Assessment Of The Potential Use Of Recombinant Baculovirus-Expressed Lassa Virus Nucleoprotein As A Serodiagnostic Antigen, 2019 Kansas State University Libraries
Assessment Of The Potential Use Of Recombinant Baculovirus-Expressed Lassa Virus Nucleoprotein As A Serodiagnostic Antigen, Sahiba Grover
Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference
Lassa virus is an arenavirus causing a disseminated systemic primary viral infection. This virus causes Lassa fever which is a viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in West Africa and is responsible for the deaths of thousands of people each year. There is a possibility for the Lassa virus to be introduced into the US and used as a biological weapon with the potential to harm a large-scale population. Because of increasing international travel, a sizeable burden from the disease, and its potential use for biological warfare, it is necessary to develop sensitive diagnostic assays to accurately detect virus infections and mitigate ...
Determining The Role Of Cdr20291_0493 Sporulation Initiation In Clostridium Difficile, 2019 Kansas State University Libraries
Determining The Role Of Cdr20291_0493 Sporulation Initiation In Clostridium Difficile, Carolina Bueno
Kansas State University Undergraduate Research Conference
Our lab focuses on the gene regulatory networks of Clostridium difficilesporulation and toxins virulence factors. Spores are the major reason of the disease transmission; this is why it is important to understand how this spores are formed so drugs can be targeted to formation. Our objective is to identify the gene regulatory networks that control sporulation. The candidate target gene we are studying is CDR20291_0493 in C. difficileR20291 strain. We want to understand the role of this gene in sporulation initiation of C.difficile. We first created a mutant of CDR20291_0493 mutant R20291Dto look for sporulation phenotype and ...
Combating Drug Resistance - Comparison Of The Antibiotic Effect Of Hydrastis Canadensis Extract And Pure Berberine Via Minimum Inhibitory Concentration Assay, William Luke Scott, Timothy D. Trott
Research in Biology
Herbal medicines are a melee of complex organic chemicals, making it difficult to ascertain their direct mechanism of action. In contrast to mainstream pharmaceuticals, it is argued that herbal medicines are effective because of multiple constituents working synergistically. The complexity of herbal medicines may give them advantages over simpler pharmaceuticals in combating antibiotic resistant microbes, but these advantages can be difficult to quantitate. Popular literature frequently espouses the healing properties of herbal medicines, but many of these claims are not scientifically supported. Many gains could be realized in public health and medicine if more research was aimed at validating / disproving ...
Hybridized Polymeric Nano-Assemblies: Key Insights Into Addressing Mdr Infections, 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst
Hybridized Polymeric Nano-Assemblies: Key Insights Into Addressing Mdr Infections, Ryan Landis
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria contribute to more than 700,000 annual deaths world-wide. Millions more suffer from limb amputations or face high healthcare treatment costs where prolonged and costly therapeutic regimens are used to counter MDR infections. While there is an international push to develop novel and more powerful antimicrobials to address the impending threat, one particularly interesting approach that has re-emerged are essential oils, phytochemical extracts derived from plant sources. While their antimicrobial activity demonstrates a promising avenue, their stability in aqueous media, limits their practical use in or on mammals. Inspired by the versatility of polymer nanotechnology and the ...
Nascent Dna Proteomics Analysis Uncovers Dna Replication Dynamics In The Human Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, 2019 University of Massachusetts Amherst
Nascent Dna Proteomics Analysis Uncovers Dna Replication Dynamics In The Human Pathogen Trypanosoma Brucei, Maria Rocha Granados
DNA is the substrate of many cellular processes including DNA replication, transcription and chromatin remodeling. These processes are coordinated to maintain genome integrity and ensure accurate duplication of genetic and epigenetic information. Genome-wide studies have provided evidence of the relationship between transcription and DNA replication timing. A global analysis of DNA replication initiation in T. brucei showed that TbORC1 (subunit of the origin recognition complex, ORC) binding sites are located at the boundaries of transcription units. Although recent studies in T. brucei indicate functional links among DNA replication and transcription, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we adapted ...
