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Pathogenic Microbiology Commons

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On The Inadequacy Of Species Distribution Models For Modelling The Spread Of Sars-Cov-2: Response To Araújo And Naimi, Joseph D. Chipperfield, Blas M. Benito, Robert B. O'Hara, Richard J. Telford, Colin J. Carlson 2020 Norwegian Institute for Nature Research

On The Inadequacy Of Species Distribution Models For Modelling The Spread Of Sars-Cov-2: Response To Araújo And Naimi, Joseph D. Chipperfield, Blas M. Benito, Robert B. O'Hara, Richard J. Telford, Colin J. Carlson

Public Health Resources

The ongoing pandemic of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing significant damage to public health and economic livelihoods, and is putting significant strains on healthcare services globally. This unfolding emergency has prompted the preparation and dissemination of the article “Spread of SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus likely to be constrained by climate” by Araújo and Naimi (2020). The authors present the results of an ensemble forecast made from a suite of species distribution models (SDMs), where they attempt to predict the suitability of the climate for the spread of SARS-CoV-2 over the coming months. They argue that climate is ...


Comparison Of Five Methods For Detection Of Extended Spectrum Β-Lactamases In Gram Negative Enteric Bacteria, Mahmood Z. Al-Hasso, Subhi H. Khalaf 2020 Biophysics Dept., College of Science, University of Mosul

Comparison Of Five Methods For Detection Of Extended Spectrum Β-Lactamases In Gram Negative Enteric Bacteria, Mahmood Z. Al-Hasso, Subhi H. Khalaf

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

The presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases in 55 isolates of Gram negative enteric bacteria isolated from lower respiratory tract infections, was investigated by using the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute CLSI method which showed that 41.8% of the isolates produced this type of β-lactamases, and that Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were the most producing species with a production rate of 61.1%, followed by Escherichia coli isolates 43.75%. Five confirmatory methods were used to detect these enzymes: ceftazidime agar method, double-disk synergy method, combination disk method, modified 3D extract method and enzymatic disks method. The study indicated that ceftazidime agar method ...


Listeria Monocytogenes Response To Anaerobic Environments, Brandy N. Roberts, Damayanti Chakravarty, J.C. Gardner III, Steven C. Ricke, Janet R. Donaldson 2020 Mississippi State University

Listeria Monocytogenes Response To Anaerobic Environments, Brandy N. Roberts, Damayanti Chakravarty, J.C. Gardner Iii, Steven C. Ricke, Janet R. Donaldson

Faculty Publications

Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic bacterium that is responsible for the disease, listeriosis. It is particularly lethal in pregnant women, the fetus, the elderly and the immunocompromised. The pathogen survives and replicates over a wide range of temperatures (4 to 42 °C), pH, salt and oxygen concentrations. Because it can withstand various environments, L. monocytogenes is a major concern in food processing industries, especially in dairy products and ready-to-eat fruits, vegetables and deli meats. The environment in which the pathogen is exposed can influence the expression of virulence genes. For instance, studies have shown that variations in oxygen ...


A High-Fat/High-Protein, Atkins-Type Diet Exacerbates Clostridioides (Clostridium) Difficile Infection In Mice, Whereas A High-Carbohydrate Diet Protects, Chrisabelle C. Mefferd, Shrikant S. Bhute, Jacqueline R. Phan, Jacob V. Villarama, Dung M. Do, Stephanie Alarcia, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund 2020 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

A High-Fat/High-Protein, Atkins-Type Diet Exacerbates Clostridioides (Clostridium) Difficile Infection In Mice, Whereas A High-Carbohydrate Diet Protects, Chrisabelle C. Mefferd, Shrikant S. Bhute, Jacqueline R. Phan, Jacob V. Villarama, Dung M. Do, Stephanie Alarcia, Ernesto Abel-Santos, Brian P. Hedlund

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Clostridioides difficile (formerly Clostridium difficile) infection (CDI) can result from the disruption of the resident gut microbiota. Western diets and popular weight-loss diets drive large changes in the gut microbiome; however, the literature is conflicted with regard to the effect of diet on CDI. Using the hypervirulent strain C. difficile R20291 (RT027) in a mouse model of antibiotic-induced CDI, we assessed disease outcome and microbial community dynamics in mice fed two high-fat diets in comparison with a high-carbohydrate diet and a standard rodent diet. The two high-fat diets exacerbated CDI, with a high-fat/high-protein, Atkins-like diet leading to severe CDI ...


