years, Tricia A. Gill

DNP Scholarly Projects

Young adults ages 19 to 25 years in the United States are at increased risk for influenza because their annual flu shot adherence is the lowest out of all age groups. Their non-adherence and increased potential for illness have a very great impact on contacts, including family, friends, coworkers, their children, and people in the community. The purpose of this Doctor of Nursing Practice Project is to create an evidence- and theoretically-based questionnaire aimed at assessing flu vaccine adherence in young adults ages 19 to 25 years in a primary care practice with the future objective of reducing the overall …


Effects Of Education On Correcting Misconceptions And Acceptance Of The Influenza Vaccination Among A College Campus, Travis E. Fairbanks 2022 Northern Michigan University

Effects Of Education On Correcting Misconceptions And Acceptance Of The Influenza Vaccination Among A College Campus, Travis E. Fairbanks

DNP Scholarly Projects

Educating patients on the influenza vaccination is an important goal for health care providers. It fosters a working relationship between provider and patient and allows patients to make an informed decision on their health care needs. The percentage of individuals who receive the influenza vaccine in the United States has been consistently below goals set by the committee for Healthy People 2020. This DNP scholarly project aimed to determine whether the introduction of education was effective at increasing individuals’ choice to vaccinate against the influenza virus among college campus students. The study was a non-experimental, non-randomized control trial that utilized …


Institute For Global Health And Development : Issue 4 - July - Sept 2022, Institute for Global Health and Development 2022 Aga Khan University

Institute For Global Health And Development : Issue 4 - July - Sept 2022, Institute For Global Health And Development

IGHD Newsletter

• Research Highlights
• Key Publications
• News
• Reflections from IGHD’s Associate Faculty
• Reflections from IGHD’s Summer Interns
• Webinars and Dialogues
• Mark your Calendars: Upcoming Event
• Obituary
• Collaborate With Us


Viral Infections In Pakistan: Prevalence, Factors Affecting Spread, And Recommendations For Control, Zehra Naseem, Maaha Ayub, Sharaf Ali Shah, Syed Asad Ali, Syed Hani Abidi 2022 Aga Khan University

Viral Infections In Pakistan: Prevalence, Factors Affecting Spread, And Recommendations For Control, Zehra Naseem, Maaha Ayub, Sharaf Ali Shah, Syed Asad Ali, Syed Hani Abidi

Medical College Documents

Pakistan is endemic to a number of viral infections, owing to its humid climate, topographical variation, soaring population, and lack of education and awareness. These viruses may have several different modes of transmission, including respiratory or airborne transmission, sexual transmission, blood-borne, fecal-oral transmission, vector-borne transmission, and transmission following an organ transplant. Although several different microorganisms are responsible for causing these infections, a few viruses are found more commonly in Pakistan and are primarily responsible for causing infections. In this study, we present a review of the most recent studies on different viruses, transmitted through various transmission routes, found commonly in …


Pneumococcal Carriage In Infants Post-Pcv10 Introduction In Pakistan: Results From Serial Cross-Sectional Surveys, Shahira Shahid, Amala Khan, Muhammad Imran Nisar, Farah Khalid, Muhammad Farrukh Qazi, Sheraz Ahmed, Furqan Kabir, Aneeta Hotwani, Sahrish Muneer, Syed Asad Ali, Anita K. M. Zaidi, Fyezah Jehan 2022 Aga Khan University

Pneumococcal Carriage In Infants Post-Pcv10 Introduction In Pakistan: Results From Serial Cross-Sectional Surveys, Shahira Shahid, Amala Khan, Muhammad Imran Nisar, Farah Khalid, Muhammad Farrukh Qazi, Sheraz Ahmed, Furqan Kabir, Aneeta Hotwani, Sahrish Muneer, Syed Asad Ali, Anita K. M. Zaidi, Fyezah Jehan

