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Full-Text Articles in Clinical Epidemiology

Use Of Artificial Intelligence To Identify Predictors Of Functional Outcomes In Patients With Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy, Natalie K. Katz May 2021

Use Of Artificial Intelligence To Identify Predictors Of Functional Outcomes In Patients With Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy, Natalie K. Katz

Research Days

Background: Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most common forms of muscular dystrophy characterized by slowly progressive muscle weakness. Symptoms initially involve the facial and shoulder girdle muscles, with later involvement of the distal lower extremities, pelvic girdle and proximal lower extremities. FSHD type 1 (FHSD1) is the most common form (~95% of individuals) and is caused by deletion of microsatellite repeats in the D4Z4 region on chromosome 4 (4q35). Normal individuals have >10 repeats whereas individuals with FSHD1 have 1-10 repeats. There is significant variability in regards to disease severity, rates of progression and functional outcomes, but ...


Treatment Access For Dual Diagnosis Substance Use And Mental Health Disorders, Pedro Banuelos May 2021

Treatment Access For Dual Diagnosis Substance Use And Mental Health Disorders, Pedro Banuelos

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

In 2018, of 1.3 million Latinx adults in the United States facing concurrent issues with substance use disorders (SUD) and mental health disorders (MHD) 93% remained untreated for either diagnosis. This is concerning since Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) data reveals that this population is at greater risk for suicidal thoughts, plans, and attempts. They also face structural barriers such as employment, housing, legal involvement, and insurability that further impede access to treatment.

This study’s purpose was to examine barriers to accessing treatment for Latinx populations confronting co-occurring SUDs and MHDs. This study used a ...


The Migration Of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii From The Battlefields Of Iraq And Afghanistan To The Healthcare Facilities Of The Veterans Health Administration, Jeffery Rogers May 2021

The Migration Of Carbapenem-Resistant Acinetobacter Baumannii From The Battlefields Of Iraq And Afghanistan To The Healthcare Facilities Of The Veterans Health Administration, Jeffery Rogers

Capstone Experience

Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) pose a great threat to health across the globe. That threat is also felt in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Wounded warriors returning home from the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan may have brought with them MDROs, such as the bacterium Acinetobacter baumannii, as they have transitioned from military service into the VHA facilities. This study investigates the interconnectedness of military service in the Department of Defense (DoD) and a lifetime of care at VHA through a longitudinal tracking of a linked cohort of combat veterans with battlefield injuries and subsequent MDR infections of A. baumannii. This ...


Prevalence Of Common Disease Conditions In A Large Cohort Of Individuals With Down Syndrome In The United States, Brian Chicoine, Anne Rivelli, Veronica Fitzpatrick, Laura Chicoine, Gengjie Jia, Andrey Rzhetsky Apr 2021

Prevalence Of Common Disease Conditions In A Large Cohort Of Individuals With Down Syndrome In The United States, Brian Chicoine, Anne Rivelli, Veronica Fitzpatrick, Laura Chicoine, Gengjie Jia, Andrey Rzhetsky

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Given the current life expectancy and number of individuals living with Down syndrome (DS), it is important to learn common occurrences of disease conditions across the developmental lifespan. This study analyzed data from a large cohort of individuals with DS in an effort to better understand these disease conditions, inform future screening practices, tailor medical care guidelines, and improve utilization of health care resources.

Methods: This retrospective, descriptive study incorporated up to 28 years of data, compiled from 6078 individuals with DS and 30,326 controls matched on age and sex. Data were abstracted from electronic medical records within ...


Defining Septicemia Incidence And Mortality In South Carolina Through Access To Health Care, Behavioral Health, And Low Socio-Economic Status, Raeann Vossberg Apr 2021

Defining Septicemia Incidence And Mortality In South Carolina Through Access To Health Care, Behavioral Health, And Low Socio-Economic Status, Raeann Vossberg

Senior Theses

This study aims to provide an in-depth view of septicemia mortality and incidence in the state of South Carolina through the lenses of socio-economic factors, access to healthcare, and behavioral health factors. This study was conducted using data from the South Carolina Revenue and Fiscal Affairs Office, utilizing their Hospitalization, Inpatient, Emergency Department, and Outpatient data both separately and combined depending on the data point, along with additional data sources for support (see works cited). We hypothesize that the higher rates of septicemia mortality and incidence in the southeastern United States, as well as in South Carolina in particular, could ...


