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Cardiovascular System Commons

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389 full-text articles. Page 16 of 16.

Cardiac Jelly And Its Roles In Heart Development, Sara Zucker 2011 Touro College

Cardiac Jelly And Its Roles In Heart Development, Sara Zucker

The Science Journal of the Lander College of Arts and Sciences

The following is the introduction to this article: The complexity of the developing and functioning heart has always intrigued scientists. One of the many ambiguous areas in the understanding of cardiac development is the role of a gelatinous substance commonly referred to as cardiac jelly, (Davis, 1924) and more recently the myocardial basement membrane (Little and Rongish, 1995). Researchers have been studying this material to determine its roles. Their studies led them to believe that this jelly-like substance may be involved in vital embryological roles including the actual morphogenesis of the heart, such as heart valve formation and pumping. When ...


The Effects Of Protein Kinase C Inhibitors On Blood Nitric Oxide And Hydrogen Peroxide Release In Ischemia And Reperfusion Injury, Kyle D. Bartol 2011 Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

The Effects Of Protein Kinase C Inhibitors On Blood Nitric Oxide And Hydrogen Peroxide Release In Ischemia And Reperfusion Injury, Kyle D. Bartol

PCOM Biomedical Studies Student Scholarship

Vascular endothelial dysfunction is a key component initiating oxidative stress in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by an increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and a decrease in the bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). Previous studies using protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Gö 6983 or PKC Beta (β) II inhibitor improved cardiac function in myocardial I/R, decreased leukocyte-endothelial interactions and leukocyte superoxide (SO) release and increased endothelial-derived NO release in vitro. This study examined the effects of Gö 6983 or PKC β II inhibitor on realtime H2O2 and NO release in femoral vein I/R in vivo ...


Mitochondrial Regulation Of Arterial Contractility, Damodaran Narayanan 2010 University of Tennessee Health Science Center

Mitochondrial Regulation Of Arterial Contractility, Damodaran Narayanan

Theses and Dissertations (ETD)

Rationale: Physiological functions of mitochondria in contractile arterial smooth muscle cells are poorly understood. Mitochondria can uptake calcium (Ca2+), but intracellular Ca2+ signals that regulate mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]mito) and physiological functions of changes in [Ca2+]mito in arterial smooth muscle cells are unclear.

Objective: Identify Ca2+ signals that regulate [Ca2+]mito, examine the significance of changes in [Ca2+]mito, and test the hypothesis that [Ca2+]mito controls functional ion channel transcription in smooth muscle cells of resistance–size cerebral arteries.

Methods and Results: Endothelin–1 (ET–1) activated Ca ...


Prenatal Diagnosis And Risk Factors For Preoperative Death In Neonates With Single Right Ventricle And Systemic Outflow Obstruction: Screening Data From The Pediatric Heart Network Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial(∗)., Andrew M. Atz, Thomas G. Travison, Ismee A. Williams, Gail D. Pearson, Peter C. Laussen, William T. Mahle, Amanda L. Cook, Joel A. Kirsh, Mark Sklansky, Svetlana Khaikin, Caren Goldberg, Michele Frommelt, Catherine Krawczeski, Michael D. Puchalski, Jeffrey P. Jacobs, Jeanne M. Baffa, Jack Rychik, Richard G. Ohye, Pediatric Heart Network Investigators, Girish S. Shirali 2010 Children's Mercy Hospital

Prenatal Diagnosis And Risk Factors For Preoperative Death In Neonates With Single Right Ventricle And Systemic Outflow Obstruction: Screening Data From The Pediatric Heart Network Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial(∗)., Andrew M. Atz, Thomas G. Travison, Ismee A. Williams, Gail D. Pearson, Peter C. Laussen, William T. Mahle, Amanda L. Cook, Joel A. Kirsh, Mark Sklansky, Svetlana Khaikin, Caren Goldberg, Michele Frommelt, Catherine Krawczeski, Michael D. Puchalski, Jeffrey P. Jacobs, Jeanne M. Baffa, Jack Rychik, Richard G. Ohye, Pediatric Heart Network Investigators, Girish S. Shirali

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this analysis was to assess preoperative risk factors before the first-stage Norwood procedure in infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and related single-ventricle lesions and to evaluate practice patterns in prenatal diagnosis, as well as the role of prenatal diagnosis in outcome.

METHODS: Data from all live births with morphologic single right ventricle and systemic outflow obstruction screened for the Pediatric Heart Network's Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial were used to investigate prenatal diagnosis and preoperative risk factors. Demographics, gestational age, prenatal diagnosis status, presence of major extracardiac congenital abnormalities, and preoperative mortality rates were recorded ...