Combining Citizen Science And Genomics To Investigate Tick, Pathogen, And Commensal Microbiome At Single-Tick Resolution, Gaurav Chauhan, Jesse McClure, Jessica Hekman, Patrick W. Marsh, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Rachel F. Daniels, Diane P. Genereux, Elinor K. Karlsson 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Combining Citizen Science And Genomics To Investigate Tick, Pathogen, And Commensal Microbiome At Single-Tick Resolution, Gaurav Chauhan, Jesse Mcclure, Jessica Hekman, Patrick W. Marsh, Jeffrey A. Bailey, Rachel F. Daniels, Diane P. Genereux, Elinor K. Karlsson

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

The prevalence of tickborne diseases worldwide is increasing virtually unchecked due to the lack of effective control strategies. The transmission dynamics of tickborne pathogens are influenced by the tick microbiome, tick co-infection with other pathogens, and environmental features. Understanding this complex system could lead to new strategies for pathogen control, but will require large-scale, high-resolution data. Here, we introduce Project Acari, a citizen science-based project to assay, at single-tick resolution, species, pathogen infection status, microbiome profile, and environmental conditions of tens of thousands of ticks collected from numerous sites across the United States. In the first phase of the project ...


Neurodevelopment Outcome Of Neonates Treated With Intraventricular Colistin For Ventriculitis Caused By Multiple Drug-Resistant Pathogens-A Case Series, Kashif Hussain, Muhammad Sohail Salat, Gul Ambreen, Javaid Iqbal 2020 Aga Khan University

Neurodevelopment Outcome Of Neonates Treated With Intraventricular Colistin For Ventriculitis Caused By Multiple Drug-Resistant Pathogens-A Case Series, Kashif Hussain, Muhammad Sohail Salat, Gul Ambreen, Javaid Iqbal

Department of Biological & Biomedical Sciences

Background: Multiple-drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB)-associated neonatal ventriculitis is a life-threatening complication that needs timely diagnosis and effective treatment with broad-spectrum antimicrobials in critical-care settings. Inadequate penetration of antibiotics through the blood-brain barrier also demands an intraventricular (IVT) route of administration. This study reports mortality and neurodevelopmental sequelae of neonates till 18 months of age, who received IVT-colistin for treating MDR-GNB associated ventriculitis.
Methods: In a case series of seven neonates with ventriculitis due to MDR-GNB at NICU of Aga Khan University Hospital, Pakistan, between June 2015 and 2018, we reviewed IVT-colistin therapy in critically ill neonates. Treatment outcomes were ...


Development Of A Screening Assay For Type Iii Secretion System Inhibitors And High Throughput Screening Campaign Of Inhibitors Of Prp Of Staphylococcus Aureus, Heather A. Pendergrass 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Development Of A Screening Assay For Type Iii Secretion System Inhibitors And High Throughput Screening Campaign Of Inhibitors Of Prp Of Staphylococcus Aureus, Heather A. Pendergrass

Theses and Dissertations

Antibiotics inhibit the growth or survival of bacteria by targeting their essential functions.1 Due to weaknesses in traditional antibiotics and the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes, virulence factors are being targeted for therapeutic treatment of bacterial infection.2 We have developed an assay to quantify and observe type III secretion system (T3SS) activity. The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a virulence factor present in some Gram-negative pathogens including enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EPEC and EHEC, respectively),3 and others.4–9 The T3SS between EPEC and EHEC are highly conserved and share over 90% sequence identity ...