Reduction In Unplanned Hospitalizations Associated With A Physician Focused Intervention To Reduce Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use Among Older Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Matthew J. Alcusky, R. B. Thomas, N. Jafari, S. W. Keith, A. Kee, S. Del Canale, M. Lombardi, Vittorio Maio Mar 2021

Reduction In Unplanned Hospitalizations Associated With A Physician Focused Intervention To Reduce Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use Among Older Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study, Matthew J. Alcusky, R. B. Thomas, N. Jafari, S. W. Keith, A. Kee, S. Del Canale, M. Lombardi, Vittorio Maio

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: A multimodal general practitioner-focused intervention in the Local Health Authority (LHA) of Parma, Italy, substantially reduced the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use among older adults. Our objective was to estimate changes in hospitalization rates associated with the Parma LHA quality improvement initiative that reduced PIM use.

METHODS: This population-based longitudinal cohort study was conducted among older residents ( > 65 years) using the Parma LHA administrative healthcare database. Crude and adjusted unplanned hospitalization rates were estimated in 3 periods (pre-intervention: 2005-2008, intervention: 2009-2010, post-intervention: 2011-2014). Multivariable negative binomial models estimated trends in quarterly hospitalization rates among individuals at risk ...


Global Impact Of The Covid-19 On Stroke Care, Svin Covid-19 Global Registry, Raul Nogueira, Ajit S. Puri, Anna L. Kuhn, Thanh Nguyen Mar 2021

Global Impact Of The Covid-19 On Stroke Care, Svin Covid-19 Global Registry, Raul Nogueira, Ajit S. Puri, Anna L. Kuhn, Thanh Nguyen

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to profound changes in the organization of health care systems worldwide.

AIMS: We sought to measure the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the volumes for mechanical thrombectomy (MT), stroke, and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) hospitalizations over a 3-month period at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to May 31, 2020) compared with two control 3-month periods (immediately preceding and one year prior).

METHODS: Retrospective, observational, international study, across 6 continents, 40 countries, and 187 comprehensive stroke centers. The diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in stroke databases at participating ...


Prevalence Of Liver Cirrhosis And Its Association With Obesity Among Hispanics And Mexican Americans: An Evidence Synthesis, Alexa Perlick, Abaigeal Thompson, Colton Wayne, Angel Rendon, Jose Campo Maldonado Mar 2021

Prevalence Of Liver Cirrhosis And Its Association With Obesity Among Hispanics And Mexican Americans: An Evidence Synthesis, Alexa Perlick, Abaigeal Thompson, Colton Wayne, Angel Rendon, Jose Campo Maldonado

MEDI 9331 Scholarly Activities Clinical Years

INTRODUCTION

The obesity epidemic is a growing public health concern. In addition to the already known complications and comorbidities associated with obesity, data suggest that obesity is an independent risk factor for the development of liver disease.1,2 However, there is a paucity of data regarding the clinical correlation of obesity and cirrhosis in a predominantly Hispanic population of South Texas. The aim of this systematic literature review is to investigate the prevalence of cirrhosis stratified by obesity in Hispanic populations.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

PubMed was used to perform a thorough literature search. The terms liver cirrhosis and obesity ...


H1n1 Influenza Virus (Swine Flu): A Comprehensive Insight Into Escalating Catch-22 Scenarios, Muhammad Shahzaib, Ehsan Ul Haq Mar 2021

H1n1 Influenza Virus (Swine Flu): A Comprehensive Insight Into Escalating Catch-22 Scenarios, Muhammad Shahzaib, Ehsan Ul Haq

The University of Louisville Journal of Respiratory Infections

Introduction: Viruses have always been a major cause of various disastrous pandemics in mankind’s history. H1N1 became a threat when its original strain was first discovered back in the swine flu pandemic of 2009. It became highly catastrophic on a large scale because none of the therapeutic interventions and methodologies that were already present at the time were effective against the virus.