Relation Of Size Of Secondary Ventricles To Exercise Performance In Children After Fontan Operation., Ashwin Prakash, Thomas G. Travison, Mark A. Fogel, Lynne M. Hurwitz, Andrew J. Powell, Beth F. Printz, Michael D. Puchalski, Girish S. Shirali, Shi-Joon Yoo, Tal Geva, Pediatric Heart Network Investigators 2010 Children's Mercy Hospital

Relation Of Size Of Secondary Ventricles To Exercise Performance In Children After Fontan Operation., Ashwin Prakash, Thomas G. Travison, Mark A. Fogel, Lynne M. Hurwitz, Andrew J. Powell, Beth F. Printz, Michael D. Puchalski, Girish S. Shirali, Shi-Joon Yoo, Tal Geva, Pediatric Heart Network Investigators

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

The effects of the nondominant or secondary ventricle on the Fontan circulation are not known. The present study used cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the relations between secondary ventricular size and global cardiac performance. The Fontan cross-sectional study collected data from 7 centers participating in the Pediatric Heart Network. Subjects with complete cardiac magnetic resonance imaging data and an identifiable secondary ventricle were included in the analysis. Relationships between body surface area-adjusted parameters of the secondary ventricle (mass, end-diastolic volume, mass/volume ratio, and stroke volume) and the following measures were assessed. These measures included the percentage of predicted ...


Endothelial Cell Cortactin Phosphorylation By Src Contributes To Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Transmigration In Vitro, L. Yang, Jennifer R. Kowalski, X. Zhan, S. M. Thomas, F. W. Luscinskas 2010 Butler University

Endothelial Cell Cortactin Phosphorylation By Src Contributes To Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Transmigration In Vitro, L. Yang, Jennifer R. Kowalski, X. Zhan, S. M. Thomas, F. W. Luscinskas

Jennifer Kowalski

The underlying mechanisms that regulate leukocyte transendothelial migration through the vascular endothelium remain unclear. Cortactin is a substrate of Src tyrosine kinases and a regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics. Previous studies demonstrated a role for Src phosphorylation of cortactin in clustering of E-selectin and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 around adherent leukocytes. In the current study, we used an in vitro flow model to investigate the role of Src-induced cortactin phosphorylation in endothelium during polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) transmigration through human umbilical vein endothelium (HUVEC) monolayers preactivated with tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}. Inhibition of Src in HUVEC using Src kinase inhibitors PP2 and ...


Computational Vascular Fluid–Structure Interaction: Methodology And Application To Cerebral Aneurysms, Y. Bazilevs, Ming-Chen Hsu, Y. Zhang, Z. Wang, T. Kvamsdal, S. Hentschel, J. G. Isaksen 2010 University of California, San Diego

Computational Vascular Fluid–Structure Interaction: Methodology And Application To Cerebral Aneurysms, Y. Bazilevs, Ming-Chen Hsu, Y. Zhang, Z. Wang, T. Kvamsdal, S. Hentschel, J. G. Isaksen

Ming-Chen Hsu

A computational vascular fluid–structure interaction framework for the simulation of patient-specific cerebral aneurysm configurations is presented. A new approach for the computation of the blood vessel tissue prestress is also described. Simulations of four patient-specific models are carried out, and quantities of hemodynamic interest such as wall shear stress and wall tension are studied to examine the relevance of fluid–structure interaction modeling when compared to the rigid arterial wall assumption. We demonstrate that flexible wall modeling plays an important role in accurate prediction of patient-specific hemodynamics. Discussion of the clinical relevance of our methods and results is provided.


Enalapril In Infants With Single Ventricle: Results Of A Multicenter Randomized Trial., Daphne T. Hsu, Victor Zak, Lynn Mahony, Lynn A. Sleeper, Andrew M. Atz, Jami C. Levine, Piers C. Barker, Chitra Ravishankar, Brian W. McCrindle, Richard V. Williams, Karen Altmann, Nancy S. Ghanayem, Renee Margossian, Wendy K. Chung, William L. Border, Gail D. Pearson, Mario P. Stylianou, Seema Mital, Pediatric Heart Network Investigators, Girish S. Shirali 2010 Children's Mercy Hospital

Enalapril In Infants With Single Ventricle: Results Of A Multicenter Randomized Trial., Daphne T. Hsu, Victor Zak, Lynn Mahony, Lynn A. Sleeper, Andrew M. Atz, Jami C. Levine, Piers C. Barker, Chitra Ravishankar, Brian W. Mccrindle, Richard V. Williams, Karen Altmann, Nancy S. Ghanayem, Renee Margossian, Wendy K. Chung, William L. Border, Gail D. Pearson, Mario P. Stylianou, Seema Mital, Pediatric Heart Network Investigators, Girish S. Shirali

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy improves clinical outcome and ventricular function in adults with heart failure. Infants with single-ventricle physiology have poor growth and are at risk for abnormalities in ventricular systolic and diastolic function. The ability of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy to preserve ventricular function and improve somatic growth and outcomes in these infants is unknown.

