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Pathogenic Microbiology Commons

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Investigating Distribution Of Legionella Pneumophila In Urban And Suburban Watersheds, Azlan Maqbool 2021 CUNY Queens College

Investigating Distribution Of Legionella Pneumophila In Urban And Suburban Watersheds, Azlan Maqbool

Student Theses

The presence of Legionella pneumophila was assessed using a cultivation-based approach in New York City waterways, a freshwater portion of the lower Hudson River Estuary near Kingston NY, and in urban and suburban street water. Legionella pneumophila was detected in 51% of brackish New York City Estuary samples, most with concentrations near minimum detection (=>1 organism/ mL). In contrast, it was detected in 22% of suburban freshwater Hudson River Estuary samples. Levels of the bacterium were found to be higher during wet weather compared to dry weather in the highly dense urban setting, but not in the less dense suburban ...


Detecting Bacterial Species From Ancient Human Skeletal Samples, Ariel Owens, Daisy McGrath, Tsai-Tien Tseng 2021 Kennesaw State University

Detecting Bacterial Species From Ancient Human Skeletal Samples, Ariel Owens, Daisy Mcgrath, Tsai-Tien Tseng

Symposium of Student Scholars

This paleopathological study aims to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and other Mycobacterium species in silico from skeletal samples that belonged to 28 Polish individuals in the Neolithic period under PRJNA422903 from the Sequence Read Archive (SRA). After next-generation sequencing (NGS), bioinformatics methods are heavily relied upon for identification of pathogens from complex samples. We implemented a bioinformatics pipeline, with custom-built databases, utilizing the following software tools: Trim Galore! and Kraken2. After adapter trimming, Kraken2 was used for taxonomic classifications. We have found that Mycobacterium is present in all 28 individuals. The average percentage of MAC ...


Profile Of Antimicrobial Susceptibility From Cattles’S Milk Isolates Suffering From Mastitis In District Lahore, Muhammad Imran, Iqra Rehman, Abdul Qayyum Khan Sulehria, Yasser Mustafa Butt, Abdul Majid Khan, Azizah Ziauddin 2021 Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

Profile Of Antimicrobial Susceptibility From Cattles’S Milk Isolates Suffering From Mastitis In District Lahore, Muhammad Imran, Iqra Rehman, Abdul Qayyum Khan Sulehria, Yasser Mustafa Butt, Abdul Majid Khan, Azizah Ziauddin

Journal of Bioresource Management

Mastitis is highly prevalent infection in cattle causing cost-effective loss in dairy milk production. Escherichia coli is the most frequently isolated bacteria causing mastitis worldwide. The current study was performed to investigate the mastitis prevalence and effect of different antibiotics against pathogens causing it. In sum, 216 milk samples were collected randomly including 108 each from both cows and buffaloes. These samples were subjected to Surf Field Mastitis Test for prevalence of mastitis that found 18.50% and 23.14% in buffaloes and cows respectively. Mastitis was more prevalent both in buffaloes and cows at the age of 9-10 years ...


A Metabolomics-Based Approach To The Screening Of Endometrial Cancer: Development Of A Gas Chromatography-Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry-Based Method, Allycia Lee 2021 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

A Metabolomics-Based Approach To The Screening Of Endometrial Cancer: Development Of A Gas Chromatography-Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry-Based Method, Allycia Lee

Honors Theses

Endometrial Cancer (EC) is the most common malignant tumor of the female reproductive tract. Currently there are no methods for effectively screening EC, but one method that is thought to be useful in screening EC is metabolomics. Metabolomics involves the analysis of metabolites which are low molecular weight inorganic and organic chemicals that are substrates, intermediates, and by-products of enzyme-mediated biochemical reactions in the cell. Previous research shows that the metabolic signature of EC patients are discernable from those of healthy patients. To aid in the development of an effective screening method for EC, blood serum, urine, and saliva samples ...


Antibiotic Resistance, A Global Pandemic, Deneil Patel 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Antibiotic Resistance, A Global Pandemic, Deneil Patel

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Interregulation Between Msaabcr Operon And Ccpe To Determine Staphylococcal Metabolism And Virulence, Erin R. Cox 2021 The University of Southern Mississippi

Interregulation Between Msaabcr Operon And Ccpe To Determine Staphylococcal Metabolism And Virulence, Erin R. Cox

Honors Theses

Staphylococcus aureus is a complex human pathogen that causes problems in both healthcare and community settings. Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive, sphere shaped bacterium that usually colonizes in the nasal cavity of healthy individuals. Staphylococcus aureus infections are a growing health concern due to its ability to produce virulence factors, such as pigmentation, protease production, and capsule formation. Two regulators in S. aureus virulence factors are msaABCR, which is a newly characterized operon, and ccpE. In order to determine the interaction between these two regulators in regulating virulence and metabolism in S. aureus, ccpE and ccpE/msaABCR transposon mutants were ...


