Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Pathogenic Microbiology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

550 Full-Text Articles 1,422 Authors 123,696 Downloads 101 Institutions

All Articles in Pathogenic Microbiology

Faceted Search

550 full-text articles. Page 5 of 24.

A Novel Vaccine Platform Using Glucan Particles For Induction Of Protective Responses Against Francisella Tularensis And Other Pathogens, Ambily Abraham, Gary R. Ostroff, Stuart M. Levitz, P. C. F. Oyston 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

A Novel Vaccine Platform Using Glucan Particles For Induction Of Protective Responses Against Francisella Tularensis And Other Pathogens, Ambily Abraham, Gary R. Ostroff, Stuart M. Levitz, P. C. F. Oyston

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Vaccines are considered the bedrock of preventive medicine. However, for many pathogens, it has been challenging to develop vaccines that stimulate protective, long-lasting immunity. We have developed a novel approach using beta-1,3-D-glucans (BGs), natural polysaccharides abundantly present in fungal cell walls, as a biomaterial platform for vaccine delivery. BGs simultaneously provide for receptor-targeted antigen delivery to specialized antigen-presenting cells together with adjuvant properties to stimulate antigen-specific and trained non-specific immune responses. This review focuses on various approaches of using BG particles (GPs) to develop bacterial and fungal vaccine candidates. A special case history for the development of an effective ...


Redirection Of Skn-1 Abates The Negative Metabolic Outcomes Of A Perceived Pathogen Infection, James D. Nhan, Christian D. Turner, Sarah M. Anderson, Chia-An Yen, Hans M. Dalton, Hilary K. Cheesman, Dana L. Ruter, Nandhitha Uma Naresh, Cole M. Haynes, Alexander A. Soukas, Read Pukkila-Worley, Sean P. Curran 2019 University of Southern California

Redirection Of Skn-1 Abates The Negative Metabolic Outcomes Of A Perceived Pathogen Infection, James D. Nhan, Christian D. Turner, Sarah M. Anderson, Chia-An Yen, Hans M. Dalton, Hilary K. Cheesman, Dana L. Ruter, Nandhitha Uma Naresh, Cole M. Haynes, Alexander A. Soukas, Read Pukkila-Worley, Sean P. Curran

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Early host responses toward pathogens are essential for defense against infection. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the transcription factor, SKN-1, regulates cellular defenses during xenobiotic intoxication and bacterial infection. However, constitutive activation of SKN-1 results in pleiotropic outcomes, including a redistribution of somatic lipids to the germline, which impairs health and shortens lifespan. Here, we show that exposing C. elegans to Pseudomonas aeruginosa similarly drives the rapid depletion of somatic, but not germline, lipid stores. Modulating the epigenetic landscape refines SKN-1 activity away from innate immunity targets, which alleviates negative metabolic outcomes. Similarly, exposure to oxidative stress redirects SKN-1 activity away from ...


Current Understanding Of West Nile Virus Clinical Manifestations, Immune Responses, Neuroinvasion, And Immunotherapeutic Implications, Fengwei Bai, E. Ashley Thompson, Parminder J.S. Vig, A. Arturo Leis 2019 University of Southern Mississippi

Current Understanding Of West Nile Virus Clinical Manifestations, Immune Responses, Neuroinvasion, And Immunotherapeutic Implications, Fengwei Bai, E. Ashley Thompson, Parminder J.S. Vig, A. Arturo Leis

Faculty Publications

West Nile virus (WNV) is the most common mosquito-borne virus in North America. WNV-associated neuroinvasive disease affects all ages, although elderly and immunocompromised individuals are particularly at risk. WNV neuroinvasive disease has killed over 2300 Americans since WNV entered into the United States in the New York City outbreak of 1999. Despite 20 years of intensive laboratory and clinical research, there are still no approved vaccines or antivirals available for human use. However, rapid progress has been made in both understanding the pathogenesis of WNV and treatment in clinical practices. This review summarizes our current understanding of WNV infection in ...