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

The 10-valent pneumococcal vaccine was introduced in Pakistan's Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 2013 as a 3 + 0 schedule without catchup. We conducted three annual cross-sectional surveys from 2014-2016 to measure vaccine-type (VT) carriage in infants from a rural part of Pakistan. Nasopharyngeal specimens were collected by random sampling of infants from two union councils of Matiari. Samples were then transported to the Infectious Disease Research Laboratory (IDRL) at the Aga Khan University within 6-8 h of collection. Serotypes were established using sequential multiplex PCR. Of the 665 children enrolled across three surveys, 547 were culture-positive for pneumococcus. …


Evaluation Of Antibody Response Against G4 And G1 Eurasian Avian-Like H1n1 Strains With Ha Vaccination In Swine., Callie Jo Olson 2022 University of South Dakota

Evaluation Of Antibody Response Against G4 And G1 Eurasian Avian-Like H1n1 Strains With Ha Vaccination In Swine., Callie Jo Olson

Honors Thesis

We are investigating the use of the Huber laboratory H1N1 influenza broad-antibody response vaccine product candidates HA-111 and HA-113 against emerging swine H1N1 virus variants G1 and G4 that are circulating in China. The question is, what would happen in the event that the G1 and/or G4 viruses were to jump from swine to humans and become transmissible between humans? As a subtype of influenza A viruses, H1N1 viruses have pandemic potential due to their ability to infect a variety of hosts other than humans and acquire new gene segments from those other reservoirs. Broad-coverage influenza vaccines are of great …


Vaccine Hesitancy In The Post-Covid-19 Era: An Interdisciplinary Approach For A Trust-And-Risk Paradigm With Governmental And Intergovernmental Implications, Laurent Cleenewerck de Kiev, Danny A. Schieffler 2022 Euclid University, Gambia

Vaccine Hesitancy In The Post-Covid-19 Era: An Interdisciplinary Approach For A Trust-And-Risk Paradigm With Governmental And Intergovernmental Implications, Laurent Cleenewerck De Kiev, Danny A. Schieffler

Healthcare Informatics Faculty Publications

Vaccine hesitancy was described as a major global health challenge by the World Health Organization before the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic (Ten Health Issues WHO Will Tackle This Year, 2019).

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the introduction of several new vaccines (notably Pfizer, Moderna, J&J) and with them new vaccine technologies (mRNA) under emergency use authorization (EUA), combined with the political context of these vaccines’ accelerated development, triggered a heightened level of vaccine hesitancy and refusal in the United States and around the world (FDA, 2021).

This paper study undertakes to investigate the foundations and recent evolution of this phenomenon …


Institute For Global Health And Development : Issue 3 - April - June 2022, Institute for Global Health and Development 2022 Aga Khan University

Institute For Global Health And Development : Issue 3 - April - June 2022, Institute For Global Health And Development

IGHD Newsletter

• Research Highlights
• Reflections from IGHD’s Associate Faculty
• Key Publications
• Webinars and Dialogues
• Celebration
• Collaborate With U


The Correlation Between Vaccine Hesitancy And Privilege: Exploring The Degree To Which Education And Income Foster Resistance To Vaccination Efforts, Sophie Goldenberg 2022 SIT Study Abroad

The Correlation Between Vaccine Hesitancy And Privilege: Exploring The Degree To Which Education And Income Foster Resistance To Vaccination Efforts, Sophie Goldenberg

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Vaccine hesitancy is a public health issue of growing concern. Extensive pre-existing literature offers several explanations and conflicting viewpoints regarding reluctance toward vaccinations. However, minimal research has been done exploring the upstream social determinants driving vaccine hesitancy. Utilizing academic and gray literature and interviews with experts in the field, this study addresses this gap in knowledge with the research question: To what extent does privilege impact vaccine hesitancy and resistance? Vaccine hesitancy appears globally and is particularly concerning given the re-emergence of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Additionally, due to inconsistent causes, vaccine hesitancy is difficult to combat. In referencing the history …