Methods: A vast amount of literature and research is available regarding H1N1 influenza from different reputable sources online. The data was gathered following the contrasting and relative situations of 1918 as well as the 2009 pandemic in ...


Trends In The Magnitude Of Chronic Conditions In Patients Hospitalized With A First Acute Myocardial Infarction, Mayra Tisminetzky, Ruben Miozzo, Joel M. Gore, Jerry H. Gurwitz, Darleen M. Lessard, Jorge Yarzebski, Edgard A. Granillo, Hawa Ozien Abu, Robert J. Goldberg Mar 2021

Trends In The Magnitude Of Chronic Conditions In Patients Hospitalized With A First Acute Myocardial Infarction, Mayra Tisminetzky, Ruben Miozzo, Joel M. Gore, Jerry H. Gurwitz, Darleen M. Lessard, Jorge Yarzebski, Edgard A. Granillo, Hawa Ozien Abu, Robert J. Goldberg

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Background: Among adults with heart disease, there is a high prevalence of concomitant chronic medical conditions. We studied patients with a first acute myocardial infarction to describe: sample population characteristics; trends of the most prevalent pairs of chronic conditions; and differences in hospital management according to burden of these morbidities.

Methods and Results: Patients (n = 1,564) hospitalized with an incident AMI at the 3 major medical centers in central Massachusetts during 2005, 2011, and 2015 comprised the study population. Hospital medical records were reviewed to identify 11 more prevalent chronic conditions. The median age of this population was 68 ...


Comprehensive Echocardiographic Findings In Critically Ill Covid-19 Patients With Or Without Prior Cardiac Disease, Renuka Jain, Pedro D. Salinas, Stacie Kroboth, Abigail Kaminski, Sarah Roemer, Ana Cristina Perez Moreno, Bijoy K Khandheria Jan 2021

Comprehensive Echocardiographic Findings In Critically Ill Covid-19 Patients With Or Without Prior Cardiac Disease, Renuka Jain, Pedro D. Salinas, Stacie Kroboth, Abigail Kaminski, Sarah Roemer, Ana Cristina Perez Moreno, Bijoy K Khandheria

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents with a spectrum of disease severity, the most serious cases requiring intensive care. Echocardiography is a front-line tool in evaluating cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 in the intensive care unit (ICU); we analyzed transthoracic echocardiograms obtained from this patient population with state-of-the-art ultrasound technology.

Methods: All patients with COVID-19 requiring ICU admission on whom a transthoracic echocardiogram was obtained were included in the study. Focused transthoracic protocols were performed by experienced sonographers. Echocardiographic variables, including speckle-tracking echocardiography, were collected and analyzed. Clinical information was obtained from the electronic medical record. Patients were followed until discharge ...


Chronic Pain And Mood Disorders In Asian Americans, Deborah L. Huang, Indraneil Bardhan, Joosun Shin, Jordan F. Karp, Mijung Park Jan 2021

Chronic Pain And Mood Disorders In Asian Americans, Deborah L. Huang, Indraneil Bardhan, Joosun Shin, Jordan F. Karp, Mijung Park

Asian / Pacific Island Nursing Journal

Purpose: Pain and mood disorder frequently coexist. Yet, for Asian Americans (AAs), scant information about pain and mood disorder is available. Our aims were to compare (1) the rates of pain and mood disorders and (2) the magnitude of associations between pain and mood disorders between AAs and European Americans (EAs), and across different Asian subgroups.

Methods: An analytical data was constructed from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies (CPES), a representative sample of community-residing U.S. adults (n=9,871). Pain morbidity were assessed by self-report. Mood disorders, including major depression and anxiety disorders, were assessed using the diagnostic interview ...