Crispr-Cas9 Editing Of Nitrate Transporter Gene, Um03849, In Ustilago Maydis, Luke A. Schroeder, Sunita Khanal, Michael H. Perlin 2020 University of Louisville

Crispr-Cas9 Editing Of Nitrate Transporter Gene, Um03849, In Ustilago Maydis, Luke A. Schroeder, Sunita Khanal, Michael H. Perlin

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

Ustilago maydis, the basidiomycete smut-fungus, can infect and cause tumors in corn plants. For this, mating between compatible haploid cells is important. The mating and subsequent dimorphic transition in U. maydis require starvation for nutrients such as nitrogen, in addition to pheromone-receptor interactions between compatible partners. In this research, the CRISPR-Cas9 gene-editing technique was used to create INDEL mutations (sequence insertion or deletion) in the nitrate transporter gene, um03849, in U. maydis. The gene was edited in mating compatible haploid strains 1/2 and 2/9. The phenotypes were characterized for the um03849 mutants as to growth ability, mating efficiency ...


The Effects Of Nutrient Availability On Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Mono And Co-Culture Biofilms, Julie T. Nguyen, Deborah R. Yoder-Himes Ph.D., Rhiannon Cecil 2020 University of Louisville

The Effects Of Nutrient Availability On Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Mono And Co-Culture Biofilms, Julie T. Nguyen, Deborah R. Yoder-Himes Ph.D., Rhiannon Cecil

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder characterized by faulty ion channels and result in thick mucus accumulation, especially in lungs. Mucus buildup provides ideal conditions for bacterial infections. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is the second most prevalent bacterium isolated from people with CF and has a high clinical importance. Most CF pathogens form biofilms which make treatment of infections difficult. Biofilms are clusters of cells attached to a surface enclosed in a structured matrix. These structures are a means to provide shelter for bacteria from the environment, especially antibiotics and the immune system. PA alone can form these biofilms, but ...


Biofilm Associated Staphylococcus Aureus Viability Is Altered By Burkholderia Cenocepacia, Bridget Wall, Tiffany J. Brandt, Dr. Deborah Yoder-Himes 2020 University of Louisville

Biofilm Associated Staphylococcus Aureus Viability Is Altered By Burkholderia Cenocepacia, Bridget Wall, Tiffany J. Brandt, Dr. Deborah Yoder-Himes

Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase

Respiratory failure caused by chronic and recurrent microbial infections is the most common cause of death for people with cystic fibrosis (CF)1, a disease causing the formation of thick mucus in the lungs2. Most bacteria can form biofilms, collections of sessile cells adhered to a surface by a secreted substance. Biofilm-associated cells develop antibiotic resistance at higher rates3. The thicker mucus in CF lungs is extremely difficult to clear via action of the mucociliary escalator and its presence fosters the formation of bacterial biofilms. Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cenocepacia are two pathogens commonly found in the CF ...


Tick-Borne Infections In New Hampshire: An Evaluation Of The Diagnostic Process In A Local Patient Population, Katherine Anderson 2020 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Tick-Borne Infections In New Hampshire: An Evaluation Of The Diagnostic Process In A Local Patient Population, Katherine Anderson

Honors Theses and Capstones

Overall, approximately 95 percent of reported cases of vector-borne disease were associated with ticks, making these the most medically important group of arthropods in the United States.1 Despite the prevalence of tick-borne infections, the process for the diagnosis of this condition is not well studied. This study aims to analyze data from a pool of 100 patients who underwent testing for tick-borne disease in the same institution in Dover, New Hampshire during the most recent peak tick season of 2019. Information utilized in this study included: patient age, sex, location of testing (inpatient versus outpatient), diagnostic testing methods used ...