METHODS AND RESULTS: The Pediatric Heart Network conducted a double-blind trial involving 230 infants with single-ventricle physiology randomized to receive enalapril (target dose 0.4 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1)) or placebo who were followed up until 14 months of age. The primary ...


Initial Experience With A Miniaturized Multiplane Transesophageal Probe In Small Infants Undergoing Cardiac Operations., Sinai C. Zyblewski, Girish S. Shirali, Geoffrey A. Forbus, Tain-Yen Hsia, Scott M. Bradley, Andrew M. Atz, Meryl S. Cohen, Eric M. Graham 2010 Children's Mercy Hospital

Initial Experience With A Miniaturized Multiplane Transesophageal Probe In Small Infants Undergoing Cardiac Operations., Sinai C. Zyblewski, Girish S. Shirali, Geoffrey A. Forbus, Tain-Yen Hsia, Scott M. Bradley, Andrew M. Atz, Meryl S. Cohen, Eric M. Graham

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

PURPOSE: There has been reluctance to use intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in small infants. We assessed the utility and safety of a new miniaturized multiplane micro-TEE probe in small infants undergoing cardiac operations.

DESCRIPTION: Hemodynamic and ventilation variables were prospectively recorded before and after micro-TEE insertion and removal in infants weighing 5 kg or less undergoing cardiac operations.

EVALUATION: The study included 42 patients with a mean weight of 3.6 +/- 0.9 kg (range, 1.7 to 5 kg). All probe insertions were successful. There were no complications or clinically significant changes in hemodynamic or ventilation variables. Information provided ...


Estimated Birth Weight And Adult Cardiovascular Risk Factors In A Developing Southern Chinese Population: A Cross Sectional Study, C. Mary Schooling, C. Q. Jiang, T. H. Lam, B. J. Cowling, S. L. Yeung, W. S. Zhang, K. K. Cheng, G. M. Leung 2010 CUNY School of Public Health

Estimated Birth Weight And Adult Cardiovascular Risk Factors In A Developing Southern Chinese Population: A Cross Sectional Study, C. Mary Schooling, C. Q. Jiang, T. H. Lam, B. J. Cowling, S. L. Yeung, W. S. Zhang, K. K. Cheng, G. M. Leung

Publications and Research

Background: Birth weight is negatively associated with cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, but the associations are less well-established in developing populations where birth weight is often unavailable. We studied the association of birth weight and cardiovascular risk, using birth rank as an instrumental variable, in Southern China.

Methods: We used published data on birth weight by birth rank from an appropriate population and baseline data from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study phases 2 & 3 (2005-8) to examine the adjusted associations, using instrumental variable analysis, of birth weight with clinically measured cardiovascular risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in older (≥ 50 years) men (n = 5,051) and women (n = 13,907).

Results: Estimated birth weight was associated with lower blood pressure (systolic -0.25 mm Hg 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.53 to 0.03 and diastolic -0.33 mm Hg 95% CI -0.48 to -0.18 per standard deviation higher birth weight), but had little association with glucose, lipids, waist-hip ratio, body mass index or the metabolic syndrome, adjusted for age, sex, early environment and number of offspring.

Conclusion: Birth weight may impact blood pressure; however associations of birth weight with other cardiovascular risk factors may not be related to foetal exposures, but speculatively could be an historical co-incidence, with corresponding implications for ...


Statistical Medial Model Dor Cardiac Segmentation And Morphometry, Hui Sun 2010 University of Pennsylvania

Statistical Medial Model Dor Cardiac Segmentation And Morphometry, Hui Sun

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In biomedical image analysis, shape information can be utilized for many purposes. For example, irregular shape features can help identify diseases; shape features can help match different instances of anatomical structures for statistical comparison; and prior knowledge of the mean and possible variation of an anatomical structure's shape can help segment a new example of this structure in noisy, low-contrast images. A good shape representation helps to improve the performance of the above techniques. The overall goal of the proposed research is to develop and evaluate methods for representing shapes of anatomical structures. The medial model is a shape ...