Parasitic Microbiome Project: Grand Challenges, Nolwenn M. Dheilly, Joaquín Martínez Martínez, Karyna Rosario, Paul J. Brindley, Raina N. Fichorava, Jonathan Z. Kaye, Kevin D. Kohl, Laura J. Knoll, Julius Lukeš, Susan L. Perkins, Robert Poulin, Lynn Schriml, Luke R. Thompson 2019 Stony Brook University

Parasitic Microbiome Project: Grand Challenges, Nolwenn M. Dheilly, Joaquín Martínez Martínez, Karyna Rosario, Paul J. Brindley, Raina N. Fichorava, Jonathan Z. Kaye, Kevin D. Kohl, Laura J. Knoll, Julius Lukeš, Susan L. Perkins, Robert Poulin, Lynn Schriml, Luke R. Thompson

Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Chitosan Biosynthesis And Virulence In The Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus Gattii [Preprint], Woei C. Lam, Rajendra Upadhya, Charles A. Specht, Abigail E. Ragsdale, Camaron R. Hole, Stuart M. Levitz, Jennifer K. Lodge 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

Chitosan Biosynthesis And Virulence In The Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus Gattii [Preprint], Woei C. Lam, Rajendra Upadhya, Charles A. Specht, Abigail E. Ragsdale, Camaron R. Hole, Stuart M. Levitz, Jennifer K. Lodge

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Cryptococcus gattii R265 is a hyper-virulent fungal strain responsible for the major outbreak of cryptococcosis in Vancouver Island of British Columbia in 1999. It differs significantly from C. neoformans in its natural environment, its preferred site in the mammalian host, and in the nature and mode of pathogenesis. Our previous studies in C. neoformans have shown that the presence of chitosan, the deacetylated form of chitin, in the cell wall attenuates inflammatory responses in the host, while its absence induces robust immune responses, which in turn facilitate clearance of the fungus and induces a protective response. The results of the ...


The Aminoalkylindole, Bml-190, Negatively Regulates Chitosan Synthesis Via The Camp/Pka1 Pathway In Cryptococcus Neoformans [Preprint], Brian T. Maybruck, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Ma Xenia G. Ilagan, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

The Aminoalkylindole, Bml-190, Negatively Regulates Chitosan Synthesis Via The Camp/Pka1 Pathway In Cryptococcus Neoformans [Preprint], Brian T. Maybruck, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Ma Xenia G. Ilagan, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Cryptococcus neoformans can cause fatal meningoencephalitis in patients with AIDS or other immune-compromising conditions. Current antifungals are suboptimal to treat this disease, therefore, novel targets and new therapies are needed. Previously, we have shown that chitosan is a critical component of the cryptococcal cell wall, is required for survival in the mammalian host, and that chitosan deficiency results in rapid clearance from the mammalian host. We had also identified several specific proteins that were required for chitosan biosynthesis, and we hypothesize that screening for compounds that inhibit chitosan biosynthesis would identify additional genes/proteins that influence chitosan biosynthesis.


Intravital Imaging In A Zebrafish Model Elucidates Interactions Between Mucosal Immunity And Pathogenic Fungi, Linda S. Archambault 2019 University of Maine

Intravital Imaging In A Zebrafish Model Elucidates Interactions Between Mucosal Immunity And Pathogenic Fungi, Linda S. Archambault

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Candida yeasts are common commensals that can cause mucosal disease and life-threatening systemic infections. While many of the components required for defense against Candida albicans infection are well established, questions remain about how various host cells at mucosal sites assess threats and coordinate defenses to prevent normally commensal organisms from becoming pathogenic. Using two Candida species, C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, which differ in their abilities to damage epithelial tissues, we used traditional methods (pathogen CFU, host survival, and host cytokine expression) combined with high-resolution intravital imaging of transparent zebrafish larvae to illuminate host-pathogen interactions at the cellular level in ...


