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Incidence Of And Risk Factors For Community-Associated Clostridium Difficile Infection, Jennifer Lee Kuntz 2010 University of Iowa

Incidence Of And Risk Factors For Community-Associated Clostridium Difficile Infection, Jennifer Lee Kuntz

Theses and Dissertations

Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of hospital-acquired infectious diarrhea in the United States. Although C. difficile is widely-recognized as a pathogen among hospitalized populations, CDI has emerged in the community setting but is under-diagnosed. This study sought to increase knowledge about the incidence of, risk factors for, and outcomes associated with community-associated CDI (CA-CDI).

A retrospective nested case-control study was conducted using insurance claims data from the Wellmark Data Repository for the time period between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2007. Persons with CDI were identified and were classified as community-associated CDI and hospital-acquired CDI ...


Nonparametric Regression With Missing Outcomes Using Weighted Kernel Estimating Equations, Lu Wang, Andrea Rotnitzky, Xihong Lin 2010 University of Michigan

Nonparametric Regression With Missing Outcomes Using Weighted Kernel Estimating Equations, Lu Wang, Andrea Rotnitzky, Xihong Lin

Harvard University Biostatistics Working Paper Series

No abstract provided.


Practice Notes: Strategies In Health Education, Lisa D. Lieberman 2010 Montclair State University

Practice Notes: Strategies In Health Education, Lisa D. Lieberman

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Objective: The purpose of the Be Red Cross Ready Community Outreach Project (BRCR) was to train health education students to provide high-quality, theory-driven community preparedness education in a community on the U.S.-Mexico border. This aim was achieved through an innovative partnership between a community organization, a federal research center, and a university. The ultimate goal of the project was to increase disaster and emergency preparation to protect, promote, and preserve the health of the public.


Do People With Aphasia Want Written Information? A Verbal Survey Exploring Preferences For When And How To Provide Stroke And Aphasia Information, Tanya Rose, Linda Worrall, Louise Hickson, Tammy Hoffmann 2010 University of Queensland

Do People With Aphasia Want Written Information? A Verbal Survey Exploring Preferences For When And How To Provide Stroke And Aphasia Information, Tanya Rose, Linda Worrall, Louise Hickson, Tammy Hoffmann

Tammy Hoffmann

Purpose: Written health information can be better comprehended by people with aphasia if it is provided in an aphasiafriendly format. However, before pursuing research in the area of text-formatting for people with aphasia, it must be determined whether people with aphasia consider it helpful to receive health information in the written media. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the following: whether people with aphasia consider it important to receive written stroke and aphasia information; when people with aphasia prefer to receive this information; and what their preferences are for health information media.

Method: Surveys were administered in a face-to-face interview ...


Gender Differences Of Case-Fatality Rate In A Brazilian Stroke Registry, Paulo A. Lotufo 2010 Universidade de São Paulo

Gender Differences Of Case-Fatality Rate In A Brazilian Stroke Registry, Paulo A. Lotufo

Paulo A Lotufo

No abstract provided.


Characteristics Of Small Areas With A Higher Stroke Mortality, Paulo A. Lotufo 2010 Universidade de São Paulo

Characteristics Of Small Areas With A Higher Stroke Mortality, Paulo A. Lotufo

Paulo A Lotufo

No abstract provided.


Higher Frequency Of Stroke Deaths On Monday And Saturday, Paulo A. Lotufo 2010 Universidade de São Paulo

Higher Frequency Of Stroke Deaths On Monday And Saturday, Paulo A. Lotufo

Paulo A Lotufo

No abstract provided.


Social Inequalities And The Decline Of Stroke Mortality In The City Of Sao Paulo, Brazil, Paulo A. Lotufo 2010 Universidade de São Paulo

Social Inequalities And The Decline Of Stroke Mortality In The City Of Sao Paulo, Brazil, Paulo A. Lotufo

Paulo A Lotufo

No abstract provided.


Event Rates, Hospital Utilization, And Costs Associated With Major Complications Of Diabetes: A Multicountry Comparative Analysis, Philip M. Clarke, Paul Glasziou, Anushka Patel, John Chalmers, Mark Woodward, Stephen B. Harrap, Joshua A. Salomon 2010 University of Sydney

Event Rates, Hospital Utilization, And Costs Associated With Major Complications Of Diabetes: A Multicountry Comparative Analysis, Philip M. Clarke, Paul Glasziou, Anushka Patel, John Chalmers, Mark Woodward, Stephen B. Harrap, Joshua A. Salomon

Paul Glasziou

Background: Diabetes imposes a substantial burden globally in terms of premature mortality, morbidity, and health care costs. Estimates of economic outcomes associated with diabetes are essential inputs to policy analyses aimed at prevention and treatment of diabetes. Our objective was to estimate and compare event rates, hospital utilization, and costs associated with major diabetes-related complications in high-, middle-, and low-income countries.