Interrupted Time Series Analysis To Evaluate The Performance Of Drug Overdose Morbidity Indicators Shows Discontinuities Across The Icd-9-Cm To Icd-10-Cm Transition, Hannah Yang, Emilia Pasalic, Peter Rock, James W. Davis, Sarah Nechuta, Ying Zhang Jan 2021

Interrupted Time Series Analysis To Evaluate The Performance Of Drug Overdose Morbidity Indicators Shows Discontinuities Across The Icd-9-Cm To Icd-10-Cm Transition, Hannah Yang, Emilia Pasalic, Peter Rock, James W. Davis, Sarah Nechuta, Ying Zhang

Peer Reviewed Articles

Introduction: On 1 October 2015, the USA transitioned from the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10-CM). Considering the major changes to drug overdose coding, we examined how using different approaches to define all-drug overdose and opioid overdose morbidity indicators in ICD-9-CM impacts longitudinal analyses that span the transition, using emergency department (ED) and hospitalisation data from six states’ hospital discharge data systems.

Methods: We calculated monthly all-drug and opioid overdose ED visit rates and hospitalisation rates (per 100 000 population) by state, starting in January 2010. We applied ...


Intellectual Property As A Determinant Of Health, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2021

Intellectual Property As A Determinant Of Health, Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

Public health literature has long recognized the existence of determinants of health, a set of socio-economic conditions that affect health risks and health outcomes across the world. The World Health Organization defines these determinants as “forces and systems” consisting of “factors combin[ing] together to affect the health of individuals and communities.” Frameworks relying on determinants of health have been widely adopted by countries in the global South and North alike, as well as international institutional players, several of which are direct or indirect players in transnational intellectual property (IP) policymaking. Issues raised by the implementation of IP policies, however ...


Vaccine Clinical Trials And Data Infrastructure, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2021

Vaccine Clinical Trials And Data Infrastructure, Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

We find ourselves at a momentous turn in the history of vaccines. The COVID-19 pandemic triggered a quasi-global vaccine race that not only compressed vaccine research and development (R&D) timelines, but also paved the way for the administration of a new type of vaccine technology – mRNA vaccines, which work in substantially different ways from the vaccines in use before the pandemic.

While the process of bringing emerging COVID-19 vaccines to market has taken place in an unusually short timeframe, it was largely predicated on the same scientific and regulatory processes that govern the development, approval and deployment of new ...


The Intellectual Property Of Covid-19, Ana Santos Rutschman Jan 2021

The Intellectual Property Of Covid-19, Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

The response to COVID-19 is indissolubly tied to intellectual property. In an increasingly globalized world in which infectious disease pathogens travel faster and wider than before, the development of vaccines, treatments and other forms of medical technology has become an integral part of public health preparedness and response frameworks. The development of these technologies, and to a certain extent the allocation and distribution of resulting outputs, is informed by intellectual property regimes. These regimes influence the commitment of R&D resources, shape scientific collaborations and, in some cases, may condition the widespread availability of emerging technologies. As seen throughout this ...


Incidence Of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Epidemic And Associated Predictors In Nevada: A Statewide Audit, 2016–2018, Kavita Batra, Patricia Cruz, Chad L. Cross, Neeraj Bhandari, Farooq Abdulla, Jennifer R. Pharr, Mark P. Buttner Dec 2020

Incidence Of Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome Epidemic And Associated Predictors In Nevada: A Statewide Audit, 2016–2018, Kavita Batra, Patricia Cruz, Chad L. Cross, Neeraj Bhandari, Farooq Abdulla, Jennifer R. Pharr, Mark P. Buttner

Environmental & Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a postnatal withdrawal syndrome among neonates born to mothers with drug dependence disorders. NAS poses a significant public health challenge nationally, with a six-fold increase in incidence (1.2 to 6.7 per 1000 hospital births/year) from 2000–2016. Besides national data, it is critical to quantify NAS at the state-level to identify target areas for prevention. The objectives of this study were to ascertain statewide burden, including county and regional distribution of NAS in Nevada during 2016–2018, and to investigate potential factors associated with NAS. This study utilized hospital administrative data, and ...