The Group A Streptococci Bacteriocins Facilitate A Competitive Advantage During Nasopharyngeal Infection, 2019 The University of Western Ontario
The Group A Streptococci Bacteriocins Facilitate A Competitive Advantage During Nasopharyngeal Infection, Lana Estafanos
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Pathogenic streptococci have evolved specific systems to eliminate bacterial competitors within their biological niche. In microbial environments, niche competition is often driven by the production of short antimicrobial peptides called bacteriocins; this provides a mechanism by which Streptococcus pyogenes may compete for ecological stability and establish infection. Recent findings from our laboratory have identified two novel Class IIb bacteriocin systems – Streptococcus pyogenes bacteriocin (Spb) JK and MN in the M18 serotype S. pyogenes strain MGAS8232 – that may contribute to nasopharyngeal infection. Here, we show that galactose and CO2 are distinct regulatory cues which induce antimicrobial activity. Under these conditions ...
Effectiveness Of Windrow Composting Methodology In Killing A Thermo-Tolerant Species Of Salmonella During Mortality Composting, 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo
Effectiveness Of Windrow Composting Methodology In Killing A Thermo-Tolerant Species Of Salmonella During Mortality Composting, Spencer Gabriel Myers
In a large agricultural operation, such as the one at Cal Poly San Luis Obispo, disposal of deceased animals is an immense issue. The cost of transporting and rendering every dead animal is inhibitory to the general function of the agricultural operations and their thin budget. Therefore, we propose that composting mortalities could be an economical alternative. Composting is a recognized method for taking animal waste products along with carbon waste and turning it into a pathogen-free, nutrient-rich topsoil. Carcass composting is in fact performed in other countries and states to varying degrees of success. However, the California EPA limits ...
Interferon-Induced Transmembrane Protein 3 Blocks Fusion Of Sensitive But Not Resistant Viruses By Partitioning Into Virus-Carrying Endosomes, Krishna C. Suddala, Christine C. Lee, Paul Meraner, Mariana Marin, Ruben M. Markosyan, Tanay M. Desai, Fredric S. Cohen, Abraham L. Brass, Gregory B. Melikyan
Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors
Late endosome-resident interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) inhibits fusion of diverse viruses, including Influenza A virus (IAV), by a poorly understood mechanism. Despite the broad antiviral activity of IFITM3, viruses like Lassa virus (LASV), are fully resistant to its inhibitory effects. It is currently unclear whether resistance arises from a highly efficient fusion machinery that is capable of overcoming IFITM3 restriction or the ability to enter from cellular sites devoid of this factor. Here, we constructed and validated a functional IFITM3 tagged with EGFP or other fluorescent proteins. This breakthrough allowed live cell imaging of virus co-trafficking and fusion with ...
Improved Methods For The Quantification Of Viable Ascaris Suum And Application To Biosolids, 2019 Michigan Technological University
Improved Methods For The Quantification Of Viable Ascaris Suum And Application To Biosolids, Tanner Keyzers
Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports
The current method for detection of Ascaris ova in biosolids and wastewater has several drawbacks including being labor and time intensive as well as being difficult to quantify viable ova that have larvated during treatment. The goal of this thesis was to improve several methods for the detection and quantification of Ascaris ova during long term-storage of biosolids including improvement of quantifying viable ova using a heat and bleach treatment to promote movement of larvae inside of ova, and comparison of the traditional microscopic method with qPCR and PMA-qPCR to prevent the false-positive results. Improved methods to promote movement of ...
Illumination Of The Golgi Apparatus Of Pathogenic And Nonpathogenic Naegleria Species, 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University
Illumination Of The Golgi Apparatus Of Pathogenic And Nonpathogenic Naegleria Species, Tyler M. Poe
Theses and Dissertations
In this study, Naegleria fowleri, a pathogenic amoeba and the causative agent of Primary Amebic Meningoencephalitis (PAM), was utilized to determine the presence or absence of classically conserved Golgi molecules featured in the expression of a Golgi apparatus. Previous studies concluded no Golgi expression via light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, but a recent report on Naegleria gruberi indicated the presence of dispersed Golgi tubules. Non-pathogenic species of the Naegleria genus such as Naegleria gruberi 30540 and Naegleria lovaniensis 30569 were utilized in Western immunoblot analysis compared to reduced whole-cell lysate proteins of two strains of N. fowleri and Vero ...