On Efficacy And Effectiveness Of Vaccines: A Mathematical Approach Based On Conditional Probability With Applications To The Covid-19 Context, Flavius Guias 2022 Dortmund University of Applied Sciences and Arts

On Efficacy And Effectiveness Of Vaccines: A Mathematical Approach Based On Conditional Probability With Applications To The Covid-19 Context, Flavius Guias

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

This paper presents a mathematically formalized approach which points out the relation between efficacy and effectiveness of vaccines. The first term denotes the relative degree of protection in clinical trials or under ideal conditions, while the latter is based on observed real-life data. We define the efficacy by a similar formula to the effectiveness, but the probabilities involved in the relative risk are conditional with respect to the exposure to the virus. If exposure and vaccination status are independent, the two quantities are equal. Otherwise, the observed value of the effectiveness is a biased one, as it could be seen …


Creation Of An Influenza A Virus Neuraminidase Consensus Vaccine In An Adenoviral Vector, Leigh Jahnke 2022 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Creation Of An Influenza A Virus Neuraminidase Consensus Vaccine In An Adenoviral Vector, Leigh Jahnke

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

In the last decade, the estimated annual burden of the flu includes 12,000-52,000 deaths, 140,000-710,000 hospitalizations, and 9 million – 41 million illnesses (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Disease burden of the flu). Influenza A virus can mutate and infect a variety of different hosts, which results in frequent antigenic changes and even pandemics. This has led to increased attention on the creation of a universal Influenza A vaccine containing broader immunogenic coverage than current vaccines. Our research involved detailing the steps of the cloning process utilizing a consensus neuraminidase antigen. We utilized the pAdEasy Adenoviral Vector …


An Epidemiological, Strategic And Response Analysis Of The Covid-19 Pandemic In South Asia: A Population-Based Observational Study, Hafiz Muhammad Salman, Javaria Syed, Atif Riaz, Zouina Sarfraz, Azza Sarfraz, Syed Hashim Abbas Ali Bokhari, Ivan Cherrez Ojeda 2022 Service Institute of Medical Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan

An Epidemiological, Strategic And Response Analysis Of The Covid-19 Pandemic In South Asia: A Population-Based Observational Study, Hafiz Muhammad Salman, Javaria Syed, Atif Riaz, Zouina Sarfraz, Azza Sarfraz, Syed Hashim Abbas Ali Bokhari, Ivan Cherrez Ojeda

Department of Paediatrics and Child Health

Introduction: South Asia has had a dynamic response to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. The overall burden and response have remained comparable across highly-burdened countries within the South Asian Region.
Methodology: Using a population-based observational design, all eight South Asian countries were analyzed using a step-wise approach. Data were obtained from government websites and publicly-available repositories for population dynamics and key variables.
Results: South Asian countries have a younger average age of their population. Inequitable distribution of resources centered in urban metropolitan cities within South Asia is present. Certain densely populated regions in these countries have better testing and healthcare facilities …


Clinical Influenza Testing Practices In Hospitalized Children At United States Medical Centers, 2015-2018., Mark W. Tenforde, Angela P. Campbell, Marian G. Michaels, Christopher J. Harrison, Eileen J. Klein, Janet A. Englund, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Natasha B. Halasa, Laura S. Stewart, Geoffrey A. Weinberg, John V. Williams, Peter G. Szilagyi, Mary A. Staat, Julie A. Boom, Leila C. Sahni, Monica N. Singer, Parvin H. Azimi, Richard K. Zimmerman, Monica M. McNeal, H Keipp Talbot, Arnold S. Monto, Emily T. Martin, Manjusha Gaglani, Fernanda P. Silveira, Donald B. Middleton, Jill M. Ferdinands, Melissa A. Rolfes 2022 Children's Mercy Hospital