Sodium Pyruvate Ameliorates Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro And In Vivo, Jessica M. Reel 2021 Missouri State University

Sodium Pyruvate Ameliorates Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro And In Vivo, Jessica M. Reel

MSU Graduate Theses

Pyruvate is produced in duplicate at the end of glycolysis in addition to ATP and NADH. Pyruvate is the metabolite of choice in most cells, whether obtained exogenously or endogenously. Recently we found that the addition of pyruvate’s conjugate base, sodium pyruvate, to cell culture media dampened the immune response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection in cultured innate immune cells. Thus, I decided to investigate the mechanism and potential for treatment of IAV. In vitro using bone marrow derived macrophages that were infected with IAV we found that adding sodium pyruvate to the media decreased immune signaling pathways ...


Process Interventions For Improving The Microbiological Safety Of Low Moisture Food Ingredients, Tushar Verma 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Process Interventions For Improving The Microbiological Safety Of Low Moisture Food Ingredients, Tushar Verma

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

The recurrence of Salmonella in low moisture foods and the implementation of the FSMA rule requires a need to validate legacy and novel processing technologies. In this dissertation, a legacy thermal (extrusion), a novel thermal (radiofrequency (RF) heating), and a non-thermal (chlorine dioxide) technology, were evaluated as intervention technologies for Salmonella in low moisture foods. The twin-screw extruder was performed at different levels of screw speeds, temperatures, moisture contents, and fat contents to understand the impact of processing conditions on Salmonella inactivation in oat flour. At temperature >65°C, the Salmonella population was below the detection limit. At 55°C ...


Respiratory Pathogens In Patients With Acute Exacerbation Of Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis From A Developing Country, Shayan Shahid, Kausar Jabeen, Nousheen Iqbal, Joveria Farooqi, Muhammad Irfan 2021 Aga Khan University

Respiratory Pathogens In Patients With Acute Exacerbation Of Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis From A Developing Country, Shayan Shahid, Kausar Jabeen, Nousheen Iqbal, Joveria Farooqi, Muhammad Irfan

Medical College Documents

Bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis (non-CF bronchiectasis) has become a major respiratory disease in developing nations. The dilated mucus filled airways promote bacterial overgrowth followed by chronic infection, bronchial inflammation, lung injury and re-infection Accurate pathogen identification and antimicrobial susceptibility allowing appropriate treatment, in turn, may break this vicious cycle. To study the spectrum and antimicrobial spectrum of pathogen yielded from respiratory specimens in adult patients with acute exacerbation of non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. This cross-sectional study was performed at the pulmonology clinics of the Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan from 2016-2019. Respiratory specimens were collected from adult patients with ...


Molecular Surveillance Of Drug Resistance: Plasmodium Falciparum Artemisinin Resistance Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In Kelch Protein Propeller (K13) Domain From Southern Pakistan, Najia Karim Ghanchi, Bushra Qurashi, Hadiqa Raees, Mohammad Asim Beg 2021 Aga Khan University

Molecular Surveillance Of Drug Resistance: Plasmodium Falciparum Artemisinin Resistance Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In Kelch Protein Propeller (K13) Domain From Southern Pakistan, Najia Karim Ghanchi, Bushra Qurashi, Hadiqa Raees, Mohammad Asim Beg

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background: K13 propeller (k13) polymorphism are useful molecular markers for tracking the emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. Polymorphisms are reported from Cambodia with rapid invasion of the population and almost near fixation in south East Asia. The study describes single nucleotide polymorphisms in Kelch protein propeller domain of P. falciparum associated with artemisinin resistance from Southern Pakistan.
Methods: Two hundred and forty-nine samples were collected from patients with microscopy confirmed P. falciparum malaria attending Aga Khan University Hospital during September 2015-April 2018. DNA was isolated using the whole blood protocol for the QIAmp DNA Blood Kit ...


Effectiveness Of Pathogen-Specific Passive Antibodies To Mitigate Infectious Diseases In Apis Mellifera, Tanner Nordseth 2021 University of South Dakota

Effectiveness Of Pathogen-Specific Passive Antibodies To Mitigate Infectious Diseases In Apis Mellifera, Tanner Nordseth

Honors Thesis

Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are widely recognized as a vital part of the global ecosystem and the world's food supply due to their pivotal role in the pollination of both natural and agricultural flora. Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) is an emerging phenomenon characterized by a colony's worker bees deserting the hive and leaving the queen behind. This usually results in colony failure. CCD is a multifactorial issue, with many environmental stressors and pathogens playing a role. Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) has been identified as a leading cause in this phenomenon. Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) is another lethal pathogen that ...