Methods and Findings: Incidence and history of diabetes-related complications, hospital admissions, and length of stay were recorded in 11,140 patients with type 2 diabetes participating in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease (ADVANCE) study (mean age at ...


Stroke Prevalence In A Poor Neighbourhood Of Sao Paulo, Brazil: Applying A Stroke Symptom Questionnaire, Paulo A. Lotufo 2010 Universidade de São Paulo

Stroke Prevalence In A Poor Neighbourhood Of Sao Paulo, Brazil: Applying A Stroke Symptom Questionnaire, Paulo A. Lotufo

Paulo A Lotufo

Background Brazil has one of the highest stroke mortality rates in the world, these rates are most endemic in the poor. We verified the prevalence of stroke in a deprived neighbourhood in the city of Sa˜ o Paulo, Brazil and compared it with other surveys worldwide. Methods A questionnaire with six questions concerning limb and facial weakness, articulation, sensory disturbances, impaired vision, and past diagnosis of stroke was completed door-to-door in a well-defined area of 15 000 people. Questionnaires were considered positive when a participant answered two or more questions about stroke symptoms or the presence of stroke being confirmed ...


Self Diagnosis, Clare Goyder, Ann McPherson, Paul Glasziou 2010 University of Oxford

Self Diagnosis, Clare Goyder, Ann Mcpherson, Paul Glasziou

Paul Glasziou

Extract:
Some conditions can be diagnosed correctly by the patient, but self diagnosis should always undergo challenge and refinement by the general practitioner.


A Novel Method To Adjust Efficacy Estimates For Uptake Of Other Active Treatments In Long-Term Clinical Trials, John Simes, Merryn Voysey, Rachel O'Connell, Paul Glasziou, James D. Best, Russell Scott, Christopher Pardy, Karen Byth, David R. Sullivan, Christian Ehnholm, Anthony Keech 2010 University of Sydney

A Novel Method To Adjust Efficacy Estimates For Uptake Of Other Active Treatments In Long-Term Clinical Trials, John Simes, Merryn Voysey, Rachel O'Connell, Paul Glasziou, James D. Best, Russell Scott, Christopher Pardy, Karen Byth, David R. Sullivan, Christian Ehnholm, Anthony Keech

Paul Glasziou

Background: When rates of uptake of other drugs differ between treatment arms in long-term trials, the true benefit or harm of the treatment may be underestimated. Methods to allow for such contamination have often been limited by failing to preserve the randomization comparisons. In the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study, patients were randomized to fenofibrate or placebo, but during the trial many started additional drugs, particularly statins, more so in the placebo group. The effects of fenofibrate estimated by intention-to-treat were likely to have been attenuated. We aimed to quantify this effect and to develop a ...


Subclinical Hyperthyroidism And Dementia: The Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study (Spah), Paulo A. Lotufo 2010 Universidade de São Paulo

Subclinical Hyperthyroidism And Dementia: The Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study (Spah), Paulo A. Lotufo

Paulo A Lotufo

Background: Several epidemiologic studies have shown a possible association between thyroid function and cognitive decline. Our aim was to evaluate the association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia in a population sample of older people. Methods: A cross-sectional study - São Paulo Ageing & Health Study (SPAH) - in a population sample of low-income elderly people ≥ 65 years-old to evaluate presence of subclinical thyroid disease as a risk factor for dementia. Thyroid function was assessed using thyrotropic hormone and free-thyroxine as well as routine use of thyroid hormones or antithyroid medications. Cases of dementia were assessed using a harmonized one-phase dementia diagnostic procedure by the "10/66 Dementia Research Group" including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Logistic regression models were used to test a possible association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and dementia. Results and discussion: Prevalence of dementia and of subclinical hyperthyroidism were respectively of 4.4% and 3.0%. After age adjustment, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism and any type of dementia and vascular dementia (Odds Ratio, 4.1, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI] 1.3-13.1, and 5.3 95% CI, 1.1-26.4; respectively). Analyzing data by gender, we found an association of subclinical hyperthyroidism with dementia and Alzheimer's disease only for men (OR, 8.0; 95% CI, 1.5-43.4; OR, 12.4; 95% CI, 1.2-128.4; respectively). No women with subclinical hypothyroidism presented Alzheimer's disease in the sample. Conclusion: The results suggest a consistent association among people ...