Molecular Facet Of Host-Pathogen Interactions In Fusarium Head Blight In Wheat ( Triticum Aestivum L.), Bimal Paudel 2020 South Dakota State University

Molecular Facet Of Host-Pathogen Interactions In Fusarium Head Blight In Wheat ( Triticum Aestivum L.), Bimal Paudel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a severe disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It not only reduces the quantity of the harvested grains but also decreases the grain quality due to mycotoxins contamination, especially Deoxynivalenol (DON). Qfhb1 (or simply called Fhb1) is the most important quantitative trait locus (QTL) for FHB resistance. Our lab has previously identified wheat gene WFhb1-1 (aka. Wfhb1_c1) as a candidate for FHB resistance gene. Here we report that WFhb1-1 has been cloned. The gene (GenBank # KU304333.1) consists of a single exon, encoding a putative membrane protein of 127 amino acids. WFhb1-1 protein produced in ...


Virulence Of Drosophila C Virus Increased After A Host Shift And Serial Passage In Drosophila Hosts, Katie A. Johnson 2020 Eastern Washington University

Virulence Of Drosophila C Virus Increased After A Host Shift And Serial Passage In Drosophila Hosts, Katie A. Johnson

EWU Masters Thesis Collection

The outcomes of novel host-pathogen interactions are unpredictable but can result in epidemics or pandemics. Exploring the initial encounter between a pathogen and a novel host species can elucidate why some pathogens successfully infect and adapt on a novel host when others fail. Much of our understanding of host virulence after host shifts was developed using serial passage experiments (SPEs) in bacteria. Three accepted SPE generalities have emerged: virulence increases on the novel host, the evolved pathogen will become less able to infect its native host, and the pathogen experiences convergent evolution. This study tests the first two generalities using ...


The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga 2019 University of Maine

The Potential For Dickeya Dianthicola To Be Vectored By Two Common Insect Pests Of Potatoes, Jonas K. Insinga

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dickeya dianthicola (Samson) causing blackleg and soft rot was first detected in potatoes grown in Maine in 2014. Previous work has suggested that insects, particularly aphids, may be able to vector bacteria in this genus between plants, but no conclusive work has been done to confirm this theory. In order to determine whether insect-mediated transmission is likely to occur in potato fields, two model potato pests common in Maine were used: the Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decimlineata Say) and the green peach aphids (Myzus persicae Sulzer). Olfactometry and recruitment experiments evaluated if either insect discriminates between infected and uninfected foliage ...


Interaction Between Fusarium Head Blight And Crown Rot Disease Incidence And Environmental Factors And Soil Physiochemical Analysis On Wheat In The South Of Iraq, Basra Province, Mohammed Hussein Minati Dr., Mohanad Khalaf Mohammed-ameen Dr. 2019 Dep. Biology/Plant Pathology, College of Science, University of Basrah, Iraq

Interaction Between Fusarium Head Blight And Crown Rot Disease Incidence And Environmental Factors And Soil Physiochemical Analysis On Wheat In The South Of Iraq, Basra Province, Mohammed Hussein Minati Dr., Mohanad Khalaf Mohammed-Ameen Dr.

Karbala International Journal of Modern Science

This study was conducted to evaluate the interaction between disease incidence of both Fusarium head blight (FHB) and crown rot (FCR) and physiochemical parameters for soil samples and environmental factors in 14 selected wheat fields in the North of Basra province. The results showed that both diseases were occurred in all surveyed fields. The level of FCR incidence was higher than FHB. The incidence of both diseases was increased with favourable weather conditions (high humidity and temperature ˃15 °C), reaching the highest levels in crucial periods before and during the ripening stage. The percentage of disease incidence ranged between 6 ...


The Antimicrobial Activity And Cellular Targets Of Plant Derived Aldehydes And Degradable Pro-Antimicrobial Networks In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Yetunde Adewunmi 2019 University of Southern Mississippi

The Antimicrobial Activity And Cellular Targets Of Plant Derived Aldehydes And Degradable Pro-Antimicrobial Networks In Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, Yetunde Adewunmi

Dissertations

Essential oils (EOs) are plant-derived products that have been long exploited for their antimicrobial activities in medicine, agriculture, and food preservation. EOs represent a promising alternative to conventional antibiotics due to the broad-range antimicrobial activity, low toxicity to human commensal bacteria, and the capacity to kill microorganisms without promoting resistance. Despite the progress in the understanding of the biological activity of EOs, many aspects of their mode of action remain inconclusive. The overarching aim of this work was to address these gaps by studying molecular interactions between antimicrobial plant aldehydes and the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We initiated my ...