Understanding The Molecular Strategies Of Campylobacter Jejuni For Survival In Amoeba And Chicken., 2019 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Understanding The Molecular Strategies Of Campylobacter Jejuni For Survival In Amoeba And Chicken., Deepti Pranay Samarth
Theses and Dissertations
Campylobacter jejuni endure to be major cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. C. jejuni is fastidious in laboratory setup but can cause waterborne infection through contaminated water where none of these fastidious conditions are met. This dissertation presents an assortment of studies focused in reviewing three major factors which could present a helping hand to C. jejuni in its environmental survival viz. i) association with free-living amoebae (FLA) ii) horizontal gene transfer (HGT) contributing towards its genetic diversity iii). Viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state.
Acanthamoeba is a FLA linked to environmental survival of many intracellular pathogens, including C. jejuni. In ...
High Resolution Modeling Of Tick Density And Detection Of Rickettsia Spp. In Dermacentor Spp. Ticks At Turnbull National Wildlife Refuge, Wa, 2019 Eastern Washington University
High Resolution Modeling Of Tick Density And Detection Of Rickettsia Spp. In Dermacentor Spp. Ticks At Turnbull National Wildlife Refuge, Wa, Justin L. Donahue
EWU Masters Thesis Collection
The tick species Dermacentor andersoni and Dermacentor variabilis are known vectors of pathogens. One such pathogen is the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii, which causes Rocky Mountain spotted fever. The detection of this bacterium in ticks at Turnbull National Wildlife Refuge (TNWR) indicates a potential risk to human health. In order to follow up on this discovery, we had two separate objectives. First we developed a high resolution predictive map for Dermacentor spp. distribution across the public use area of TNWR. To do so, 50m transects (27 in total) were established across the public use area. Ticks were collected weekly within the ...
Harnessing The Anopheles Microbiome To Conditionally Express Anti-Plasmodial Effectors During The Blood Meal, Jackie Shane
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
The control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria has been an extremely important research subject for hundreds of years. Because of the complex lifecycles of the pathogens that cause these diseases, finding a comprehensive treatment or preventative strategy has proven extremely difficult. Malaria alone is responsible for almost half a million deaths annually, most of them children under 5 years old. This disease is caused by parasitic protists in the genus Plasmodium that are transmitted to humans from Anopheles sp. mosquitoes. Most preventative strategies that are in use today revolve around controlling the vectors, including bed nets, insecticides, and larval ...
Antibiotic Resistance Coming Soon To A Pathogen Near You, 2018 Marian University
Antibiotic Resistance Coming Soon To A Pathogen Near You, Mckenzie Altman, Tamia Mills, Lindsey Layman, Catherine Stone
Undergraduate Research Symposium (URS)
The phenomena of antibiotic resistant bacteria has increased worldwide and can frequently be found on everyday surfaces. Here, we characterize a bacterial isolate from a woman’s restroom door handle at Marian. Preliminary results comprised of morphological and biochemical tests, including growth characteristics on blood agar medium, as well as usage of the Kirby Bauer agar diffusion test to determine antibiotic susceptibility, identifies this isolate to be a multidrug resistant Neisseria species. However, additional detailed analysis is needed to confirm its identity.
Stress Response Mechanisms Of Listeria Monocytogenes, 2018 University of Southern Mississippi
Stress Response Mechanisms Of Listeria Monocytogenes, Oindrila Paul
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, facultative intracellular food-borne pathogen that causes the disease listeriosis. In order to establish an infection, L. monocytogenes must survive multiple stressors encountered within the gastrointestinal tract, including alterations in pH, bile, salt, and oxygen availability. This dissertation focused on understanding the stress response of L. monocytogenes to bile. Bile acts as a bactericidal agent by disrupting the membrane integrity and causing instability to macromolecules like DNA. Thus, a bacterium must be able to maintain its membrane architecture, composition and integrity.
Often times, bacteria will modulate their fatty acid composition in the membrane to cope with ...