Clinical Influenza Testing Practices In Hospitalized Children At United States Medical Centers, 2015-2018., Mark W. Tenforde, Angela P. Campbell, Marian G. Michaels, Christopher J. Harrison, Eileen J. Klein, Janet A. Englund, Rangaraj Selvarangan, Natasha B. Halasa, Laura S. Stewart, Geoffrey A. Weinberg, John V. Williams, Peter G. Szilagyi, Mary A. Staat, Julie A. Boom, Leila C. Sahni, Monica N. Singer, Parvin H. Azimi, Richard K. Zimmerman, Monica M. Mcneal, H Keipp Talbot, Arnold S. Monto, Emily T. Martin, Manjusha Gaglani, Fernanda P. Silveira, Donald B. Middleton, Jill M. Ferdinands, Melissa A. Rolfes

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

At nine US hospitals that enrolled children hospitalized with acute respiratory illness (ARI) during 2015-2016 through 2017-2018 influenza seasons, 50% of children with ARI received clinician-initiated testing for influenza and 35% of cases went undiagnosed due to lack of clinician-initiated testing. Marked heterogeneity in testing practice was observed across sites.


Covid-19 Vaccine Brand Hesitancy And Other Challenges To Vaccination In The Philippines, Arianna Maever L. Amit, Veincent Christian F. Pepito, Lourdes S. Tanchanco, Manuel Dayrit 2022 Ateneo School of Medicine and Public Health, Ateneo de Manila University

Covid-19 Vaccine Brand Hesitancy And Other Challenges To Vaccination In The Philippines, Arianna Maever L. Amit, Veincent Christian F. Pepito, Lourdes S. Tanchanco, Manuel Dayrit

Ateneo School of Medicine and Public Health Publications

Effective and safe COVID-19 vaccines have been developed at a rapid and unprecedented pace to control the spread of the virus, and prevent hospitalisations and deaths. However, COVID-19 vaccine uptake is challenged by vaccine hesitancy and anti-vaccination sentiments, a global shortage of vaccine supply, and inequitable vaccine distribution especially among low- and middle-income countries including the Philippines. In this paper, we explored vaccination narratives and challenges experienced and observed by Filipinos during the early vaccination period. We interviewed 35 individuals from a subsample of 1,599 survey respondents 18 years and older in the Philippines. The interviews were conducted in Filipino, …


Characteristics Of Covid-19 Vaccine-Hesitant Ucf College Students And Potential Avenues For Increasing Vaccination Rates, Justin A. Barthel 2022 University of Central Florida

Characteristics Of Covid-19 Vaccine-Hesitant Ucf College Students And Potential Avenues For Increasing Vaccination Rates, Justin A. Barthel

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The COVID-19 pandemic has been an ongoing disaster that has devasted millions of lives. With the development of COVID-19 vaccines in late 2020, there was a potential for populations to gain artificial active immunity in order to prevent future outbreaks. However, despite successful clinical trials, millions of citizens have been hesitant to receive the COVID-19 vaccines (Khubchandani et al., 2021). Demographics of the most prominent US vaccine-hesitant populations consist of ethnic/racial minorities and Republicans groups (Khubchandani et al., 2021). Little information is known about COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in colleges and universities. Colleges provide an elevated risk for infection through their …


Covid-19 Vaccine Disparities And Attitudes, Deonne Cartwright, Meryem Saygili 2022 University of Texas at Tyler

Covid-19 Vaccine Disparities And Attitudes, Deonne Cartwright, Meryem Saygili

Pursue: Undergraduate Research Journal

The past couple of years have caused so much uncertainty and grief amidst the global pandemic. The goal of this study is to explore the attitudes behind COVID-19 vaccination to address the cause for vaccine disparities and help minimize health disparities in the United States. The study considers two multivariable regressions in SPSS of the social factors on vaccination status and vaccine confidence. This model studies the relationship between one’s ethnicity, race, education level, education specialization, household income, political ideology, and media source on vaccine confidence and vaccination status on an East Texas college campus. A campus-wide survey was conducted …


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