Environmental Valuation: The Sum Of Specific Damages Approach, PHILIP E. GRAVES 2010 University of Colorado at Boulder

Environmental Valuation: The Sum Of Specific Damages Approach, Philip E. Graves

PHILIP E GRAVES

There is no abstract for this book chapter.


General Psychological Distress Symptoms And Help-Seeking Intentions In Young Australians, Coralie Wilson 2009 University of Wollongong

General Psychological Distress Symptoms And Help-Seeking Intentions In Young Australians, Coralie Wilson

Coralie J Wilson

Epidemiological studies suggest that young people might have a tendency to avoid help when they experience symptoms of psychological distress. There is growing evidence that many young people prefer no help from anyone for their mental health problems. The current study examined the association between symptoms of general psychological distress and intentions to seek help from friends, family and professional mental health sources in a sample of 109 trade (TAFE) students from regional and rural Australia. Participants were 67% male and aged from 15-25 years. Higher levels of general psychological distress symptoms were associated with stronger intentions to not seek ...


Adolescents' Suicidal Thinking And Reluctance To Consult General Medical Practitioners, Coralie Wilson 2009 University of Wollongong

Adolescents' Suicidal Thinking And Reluctance To Consult General Medical Practitioners, Coralie Wilson

Coralie J Wilson

Appropriate help-seeking is widely recognized as a protective factor, and vital for early treatment and prevention of mental health problems during adolescence. General medical practitioners (GPs), that is, family doctors, provide a vital role in the identification of adolescents with mental health problems and the provision of treatment as well as access to other specialists in mental health care services. The current study is part of a larger multi-cite study developed and led by the first author. It examines the association between suicidal ideation and intentions to seek help from a GP for suicidal thoughts, emotional problems and physical health ...


Diminishing Availability Of Publicly Funded Slots For Antiretroviral Initiation Among Hiv-Infected Art-Eligible Patients In Uganda, Elvin Geng 2009 University of California, San Francisco

Diminishing Availability Of Publicly Funded Slots For Antiretroviral Initiation Among Hiv-Infected Art-Eligible Patients In Uganda, Elvin Geng

Elvin H Geng

No abstract provided.


Tracking A Sample Of Patients Lost To Follow-Up Has A Major Impact On Understanding Determinants Of Survival In Hiv-Infected Patients On Antiretroviral Therapy In Africa, Elvin Geng 2009 University of California, San Francisco

Tracking A Sample Of Patients Lost To Follow-Up Has A Major Impact On Understanding Determinants Of Survival In Hiv-Infected Patients On Antiretroviral Therapy In Africa, Elvin Geng

Elvin H Geng

No abstract provided.


Help-Negation And Suicidal Ideation: The Role Of Depression, Anxiety And Hopelessness., Coralie J. Wilson 2009 University of Wollongong

Help-Negation And Suicidal Ideation: The Role Of Depression, Anxiety And Hopelessness., Coralie J. Wilson

Frank Deane

Help-negation is expressed behaviorally by the refusal or avoidance of available help and cognitively by the inverse relationship between self-reported symptoms of psychological distress and help-seeking intentions. The current study is part of a larger multi-cite research program developed and led by the first author. It examines the association between suicidal ideation and intentions to seek help from friends, family and professional mental health sources in a sample of 302 Australian university students. Participants were 77.5% female and aged from 18-25 years old, with 85.4% aged 21 years or younger. Higher levels of suicidal ideation were related to ...


Help-Negation And Suicidal Ideation: The Role Of Depression, Anxiety And Hopelessness., Coralie J. Wilson 2009 University of Wollongong

Help-Negation And Suicidal Ideation: The Role Of Depression, Anxiety And Hopelessness., Coralie J. Wilson

Coralie J Wilson

Help-negation is expressed behaviorally by the refusal or avoidance of available help and cognitively by the inverse relationship between self-reported symptoms of psychological distress and help-seeking intentions. The current study is part of a larger multi-cite research program developed and led by the first author. It examines the association between suicidal ideation and intentions to seek help from friends, family and professional mental health sources in a sample of 302 Australian university students. Participants were 77.5% female and aged from 18-25 years old, with 85.4% aged 21 years or younger. Higher levels of suicidal ideation were related to ...


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