The Thiol Specific Antioxidant (Tsa1) Gene Is Required For Survival In Macrophages And Oxidative Stress Resistance In Histoplasma Capsulatum, Lauren Kennedy 2019 University of Southern Mississippi

The Thiol Specific Antioxidant (Tsa1) Gene Is Required For Survival In Macrophages And Oxidative Stress Resistance In Histoplasma Capsulatum, Lauren Kennedy

Master's Theses

Histoplasma capsulatum(Hc) is a pathogenic fungus that causes one of the most common invasive fungal respiratory diseases, Histoplasmosis. Histoplasmaundergoes a dimorphic shift from mold to yeast which is crucial to pathogenesis of the organism.

The thiol specific antioxidant gene, Tsa1,is strongly upregulated in the yeast (pathogenic) morphotype. This data led to the hypothesis that this gene plays a role in protecting Hcfrom host mediated oxidative attack. To characterize Tsa1 function, a knockdown strain (tsa1-RNAi) was created by RNAi gene silencing. Expression of Tsa1in the tsa1-RNAistrain was reduced to 10% that of the wildtype TSA1 ...


Phenotypic Study Of Anthracnose Resistance In Black Walnut And Building A Mapping Population, Sadie D. Land 2019 Missouri State University

Phenotypic Study Of Anthracnose Resistance In Black Walnut And Building A Mapping Population, Sadie D. Land

MSU Graduate Theses

Black walnut anthracnose, caused by Gnomonia leptostyla, is the most widespread and destructive disease affecting black walnut trees (Juglans nigra). Breeding cultivars for a higher resistance to anthracnose is a natural and efficient strategy for improving the health and production quality of black walnut trees. The two goals of this study were to reveal that the ‘Sparrow’ cultivar of black walnut contains a significantly higher resistance to anthracnose than the ‘Football’ cultivar when separated from environmental factors, and to expand the ‘Football’ × ‘Sparrow’ F1 mapping population to evaluate how the trait of resistance is inherited in the progeny. A phenotypic ...


#20 - A Role For Circadian Rhythms In Chlamydial Pathogenesis, Vincentiu S. Olteanu 2019 Georgia Gwinnett College

#20 - A Role For Circadian Rhythms In Chlamydial Pathogenesis, Vincentiu S. Olteanu

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Genital chlamydia infection causes complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease and tubal factor infertility, with some women being more susceptible to these conditions than others. However, the effect of circadian rhythms on chlamydia pathogenesis is not known. Using a genital chlamydia mouse model, we had previously shown that the time of day of chlamydia infection was important in determining the extent of chlamydial infectivity and pathogenesis. There is a need to verify if these differences in disease outcome is under circadian or diurnal control. To that end, we placed mice under constant dark conditions (24 hours dark), which is normally ...


#23 - Synergistic Activity Of Antifungals And Essential Oils Against Candida Auris, Kayla Graham 2019 Kennesaw State University

#23 - Synergistic Activity Of Antifungals And Essential Oils Against Candida Auris, Kayla Graham

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Synergistic Activity of Antifungals and Essential Oils against Candida auris

Candida auris is garnering significant attention as an emerging human pathogen. C. auris is responsible for an increasing number of nosocomial blood infections within immunocompromised individuals. This yeast is challenging to control because it can survive on fomites for weeks, is typically misdiagnosed for closely related species, and is commonly be multi-drug resistant. The Bioinnovation Lab of Kennesaw State University has been examining the use of several antifungals and essential oils to see if they display synergism in inhibiting and killing this emerging human pathogen. First, we tested the antifungal ...


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