Investigation Of Novel Virulence Mechanisms In Candida Albicans, 2018 The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences
Investigation Of Novel Virulence Mechanisms In Candida Albicans, Elisa Marie Tafoya Vesely
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)
Candida albicans is the most important fungal species associated with humans. Normally present in the human microbiome as a commensal colonizer, C. albicans is also the fourth most prevalent organism isolated from bloodstream infections in hospitals. Disseminated infections have an associated mortality rate of around 40%. The results of the work described in this dissertation cover the broad subject of C. albicans adaptation to the host and the mechanisms by which this organism is able to survive and cause infection through a variety of means. A key determinant in disease progression is interaction with innate immune cells, specifically macrophages and ...
Aqueous Ozone Inactivation Of Viruses And Bacteria On Biotic And Abiotic Surfaces, 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
Aqueous Ozone Inactivation Of Viruses And Bacteria On Biotic And Abiotic Surfaces, Cailin Dawley
Theses and Dissertations
Produce is susceptible to contamination by foodborne pathogens. Food service establishments utilize sanitizing agents to reduce microbes on produce surfaces. The research objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of aqueous ozone 1) on the inactivation of viruses and bacteria on produce; 2) on the inactivation of viruses on stainless steel; and 3) against viruses in association with bacteria on produce surfaces. For objective 1, Boston bibb lettuce and cherry tomatoes were spot inoculated with a cocktail of viruses (murine norovirus (MNV) and MS2 bacteriophage) or bacteria (Enterobacter cloacae and Bacillus cereus) and washed for 40 min with samples taken every ...
Mastering Mycological Mysteries With Explorations Of Harpellales Associated With Culicidae And Other Dipterans In Idaho, Michael Mccormick
Boise State University Theses and Dissertations
Presented is the first field survey and laboratory-based study focused on Harpellales gut fungi found in Culicidae (mosquito) larvae collected from various parts of Idaho. Overall, 34 sites were sampled ranging from urban storm drains and irrigation puddles to pristine stream-side puddles. These sites yielded 17 different species of mosquitoes and three previously described species of gut fungi. Three species of mosquitoes were the first recorded observations as hosts of the following gut fungi: Culiseta alaskaensis was infested with Zancudomyces culisetae (from Renwyck Creek), Culex tarsalis with Smittium culicis (from Cottonwood Creek), and Ochleratus sp. with Smittium minutisporum (from Bear ...
Bacterial Abundance And Resistance In Ground Beef Varieties, 2018 Western Oregon University
Bacterial Abundance And Resistance In Ground Beef Varieties, Savannah Kumar, Sarah M. Boomer
Raw ground beef purchased at supermarkets across America have one thing in common: they harbor bacteria, some of which are drug resistant and can be detrimental to public health. To understand the impact of farming and processing practices on the quantity of bacteria and drug resistance, organic and regular beef were assessed using MacConkey media. Bacterial colonies were sorted according to lactose utilization, with positive colonies representing fecal E. coli. Lactose negative colonies were further characterized into one of two groups (fecal Hafnia-like or soil Pseudomonas) using a variety of metabolic tests (oxidase, sulfur, indole). Advanced metabolic testing showed that ...
Cryptococcus Neoformans Cda1 And Its Chitin Deacetylase Activity Are Required For Fungal Pathogenesis, 2018 Washington University
Cryptococcus Neoformans Cda1 And Its Chitin Deacetylase Activity Are Required For Fungal Pathogenesis, Rajendra Upadhya, Lorina G. Baker, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge
Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors
Chitin is an essential component of the cell wall of Cryptococcus neoformans conferring structural rigidity and integrity under diverse environmental conditions. Chitin deacetylase genes encode the enyzmes (chitin deacetylases [Cdas]) that deacetylate chitin, converting it to chitosan. The functional role of chitosan in the fungal cell wall is not well defined, but it is an important virulence determinant of C. neoformans Mutant strains deficient in chitosan are completely avirulent in a mouse pulmonary infection model. C. neoformans carries genes that encode three Cdas (Cda1, Cda2, and Cda3) that appear to be functionally redundant in cells grown under vegetative conditions. Here ...