Creation Of A Covid-19 Community Testing Team For Home Health And Hospice, Lilah Raja Dec 2020

Creation Of A Covid-19 Community Testing Team For Home Health And Hospice, Lilah Raja

Master's Projects and Capstones

The novel SARS-CoV-2 strain (COVID-19) was identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019 (Eddy et. al, 2020). The resulting US outbreak has affected the Kaiser Permanente (KP) Oakland health care system. With the threat of COVID-19 highest among immunosuppressed and elderly clients, KP Oakland home health and hospice (HH/HO) department is rapidly mobilizing to provide community and in-home testing for eligible clients. A project was created to build a COVID-19 testing team workflow to provide diagnostic and preventative testing. This project focuses on team-based interventions that will change the pre-existing practice of requiring HH/HO clients to travel to ...


Predicting The 10-Year Risk Of Death From Other Causes In Men With Localized Prostate Cancer Using Patient-Reported Factors: Development Of A Tool, Daniel M. Frendl, Gordon A. Fitzgerald, Mara M. Epstein, Jeroan J. Allison, Mitchell H. Sokoloff, John E. Ware Jr. Dec 2020

Predicting The 10-Year Risk Of Death From Other Causes In Men With Localized Prostate Cancer Using Patient-Reported Factors: Development Of A Tool, Daniel M. Frendl, Gordon A. Fitzgerald, Mara M. Epstein, Jeroan J. Allison, Mitchell H. Sokoloff, John E. Ware Jr.

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

OBJECTIVE: To develop a tool for estimating the 10-year risk of death from other causes in men with localized prostate cancer.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We identified 2,425 patients from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare Health Outcomes Survey database, age < 80, newly diagnosed with clinical stage T1-T3a prostate cancer from 1/1/1998-12/31/2009, with follow-up through 2/28/2013. We developed a Fine and Gray competing-risks model for 10-year other cause mortality considering age, patient-reported comorbid medical conditions, component scores and items of the SF-36 Health Survey, activities of daily living, and sociodemographic characteristics. Model discrimination and calibration were compared to predictions from Social Security life table mortality risk estimates.

RESULTS: Over a median follow-up of 7.7 years, 76 men died of prostate-specific causes and 465 died of other causes. The strongest predictors of 10-year other cause mortality risk included increasing age at diagnosis, higher approximated Charlson Comorbidity Index score, worse patient-reported general health (fair or poor vs. excellent-good), smoking at diagnosis, and marital status (all other vs ...


Covid-19 Viral Testing Disparities In Los Angeles City, Laura Cyphers Dec 2020

Covid-19 Viral Testing Disparities In Los Angeles City, Laura Cyphers

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Hispanic and Black communities have been disproportionately impacted by COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality (California Department of Public Health, 2020). Inequitable access to viral testing resources may have exacerbated these COVID-19-related racial and ethnic health disparities. For example, reports from the Los Angeles Department of Public Health revealed glaring viral testing disparities in April 2020 (early pandemic), with predominantly White communities in Los Angeles County receiving 65% more tests than Hispanic and Black communities. In response, California statewide testing was expanded for communities of color (Vann et al., 2020). To investigate access to viral testing in Los Angeles City, the current ...


Acute Ischemic Stroke As The Presenting Feature Of Covid-19 In The Young And Pregnant, Nermila A. Ballmick, Jiri F. Kubac, Hossein Akhondi Nov 2020

Acute Ischemic Stroke As The Presenting Feature Of Covid-19 In The Young And Pregnant, Nermila A. Ballmick, Jiri F. Kubac, Hossein Akhondi

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Introduction: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an emerging and rapidly evolving public health issue that has become globally widespread and an overwhelming pandemic. Clinical manifestations of the disease include asymptomatic carrier states, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and even multiorgan dysfunction. Here, we present a unique and rare case of an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in an asymptomatic pregnant woman with no predisposing medical illnesses.