From Blood Pressure To Physical Disability: The Role Of Cognition, Merrill F. Elias, Gregory A. Dore, Adam Davey, Michael A. Robbins, Penelope K. Elias 2010 University of Maine - Main

From Blood Pressure To Physical Disability: The Role Of Cognition, Merrill F. Elias, Gregory A. Dore, Adam Davey, Michael A. Robbins, Penelope K. Elias

Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Papers

We examined the hypothesis that lowered cognitive performance plays a role in the relation between elevated blood pressure and physical disability in performing basic physical tasks. A community-based sample (N = 1025) free from stroke and dementia (mean age: 61.1 years; SD: 13.0 years; 59.8% women) was used. Using path analysis, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (predictor variable) measured over multiple longitudinal examinations were averaged and related to multiple measures of cognition (intermediate variable) and physical ability (PA; outcome variable) measured at wave 6 of the Maine-Syracuse Study. PA was indexed by time required to execute standing, walking ...


Patient Centered Care Approach To Adherence With Cardiovascular Medications: Self-Determination Theory Integration, David S. Li 2010 Old Dominion University

Patient Centered Care Approach To Adherence With Cardiovascular Medications: Self-Determination Theory Integration, David S. Li

Health Services Research Dissertations

Problem statement. Behavioral intervention is used to improve adherence with medication in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the effect was not sustainable. Patient-centered care (PCC) as a consumer movement has gained acceptance, but it lacks a theoretical framework. Self-determination theory (SDT) may provide an alternative to improve patients' adherence to chronic cardiovascular medication, as well as a theoretical framework for PCC. Both approaches to CVD management have not been evaluated.

Methods. The study was a quasi-experimental pretest posttest comparison design with consecutive sampling of a hospitalized cardiac patient population. Sixty patients each for the usual care (UC) group and ...


Partial And Transitional Atrioventricular Septal Defect Outcomes., L LuAnn Minich, Andrew M. Atz, Steven D. Colan, Lynn A. Sleeper, Seema Mital, James Jaggers, Renee Margossian, Ashwin Prakash, Jennifer S. Li, Meryl S. Cohen, Ronald V. Lacro, Gloria L. Klein, John A. Hawkins, Pediatric Heart Network Investigators, Girish S. Shirali 2010 Children's Mercy Hospital

Partial And Transitional Atrioventricular Septal Defect Outcomes., L Luann Minich, Andrew M. Atz, Steven D. Colan, Lynn A. Sleeper, Seema Mital, James Jaggers, Renee Margossian, Ashwin Prakash, Jennifer S. Li, Meryl S. Cohen, Ronald V. Lacro, Gloria L. Klein, John A. Hawkins, Pediatric Heart Network Investigators, Girish S. Shirali

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

BACKGROUND: Surgical and perioperative improvements permit earlier repair of partial and transitional atrioventricular septal defects (AVSD). We sought to describe contemporary outcomes in a multicenter cohort.

METHODS: We studied 87 patients undergoing primary biventricular repair of partial or transitional AVSD between June 2004 and February 2006 across seven North American centers. One-month and 6-month postoperative data included weight-for-age z-scores, left atrioventricular valve regurgitation (LAVVR) grade, residual shunts, and left ventricular ejection fraction. Paired methods were used to assess 6-month change.

RESULTS: Median age at surgery was 1.8 years; median weight z-score was -0.88. Median days for ventilation were ...


Clinico-Morphological Correlations In The Categorization Of Holes Between The Ventricles., Brad A. Friedman, Anthony Hlavacek, Karen Chessa, Girish S. Shirali, Eowyn Corcrain, Diane Spicer, Robert H. Anderson, Sinai Zyblewski 2010 Children's Mercy Hospital

Clinico-Morphological Correlations In The Categorization Of Holes Between The Ventricles., Brad A. Friedman, Anthony Hlavacek, Karen Chessa, Girish S. Shirali, Eowyn Corcrain, Diane Spicer, Robert H. Anderson, Sinai Zyblewski

Manuscripts, Articles, Book Chapters and Other Papers

Controversy still exists in the categorization of holes between the ventricles, although they are the most common congenital cardiac malformation. Advanced imaging techniques such as three-dimensional echocardiography and computed tomographic angiography offer superb anatomical details of these defects. In this review, we have sought to collate the features highlighted in different categorizations and identify their similarities, but also emphasize their differences. We hope that an analysis of this type, now achievable during life, using advanced imaging, might lead to the appearance of a unified system for diagnosis and description of holes between the ventricles.


Hypertension In Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Clinical And Basic Science Perspective, Shobha Ratnam, Surya M. Nauli 2010 University of Toledo

Hypertension In Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease: A Clinical And Basic Science Perspective, Shobha Ratnam, Surya M. Nauli

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Cardiovascular complications are major causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In particular, hypertension is insidious and remains a continuous problem that evolves during the course of the disease. Hypertension in ADPKD has been associated with abnormality in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Early vascular changes have also been reported in young ADPKD patients. In addition, the cellular functions of mechanosensory cilia within vascular system have emerged recently. The basic and clinical perspectives of RAAS, vascular remodeling and sensory cilia are reviewed with regard to hypertension in ADPKD


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