The Influence Of The Pep-Pts And Other Metabolic Systems On The Master Virulence Regulator Atxa And Toxin Gene Expression In Bacillus Anthracis, Naomi Bier-Reizes 2019 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

The Influence Of The Pep-Pts And Other Metabolic Systems On The Master Virulence Regulator Atxa And Toxin Gene Expression In Bacillus Anthracis, Naomi Bier-Reizes

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

AtxA, the master virulence gene regulator in Bacillus anthracis, is a PRD-containing virulence regulator (PCVR) as indicated by the crystal structure, post-translational modifications, and activity of the protein. PCVRs are transcriptional regulators, named for the regulatory domains subject to phosphorylation by the phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (PEP-PTS), termed PTS Regulatory Domains (PRD), and for their impact on virulence gene expression. Generally, the phosphorylation of a PCVR regulates protein activity and multimerization. AtxA is phosphorylated at two histidine residues - one in each of its two PRDs. Phosphorylation at position 199 allows for AtxA to positively affect expression of virulence genes, whereas phosphorylation ...


Elucidating Immune Signaling Of Influenza A Virus And Aspergillus Fumigatus Co-Infections Through Pioneered Model Development, Meagan Danyelle Rippee-Brooks 2019 Missouri State University

Elucidating Immune Signaling Of Influenza A Virus And Aspergillus Fumigatus Co-Infections Through Pioneered Model Development, Meagan Danyelle Rippee-Brooks

MSU Graduate Theses

Bacterial co-infections with influenza A virus (IAV) are extremely serious and life-threatening. However, there exists limited understanding about the importance of fungal infections with IAV. Clinical case reports indicate that fungal co-infections do occur and suggest the IAV pandemic of 2009 had a propensity to predispose patients to secondary fungal infections more than previous IAV strains. IAV-fungal co-infections are marked by high mortality rates of 47 to 61% in previously healthy individuals between the ages of 20 and 60. Yet, the variables involved in this co-infection remain undetermined. I achieved effective recapitulation of this co-infection using a C57Bl/6 murine ...


Studies On The Interaction And Organization Of Bacterial Proteins On Membranes, Mariana Brena 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Studies On The Interaction And Organization Of Bacterial Proteins On Membranes, Mariana Brena

Masters Theses

Bacteria have developed various means of secreting proteins that can enter the host cell membrane. In this work I focus on two systems: cholesterol-dependent cytolysins and Type III Secretion.

Cholesterol is a molecule that is critical for physiological processes and cell membrane function. Not only can improper regulation lead to disease, but also the role cholesterol plays in cell function indicates it is an important molecule to understand. In response to this need, probes have been developed that detect cholesterol molecules in membranes. However, it has been recently shown that there is a need for probes that only respond to ...


Infection Potential Of Rickettsia Felis Via Ingestion, Matthew M. Schexnayder 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Infection Potential Of Rickettsia Felis Via Ingestion, Matthew M. Schexnayder

LSU Master's Theses

Rickettsia felis is the etiologic agent of flea-borne spotted fever (FBSF) in humans and a poorly described cause of fever in animals. It is transmitted by its primary arthropod vector and reservoir host, the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis. Known routes of Rickettsia felis transmission between Rickettsia felis-infected cat fleas and vertebrate hosts include cutaneous bites and contamination of cutaneous wounds with infective flea feces. The bulk of FBSF infections occur in young children in Africa, though infections of people at all ages all over the world have been confirmed. As mammals and young children frequently come into contact with ...