Cloning Of Pe11 (Lipx, Rv1169c) Gene Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Beijing Strain To Pcdna3.1 Plasmid Vector, Lulut Azmi Supardi, Andriansjah Rukmana, Fithriyah Sjatha 2021 Biomedical Student, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta 10430, Indonesia

Cloning Of Pe11 (Lipx, Rv1169c) Gene Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Beijing Strain To Pcdna3.1 Plasmid Vector, Lulut Azmi Supardi, Andriansjah Rukmana, Fithriyah Sjatha

Makara Journal of Science

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is a persistent global health problem with a high mortality rate. Currently, TB is controlled by administering the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine, but the effectiveness of its protection varies among individuals in a population. The pe/ppe gene family comprises a typical group of genes that play a role in avoiding the host immune response and inducing persistent TB infection. Based on in silico analysis, the pe11 gene has estimated immunogenicity and potential as a TB seed vaccine candidate. The pe11 gene from an Indonesian isolate of an M ...


Anti-Cfae Nanobodies Provide Broad Cross-Protection Against Major Pathogenic Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Strains, With Implications For Vaccine Design, Alla Amcheslavsky, Aaron L. Wallace, Ejemel Monir, Qi Li, Matteo Stoppato, Serena Giuntini, Zachary A. Schiller, Jessica R. Pondish, Jacqueline R. Toomey, Ryan M. Schneider, Jordan Meisinger, Mark S. Klempner, Lisa A. Cavacini, Yang Wang 2021 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Anti-Cfae Nanobodies Provide Broad Cross-Protection Against Major Pathogenic Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Strains, With Implications For Vaccine Design, Alla Amcheslavsky, Aaron L. Wallace, Ejemel Monir, Qi Li, Matteo Stoppato, Serena Giuntini, Zachary A. Schiller, Jessica R. Pondish, Jacqueline R. Toomey, Ryan M. Schneider, Jordan Meisinger, Mark S. Klempner, Lisa A. Cavacini, Yang Wang

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is estimated to cause approximately 380,000 deaths annually during sporadic or epidemic outbreaks worldwide. Development of vaccines against ETEC is very challenging due to the vast heterogeneity of the ETEC strains. An effective vaccines would have to be multicomponent to provide coverage of over ten ETEC strains with genetic variabilities. There is currently no vaccine licensed to prevent ETEC. Nanobodies are successful new biologics in treating mucosal infectious disease as they recognize conserved epitopes on hypervariable pathogens. Cocktails consisting of multiple nanobodies could provide even broader epitope coverage at a lower cost compared to monoclonal ...


Exploring The Impact Of Ketodeoxynonulosonic Acid In Host-Pathogen Interactions Using Uptake And Surface Display By Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae, Sudeshna Saha, Sanjay Ram, Ajit Varki 2021 University of California - San Diego

Exploring The Impact Of Ketodeoxynonulosonic Acid In Host-Pathogen Interactions Using Uptake And Surface Display By Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae, Sudeshna Saha, Sanjay Ram, Ajit Varki

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Surface expression of the common vertebrate sialic acid (Sia) N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) by commensal and pathogenic microbes appears structurally to represent "molecular mimicry" of host sialoglycans, facilitating multiple mechanisms of host immune evasion. In contrast, ketodeoxynonulosonic acid (Kdn) is a more ancestral Sia also present in prokaryotic glycoconjugates that are structurally quite distinct from vertebrate sialoglycans. We detected human antibodies against Kdn-terminated glycans, and sialoglycan microarray studies found these anti-Kdn antibodies to be directed against Kdn-sialoglycans structurally similar to those on human cell surface Neu5Ac-sialoglycans. Anti-Kdn-glycan antibodies appear during infancy in a pattern similar to those generated following incorporation of ...


Disrupted Iron Metabolism And Mortality During Co-Infection With Malaria And An Intestinal Gram-Negative Extracellular Pathogen, Luara Isabela Dos Santos, Thais Abdala Torres, Suelen Queiroz. Diniz, Ricardo Goncalves, Gustavo Caballero-Flores, Gabriel Nunez, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Kevin Joseph. Maloy, Lis Ribeiro do V Antonelli 2021 University of Oxford

Disrupted Iron Metabolism And Mortality During Co-Infection With Malaria And An Intestinal Gram-Negative Extracellular Pathogen, Luara Isabela Dos Santos, Thais Abdala Torres, Suelen Queiroz. Diniz, Ricardo Goncalves, Gustavo Caballero-Flores, Gabriel Nunez, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Kevin Joseph. Maloy, Lis Ribeiro Do V Antonelli

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Individuals with malaria exhibit increased morbidity and mortality when infected with Gram-negative (Gr-) bacteria. To explore this experimentally, we performed co-infection of mice with Plasmodium chabaudi and Citrobacter rodentium, an extracellular Gr- bacterial pathogen that infects the large intestine. While single infections are controlled effectively, co-infection results in enhanced virulence that is characterized by prolonged systemic bacterial persistence and high mortality. Mortality in co-infected mice is associated with disrupted iron metabolism, elevated levels of plasma heme, and increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by phagocytes. In addition, iron acquisition by the bacterium plays a key role in pathogenesis because ...


The Influence Of Infant Formula On The Growth Of Commensal And Pathogenic Streptococcus Species In The Infant Oral Cavity, Geneva Waynick 2021 Hollins University

The Influence Of Infant Formula On The Growth Of Commensal And Pathogenic Streptococcus Species In The Infant Oral Cavity, Geneva Waynick

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The oral microbiome is a complex community of microorganisms that can both reflect and greatly influence the health of the human host. A number of diseases are associated with dysbiotic oral microflora in infants and children, including dental (e.g. dental caries, gingivitis, and periodontal disease), and gastrointestinal diseases (e.g. pediatric appendicitis, celiac disease, and pediatric inflammatory bowel disease). A variety of factors can influence the composition of the oral microbial community in infants, including gestation length, mode of delivery, feeding method, and diet. This study focuses on the effects of diet on the growth of a commensal bacterium ...


Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi

Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis is the most important cause of lameness in broilers. This is important to poultry production, as it poses animal welfare issues, and causes a significant loss in revenue. The remediation of this disease requires the study of its etiology with fitting models and evaluating preventatives. The research reported herein covers genomic virulence analysis of BCO isolates, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli retrieved from lame birds. We found that S. aureus isolates were closest to chicken strains in Europe but may have been in the Arkansas area for a decade. Phylogenomics suggest our S. aureus is ...


An Impedimetric Aptasensing System For The Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Typhimurium, America Sotero 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

An Impedimetric Aptasensing System For The Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Typhimurium, America Sotero

Theses and Dissertations

Salmonella Typhimurium is a foodborne pathogen associated with raw and undercooked eggs, poultry, beef, fruits, and vegetables. In the United States, Salmonella is responsible for approximately 1.2 million illnesses, 23,000 hospitalizations, and 450 deaths annually. For many years, conventional detection methods such as culture-dependent and PCR-based methods have been the “golden standards” for the detection of this pathogen due to their high sensitivity and reliability. However, they still have some disadvantages such as long enrichment steps and high costs that need to be overcome. The development of a rapid and reliable method for the detection of S. Typhimurium ...


Host-Pathogen Genetic Interactions Underlie Tuberculosis Susceptibility In Genetically Diverse Mice [Preprint], Clare M. Smith, Richard E. Baker, Megan K. Proulx, Bibhuti B. Mishra, Jarukit E. Long, Michael C. Kiritsy, Michelle Bellerose, Andrew J. Olive, Kenan C. Murphy, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Frederick Boehm, Charlotte Reames, Christopher M. Sassetti 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Host-Pathogen Genetic Interactions Underlie Tuberculosis Susceptibility In Genetically Diverse Mice [Preprint], Clare M. Smith, Richard E. Baker, Megan K. Proulx, Bibhuti B. Mishra, Jarukit E. Long, Michael C. Kiritsy, Michelle Bellerose, Andrew J. Olive, Kenan C. Murphy, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Frederick Boehm, Charlotte Reames, Christopher M. Sassetti

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The outcome of an encounter with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) depends on the pathogen’s ability to adapt to the heterogeneous immune response of the host. Understanding this interplay has proven difficult, largely because experimentally tractable small animal models do not recapitulate the heterogenous disease observed in natural infections. We leveraged the genetically diverse Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse panel in conjunction with a library of Mtb mutants to associate bacterial genetic requirements with host genetics and immunity. We report that CC strains vary dramatically in their susceptibility to infection and represent reproducible models of qualitatively distinct immune states. Global analysis of ...


Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Cleaves The Decoding Center Of Caenorhabditis Elegans Ribosomes, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Emiliano P. Ricci, Victor R. Ambros 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Cleaves The Decoding Center Of Caenorhabditis Elegans Ribosomes, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Emiliano P. Ricci, Victor R. Ambros

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa advantageously modify animal host physiology, for example, by inhibiting host protein synthesis. Translational inhibition of insects and mammalian hosts by P. aeruginosa utilizes the well-known exotoxin A effector. However, for the infection of Caenorhabditis elegans by P. aeruginosa, the precise pathways and mechanism(s) of translational inhibition are not well understood. We found that upon exposure to P. aeruginosa PA14, C. elegans undergoes a rapid loss of intact ribosomes accompanied by the accumulation of ribosomes cleaved at helix 69 (H69) of the 26S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a key part of ribosome decoding center. H69 cleavage ...


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