Discussion: An 18-year-old G2P1 African American woman at 7 weeks gestational age with no significant medical or family history presenting to the Emergency Department during the initial phases of the pandemic with complaints of new onset left ...


Epidemiology And Pathophysiology Of Common Skin Diseases In West Africa: An Immunodermatological Framework, Osazomon Imarenezor Nov 2020

Epidemiology And Pathophysiology Of Common Skin Diseases In West Africa: An Immunodermatological Framework, Osazomon Imarenezor

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

This capstone reviews the common skin diseases on a global scale. With these dermatoses being further funneled into Africa and then magnified into common West African dermatoses, the meta-analyses of literature available paints a clear picture of the epidemiological & pathological factors and their contribution to the skin disease. Each article analysed in this analysis was taken from a 20-year span of January 2000 to December 2019. The selection of articles was fine-tuned by identifying the distribution of skin disease, revealing the populations affected (age, gender, ethnicity, etc), the main causes, country of origin, the prognosis of disease, and the pathology ...


FacebookʼS Latest Attempt To Address Vaccine Misinformation — And Why ItʼS Not Enough, Ana Santos Rutschman Nov 2020

FacebookʼS Latest Attempt To Address Vaccine Misinformation — And Why ItʼS Not Enough, Ana Santos Rutschman

All Faculty Scholarship

On October 13, 2020 Facebook announced the adoption of a series of measures to promote vaccine trust “while prohibiting ads with misinformation that could harm public health efforts.” In the post written by Kang-Xing Jin (head of health) and Rob Leathern (director of product management), the company explained that the new measures were designed with an emphasis on encouraging widespread use of this yearʼs flu vaccine, as well as in anticipation of potential COVID-19 vaccines becoming available in the near future.

The changes focus mainly on the establishment of a multiprong informational campaign about the seasonal flu vaccine, which includes ...


Knowledge And Attitude Toward Common Cold In Beirut, Lebanon, Ghida Itani, Maha Aboul Ela, Souraya Domiati Oct 2020

Knowledge And Attitude Toward Common Cold In Beirut, Lebanon, Ghida Itani, Maha Aboul Ela, Souraya Domiati

BAU Journal - Health and Wellbeing

Background Common cold is a self- limiting condition targeting the upper respiratory tract. Even though it resolves on its own yet it accounts for 40% of absentees from work and a large number of visits to the physician clinic. The most common sign and symptoms include sore throat, coryza, runny nose or congestion, muscle pain, and sometimes cough. Symptomatic treatment of this minor ailment can be either by herbal products or over the counter drugs. Nevertheless, it is always mistaken for Influenza or bacterial infection. The proper knowledge of this condition could prevent mistreatment and would keep the country’s ...


Three Decades Of Research: The Case For Comprehensive Sex Education, Eva Goldfarb, Lisa D. Lieberman Oct 2020

Three Decades Of Research: The Case For Comprehensive Sex Education, Eva Goldfarb, Lisa D. Lieberman

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Purpose

School-based sex education plays a vital role in the sexual health and well-being of young people. Little is known, however, about the effectiveness of efforts beyond pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease prevention. The authors conducted a systematic literature review of three decades of research on school-based programs to find evidence for the effectiveness of comprehensive sex education.

Methods

Researchers searched the ERIC, PsycINFO, and MEDLINE. The research team identified papers meeting the systematic literature review criteria. Of 8,058 relevant articles, 218 met specific review criteria. More than 80% focused solely on pregnancy and disease prevention and were excluded ...


Three Decades Of Research: The Case For Comprehensive Sex Education, Eva Goldfarb, Lisa D. Lieberman Oct 2020

Three Decades Of Research: The Case For Comprehensive Sex Education, Eva Goldfarb, Lisa D. Lieberman

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Purpose

School-based sex education plays a vital role in the sexual health and well-being of young people. Little is known, however, about the effectiveness of efforts beyond pregnancy and sexually transmitted disease prevention. The authors conducted a systematic literature review of three decades of research on school-based programs to find evidence for the effectiveness of comprehensive sex education.

Methods

Researchers searched the ERIC, PsycINFO, and MEDLINE. The research team identified papers meeting the systematic literature review criteria. Of 8,058 relevant articles, 218 met specific review criteria. More than 80% focused solely on pregnancy and disease prevention and were excluded ...


Bear River Health Department: Covid-19 Contact Tracing, Mike Dixon, Zach Rusk Oct 2020

Bear River Health Department: Covid-19 Contact Tracing, Mike Dixon, Zach Rusk

Huntsman School of Business Teaching Scholarship Series

This case introduces students to a highly variable process that has uncertain demand and processing times. It describes the contact tracing efforts as a response to positive Covid-19 cases in a rural health district in the state of Utah during the first 9 months of the pandemic of 2020. The case puts students in the shoes of the managing director of a health department trying to decide how to best manage a team of contact tracers who are increasingly unable to timely complete their work that is vital to stopping the spread of the disease.


The Occupational Depression Inventory: A New Tool For Clinicians And Epidemiologists, Renzo Bianchi, Irvin Sam Schonfeld Oct 2020

The Occupational Depression Inventory: A New Tool For Clinicians And Epidemiologists, Renzo Bianchi, Irvin Sam Schonfeld

Publications and Research

Background: Depressive symptoms induced by insurmountable job stress and sick leave for mental health reasons have become a focal concern among occupational health specialists. The present study introduces the Occupational Depression Inventory (ODI), a measure designed to quantify the severity of work-attributed depressive symptoms and establish provisional diagnoses of job-ascribed depression. The ODI comprises nine symptom items and a subsidiary question assessing turnover intention. Methods: A total of 2254 employed individuals were recruited in the U.S., New Zealand, and France. We examined the psychometric and structural properties of the ODI as well as the nomological network of work-attributed depressive ...


Prevalence Of Tuberculosis In District Haveli, Azad Jammu And Kashmir, Abu Ul Hassan Faiz, Ghazal Tariq, Ayesha Faiz, Lariab Zahra Faiz Sep 2020

Prevalence Of Tuberculosis In District Haveli, Azad Jammu And Kashmir, Abu Ul Hassan Faiz, Ghazal Tariq, Ayesha Faiz, Lariab Zahra Faiz

Journal of Bioresource Management

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease with a common occurrence in population of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The current study was designed to find out the prevalence of TB among the general population of a less developed District Haveli. Samples were collected from different hospitals and TB centers located in district Haveli and tested through sputum smear microscopy for conformation of positive for TB. The three-year (2015 to 2018) study was conducted to record prevalence of tuberculosis in selected area of Azad Jammu and Kashmir. The trend line of prevalence was made by using (SPSS software). Results produced linear trends yearly ...


A Retrospective Analysis Of Sex Education Messages Received By Lgb Youth, Jacqueline Bible, Alejandra Kaplan, Lisa D. Lieberman, Eva Goldfarb Sep 2020

A Retrospective Analysis Of Sex Education Messages Received By Lgb Youth, Jacqueline Bible, Alejandra Kaplan, Lisa D. Lieberman, Eva Goldfarb

Department of Public Health Scholarship and Creative Works

Using focus groups, this qualitative study asked thirty-five gay, lesbian, and bisexual (LGB) young adults to reflect on messages they received about sex and sexuality around the time they first had sex. Focus groups were conducted, recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. Through thematic analysis, the authors identified two messaging sources identified by participants: (1) formal education sources (i.e., school and parents), and (2) informal education sources (e.g., internet, peers). Formal sources often included messages perpetuating heteronormative assumptions, emphasizing abstinence, pregnancy and HIV/STI prevention, or silence as a form of messaging. Informal sources consisted of LGB-specific information. These findings ...