A Rapid Viability And Drug‑Susceptibility Assay Utilizing Mycobacteriophage As An Indicator Of Drug Susceptibilities Of Anti‑Tb Drugs Against Mycobacterium Smegmatis Mc2 155, Gillian Catherine Crowley, Jim O'Mahony, Aidan Coffey, Riona G. Sayers, Paul D. Cotter 2019 Department of Biological Sciences, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork, Ireland

A Rapid Viability And Drug‑Susceptibility Assay Utilizing Mycobacteriophage As An Indicator Of Drug Susceptibilities Of Anti‑Tb Drugs Against Mycobacterium Smegmatis Mc2 155, Gillian Catherine Crowley, Jim O'Mahony, Aidan Coffey, Riona G. Sayers, Paul D. Cotter

Department of Biological Sciences Publications

Background: A rapid in-house TM4 mycobacteriophage-based assay, to identify multidrug resistance against various anti-tuberculosis drugs, using the fast-growing Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2 155 in a microtiter plate format was evaluated, based on phage viability assays. Methods: A variety of parameters were optimized before the study including the minimum incubation time for the drugs, phage and M. smegmatis mc2 155 to be in contact. An increase in phage numbers over 2 h was indicative that M. smegmatis mc2 155 is resistant to the drugs under investigation, however when phage numbers remained static, M. smegmatis mc2 155 found to ...


The Effect Of Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia On Gram-Negative Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens., Joshua D Stewart 2019 University of Louisville

The Effect Of Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia On Gram-Negative Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens., Joshua D Stewart

College of Arts & Sciences Senior Honors Theses

Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal genetic disorder in the Caucasian population with an incidence of 1 per 3,000 live births and a median predicted survival of only 47 years. Respiratory failure due to repeated pathological insults to lung tissue by infection is the ultimate cause of mortality in the majority of patients. The lung microenvironment created by CF highly favors colonization by opportunistic pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Burkholderia cenocepacia, and Achromobacter xylosoxidans. Biofilm formation by multiple bacterial species contributes to the chronic, persistent, and difficult to treat nature of CF infections. This study ...


The Genetic Basis Underlying The Evolution Of Commensal Microbes To Opportunistic Pathogens, Maliha Ahmad 2019 William & Mary

The Genetic Basis Underlying The Evolution Of Commensal Microbes To Opportunistic Pathogens, Maliha Ahmad

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The complex and dynamic interactions between microbes and humans have been known to carry large implications on human health. The evolution of pathogenesis has been studied extensively in bacteria, but studies are lacking in eukaryotic species, particularly in fungi. Given their ability to sexually reproduce, the dynamics of evolution in fungal species could largely differ from those of bacteria. Furthermore, the amount of variation that a population originally evolves from — whether they are initially clonal or stem from a large amount of standing variation — can potentially affect their rate of adaptation.

This project aims to study the evolution of pathogenesis ...


Reporting Charcoal Rot In Chia And Developing A Susceptibility Assay, Reis M. Misaka, Hagop S. Atamian Dr., Julien Besnard Dr. 2019 Chapman University

Reporting Charcoal Rot In Chia And Developing A Susceptibility Assay, Reis M. Misaka, Hagop S. Atamian Dr., Julien Besnard Dr.

Student Scholar Symposium Abstracts and Posters

Chia (Salvia Hispanica) cross breeds were planted in the summer of 2018 with the intent of selective breeding for agricultural benefit. Preexisting pathogens in the soil caused 40-50% fatality of adult plants. This was surprising due to the precursory knowledge that chia has antibiotic and antifungal oils (Elshafie et. al. 2018); chia was only recently documented to be susceptible to Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum). The primary pathogen responsible was identified as Macrophomina phaseolina (aka charcoal rot); a widespread soilborne pathogen which has multiple commercial hosts (Su et. al. 2001).

M. phaesolina on wheat seed vector where used as inoculums (Brandari ...


Iron-Containing Nanoparticles For The Treatment Of Chrionic Biofilm Infections In Cystic Fibrosis, Leisha M. A. Martin 2019 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Iron-Containing Nanoparticles For The Treatment Of Chrionic Biofilm Infections In Cystic Fibrosis, Leisha M. A. Martin

Nanoscience and Microsystems ETDs

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common genetic disease resulting in the morbidity and mortality of Caucasian children and adults worldwide. Due to a genetic mutation resulting in malfunction of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) protein, CF patients produce highly viscous mucus in their respiratory tract. This leads to impairment of the mucociliary clearance of inhaled microbes. In addition to reduced microbial clearance, anoxic environmental conditions in the lungs promote biofilm-mode growth of the pathogenic bacterial species Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Chronic infections of P. aeruginosa begin in early childhood and typically persist until respiratory failure and death result. The ...


Lipoarabinomannan From Mycobacterium Smegmatis Stimulates An Inflammatory Response In Raw 264.7 Murine Macrophages, Aysha Zaman 2019 University of Lynchburg

Lipoarabinomannan From Mycobacterium Smegmatis Stimulates An Inflammatory Response In Raw 264.7 Murine Macrophages, Aysha Zaman

Student Scholar Showcase

Macrophages are a key leukocyte in defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The precise mechanism by which M. tuberculosis evades host macrophage defenses remains unknown, so understanding how macrophages interact with cell wall components of mycobacteria is critical. Lipoarabinomannan (LAM) is a glycolipid Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2) ligand found on the cell wall of mycobacteria, and is thought to contribute to the cell wall structural integrity. When LAM binds to TLR on host leukocytes, this activates cellular responses and phagocytosis by host macrophages. Nitric oxide production can be used as a measure of inflammatory response and can be evaluated via nitrite response ...


Does Quorum Sensing Regulate The Conjugation Of The Two Co-Resident Megaplasmids Of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens 15955, Christopher Carter 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Does Quorum Sensing Regulate The Conjugation Of The Two Co-Resident Megaplasmids Of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens 15955, Christopher Carter

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

While the effects of Agrobacterium tumefaciens can be easily observed and have been studied closely, the mechanisms for their virulence habits have not. Several studies have suggested the mechanisms for plasmid transfer and conjugation, particularly concerning plasmid Ti (pTi), the TraR (TraR1) regulator, and the quorum sensing (QS) system associated with it. Very little is known, however, about the second plasmid (pAt) present within the bacteria nor its regulatory QS systems. To further understand these mechanics of plasmid conjugation, we have devised a series of experiments in order to find connections between the conjugation of both pTi and pAt and ...


Assessment Of The Potential Use Of Recombinant Baculovirus-Expressed Lassa Virus Nucleoprotein As A Serodiagnostic Antigen, Sahiba Grover 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Assessment Of The Potential Use Of Recombinant Baculovirus-Expressed Lassa Virus Nucleoprotein As A Serodiagnostic Antigen, Sahiba Grover

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Lassa virus is an arenavirus causing a disseminated systemic primary viral infection. This virus causes Lassa fever which is a viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in West Africa and is responsible for the deaths of thousands of people each year. There is a possibility for the Lassa virus to be introduced into the US and used as a biological weapon with the potential to harm a large-scale population. Because of increasing international travel, a sizeable burden from the disease, and its potential use for biological warfare, it is necessary to develop sensitive diagnostic assays to accurately detect virus infections and mitigate ...


Determining The Role Of Cdr20291_0493 Sporulation Initiation In Clostridium Difficile, Carolina Bueno 2019 Kansas State University Libraries

Determining The Role Of Cdr20291_0493 Sporulation Initiation In Clostridium Difficile, Carolina Bueno

Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference

Our lab focuses on the gene regulatory networks of Clostridium difficilesporulation and toxins virulence factors. Spores are the major reason of the disease transmission; this is why it is important to understand how this spores are formed so drugs can be targeted to formation. Our objective is to identify the gene regulatory networks that control sporulation. The candidate target gene we are studying is CDR20291_0493 in C. difficileR20291 strain. We want to understand the role of this gene in sporulation initiation of C.difficile. We first created a mutant of CDR20291_0493 mutant R20291Dto look for sporulation phenotype and ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress