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Full-Text Articles in Pathogenic Microbiology

Investigating Distribution Of Legionella Pneumophila In Urban And Suburban Watersheds, Azlan Maqbool May 2021

Investigating Distribution Of Legionella Pneumophila In Urban And Suburban Watersheds, Azlan Maqbool

Student Theses

The presence of Legionella pneumophila was assessed using a cultivation-based approach in New York City waterways, a freshwater portion of the lower Hudson River Estuary near Kingston NY, and in urban and suburban street water. Legionella pneumophila was detected in 51% of brackish New York City Estuary samples, most with concentrations near minimum detection (=>1 organism/ mL). In contrast, it was detected in 22% of suburban freshwater Hudson River Estuary samples. Levels of the bacterium were found to be higher during wet weather compared to dry weather in the highly dense urban setting, but not in the less dense suburban ...


Detecting Bacterial Species From Ancient Human Skeletal Samples, Ariel Owens, Daisy Mcgrath, Tsai-Tien Tseng May 2021

Detecting Bacterial Species From Ancient Human Skeletal Samples, Ariel Owens, Daisy Mcgrath, Tsai-Tien Tseng

Symposium of Student Scholars

This paleopathological study aims to identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and other Mycobacterium species in silico from skeletal samples that belonged to 28 Polish individuals in the Neolithic period under PRJNA422903 from the Sequence Read Archive (SRA). After next-generation sequencing (NGS), bioinformatics methods are heavily relied upon for identification of pathogens from complex samples. We implemented a bioinformatics pipeline, with custom-built databases, utilizing the following software tools: Trim Galore! and Kraken2. After adapter trimming, Kraken2 was used for taxonomic classifications. We have found that Mycobacterium is present in all 28 individuals. The average percentage of MAC ...


Profile Of Antimicrobial Susceptibility From Cattles’S Milk Isolates Suffering From Mastitis In District Lahore, Muhammad Imran, Iqra Rehman, Abdul Qayyum Khan Sulehria, Yasser Mustafa Butt, Abdul Majid Khan, Azizah Ziauddin May 2021

Profile Of Antimicrobial Susceptibility From Cattles’S Milk Isolates Suffering From Mastitis In District Lahore, Muhammad Imran, Iqra Rehman, Abdul Qayyum Khan Sulehria, Yasser Mustafa Butt, Abdul Majid Khan, Azizah Ziauddin

Journal of Bioresource Management

Mastitis is highly prevalent infection in cattle causing cost-effective loss in dairy milk production. Escherichia coli is the most frequently isolated bacteria causing mastitis worldwide. The current study was performed to investigate the mastitis prevalence and effect of different antibiotics against pathogens causing it. In sum, 216 milk samples were collected randomly including 108 each from both cows and buffaloes. These samples were subjected to Surf Field Mastitis Test for prevalence of mastitis that found 18.50% and 23.14% in buffaloes and cows respectively. Mastitis was more prevalent both in buffaloes and cows at the age of 9-10 years ...


A Metabolomics-Based Approach To The Screening Of Endometrial Cancer: Development Of A Gas Chromatography-Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry-Based Method, Allycia Lee May 2021

A Metabolomics-Based Approach To The Screening Of Endometrial Cancer: Development Of A Gas Chromatography-Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry-Based Method, Allycia Lee

Honors Theses

Endometrial Cancer (EC) is the most common malignant tumor of the female reproductive tract. Currently there are no methods for effectively screening EC, but one method that is thought to be useful in screening EC is metabolomics. Metabolomics involves the analysis of metabolites which are low molecular weight inorganic and organic chemicals that are substrates, intermediates, and by-products of enzyme-mediated biochemical reactions in the cell. Previous research shows that the metabolic signature of EC patients are discernable from those of healthy patients. To aid in the development of an effective screening method for EC, blood serum, urine, and saliva samples ...


Antibiotic Resistance, A Global Pandemic, Deneil Patel May 2021

Antibiotic Resistance, A Global Pandemic, Deneil Patel

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Interregulation Between Msaabcr Operon And Ccpe To Determine Staphylococcal Metabolism And Virulence, Erin R. Cox May 2021

Interregulation Between Msaabcr Operon And Ccpe To Determine Staphylococcal Metabolism And Virulence, Erin R. Cox

Honors Theses

Staphylococcus aureus is a complex human pathogen that causes problems in both healthcare and community settings. Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive, sphere shaped bacterium that usually colonizes in the nasal cavity of healthy individuals. Staphylococcus aureus infections are a growing health concern due to its ability to produce virulence factors, such as pigmentation, protease production, and capsule formation. Two regulators in S. aureus virulence factors are msaABCR, which is a newly characterized operon, and ccpE. In order to determine the interaction between these two regulators in regulating virulence and metabolism in S. aureus, ccpE and ccpE/msaABCR transposon mutants were ...


Sodium Pyruvate Ameliorates Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro And In Vivo, Jessica M. Reel May 2021

Sodium Pyruvate Ameliorates Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro And In Vivo, Jessica M. Reel

MSU Graduate Theses

Pyruvate is produced in duplicate at the end of glycolysis in addition to ATP and NADH. Pyruvate is the metabolite of choice in most cells, whether obtained exogenously or endogenously. Recently we found that the addition of pyruvate’s conjugate base, sodium pyruvate, to cell culture media dampened the immune response to influenza A virus (IAV) infection in cultured innate immune cells. Thus, I decided to investigate the mechanism and potential for treatment of IAV. In vitro using bone marrow derived macrophages that were infected with IAV we found that adding sodium pyruvate to the media decreased immune signaling pathways ...


Process Interventions For Improving The Microbiological Safety Of Low Moisture Food Ingredients, Tushar Verma Apr 2021

Process Interventions For Improving The Microbiological Safety Of Low Moisture Food Ingredients, Tushar Verma

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

The recurrence of Salmonella in low moisture foods and the implementation of the FSMA rule requires a need to validate legacy and novel processing technologies. In this dissertation, a legacy thermal (extrusion), a novel thermal (radiofrequency (RF) heating), and a non-thermal (chlorine dioxide) technology, were evaluated as intervention technologies for Salmonella in low moisture foods. The twin-screw extruder was performed at different levels of screw speeds, temperatures, moisture contents, and fat contents to understand the impact of processing conditions on Salmonella inactivation in oat flour. At temperature >65°C, the Salmonella population was below the detection limit. At 55°C ...


Respiratory Pathogens In Patients With Acute Exacerbation Of Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis From A Developing Country, Shayan Shahid, Kausar Jabeen, Nousheen Iqbal, Joveria Farooqi, Muhammad Irfan Apr 2021

Respiratory Pathogens In Patients With Acute Exacerbation Of Non-Cystic Fibrosis Bronchiectasis From A Developing Country, Shayan Shahid, Kausar Jabeen, Nousheen Iqbal, Joveria Farooqi, Muhammad Irfan

Medical College Documents

Bronchiectasis unrelated to cystic fibrosis (non-CF bronchiectasis) has become a major respiratory disease in developing nations. The dilated mucus filled airways promote bacterial overgrowth followed by chronic infection, bronchial inflammation, lung injury and re-infection Accurate pathogen identification and antimicrobial susceptibility allowing appropriate treatment, in turn, may break this vicious cycle. To study the spectrum and antimicrobial spectrum of pathogen yielded from respiratory specimens in adult patients with acute exacerbation of non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. This cross-sectional study was performed at the pulmonology clinics of the Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan from 2016-2019. Respiratory specimens were collected from adult patients with ...


Molecular Surveillance Of Drug Resistance: Plasmodium Falciparum Artemisinin Resistance Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In Kelch Protein Propeller (K13) Domain From Southern Pakistan, Najia Karim Ghanchi, Bushra Qurashi, Hadiqa Raees, Mohammad Asim Beg Apr 2021

Molecular Surveillance Of Drug Resistance: Plasmodium Falciparum Artemisinin Resistance Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms In Kelch Protein Propeller (K13) Domain From Southern Pakistan, Najia Karim Ghanchi, Bushra Qurashi, Hadiqa Raees, Mohammad Asim Beg

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background: K13 propeller (k13) polymorphism are useful molecular markers for tracking the emergence and spread of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. Polymorphisms are reported from Cambodia with rapid invasion of the population and almost near fixation in south East Asia. The study describes single nucleotide polymorphisms in Kelch protein propeller domain of P. falciparum associated with artemisinin resistance from Southern Pakistan.
Methods: Two hundred and forty-nine samples were collected from patients with microscopy confirmed P. falciparum malaria attending Aga Khan University Hospital during September 2015-April 2018. DNA was isolated using the whole blood protocol for the QIAmp DNA Blood Kit ...


Effectiveness Of Pathogen-Specific Passive Antibodies To Mitigate Infectious Diseases In Apis Mellifera, Tanner Nordseth Apr 2021

Effectiveness Of Pathogen-Specific Passive Antibodies To Mitigate Infectious Diseases In Apis Mellifera, Tanner Nordseth

Honors Thesis

Honeybees (Apis mellifera) are widely recognized as a vital part of the global ecosystem and the world's food supply due to their pivotal role in the pollination of both natural and agricultural flora. Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) is an emerging phenomenon characterized by a colony's worker bees deserting the hive and leaving the queen behind. This usually results in colony failure. CCD is a multifactorial issue, with many environmental stressors and pathogens playing a role. Deformed Wing Virus (DWV) has been identified as a leading cause in this phenomenon. Paenibacillus larvae (P. larvae) is another lethal pathogen that ...


Cloning Of Pe11 (Lipx, Rv1169c) Gene Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Beijing Strain To Pcdna3.1 Plasmid Vector, Lulut Azmi Supardi, Andriansjah Rukmana, Fithriyah Sjatha Mar 2021

Cloning Of Pe11 (Lipx, Rv1169c) Gene Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Beijing Strain To Pcdna3.1 Plasmid Vector, Lulut Azmi Supardi, Andriansjah Rukmana, Fithriyah Sjatha

Makara Journal of Science

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is a persistent global health problem with a high mortality rate. Currently, TB is controlled by administering the Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine, but the effectiveness of its protection varies among individuals in a population. The pe/ppe gene family comprises a typical group of genes that play a role in avoiding the host immune response and inducing persistent TB infection. Based on in silico analysis, the pe11 gene has estimated immunogenicity and potential as a TB seed vaccine candidate. The pe11 gene from an Indonesian isolate of an M ...


Anti-Cfae Nanobodies Provide Broad Cross-Protection Against Major Pathogenic Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Strains, With Implications For Vaccine Design, Alla Amcheslavsky, Aaron L. Wallace, Ejemel Monir, Qi Li, Matteo Stoppato, Serena Giuntini, Zachary A. Schiller, Jessica R. Pondish, Jacqueline R. Toomey, Ryan M. Schneider, Jordan Meisinger, Mark S. Klempner, Lisa A. Cavacini, Yang Wang Feb 2021

Anti-Cfae Nanobodies Provide Broad Cross-Protection Against Major Pathogenic Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Strains, With Implications For Vaccine Design, Alla Amcheslavsky, Aaron L. Wallace, Ejemel Monir, Qi Li, Matteo Stoppato, Serena Giuntini, Zachary A. Schiller, Jessica R. Pondish, Jacqueline R. Toomey, Ryan M. Schneider, Jordan Meisinger, Mark S. Klempner, Lisa A. Cavacini, Yang Wang

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is estimated to cause approximately 380,000 deaths annually during sporadic or epidemic outbreaks worldwide. Development of vaccines against ETEC is very challenging due to the vast heterogeneity of the ETEC strains. An effective vaccines would have to be multicomponent to provide coverage of over ten ETEC strains with genetic variabilities. There is currently no vaccine licensed to prevent ETEC. Nanobodies are successful new biologics in treating mucosal infectious disease as they recognize conserved epitopes on hypervariable pathogens. Cocktails consisting of multiple nanobodies could provide even broader epitope coverage at a lower cost compared to monoclonal ...


Exploring The Impact Of Ketodeoxynonulosonic Acid In Host-Pathogen Interactions Using Uptake And Surface Display By Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae, Sudeshna Saha, Sanjay Ram, Ajit Varki Jan 2021

Exploring The Impact Of Ketodeoxynonulosonic Acid In Host-Pathogen Interactions Using Uptake And Surface Display By Nontypeable Haemophilus Influenzae, Sudeshna Saha, Sanjay Ram, Ajit Varki

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Surface expression of the common vertebrate sialic acid (Sia) N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) by commensal and pathogenic microbes appears structurally to represent "molecular mimicry" of host sialoglycans, facilitating multiple mechanisms of host immune evasion. In contrast, ketodeoxynonulosonic acid (Kdn) is a more ancestral Sia also present in prokaryotic glycoconjugates that are structurally quite distinct from vertebrate sialoglycans. We detected human antibodies against Kdn-terminated glycans, and sialoglycan microarray studies found these anti-Kdn antibodies to be directed against Kdn-sialoglycans structurally similar to those on human cell surface Neu5Ac-sialoglycans. Anti-Kdn-glycan antibodies appear during infancy in a pattern similar to those generated following incorporation of ...


Disrupted Iron Metabolism And Mortality During Co-Infection With Malaria And An Intestinal Gram-Negative Extracellular Pathogen, Luara Isabela Dos Santos, Thais Abdala Torres, Suelen Queiroz. Diniz, Ricardo Goncalves, Gustavo Caballero-Flores, Gabriel Nunez, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Kevin Joseph. Maloy, Lis Ribeiro Do V Antonelli Jan 2021

Disrupted Iron Metabolism And Mortality During Co-Infection With Malaria And An Intestinal Gram-Negative Extracellular Pathogen, Luara Isabela Dos Santos, Thais Abdala Torres, Suelen Queiroz. Diniz, Ricardo Goncalves, Gustavo Caballero-Flores, Gabriel Nunez, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli, Kevin Joseph. Maloy, Lis Ribeiro Do V Antonelli

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Individuals with malaria exhibit increased morbidity and mortality when infected with Gram-negative (Gr-) bacteria. To explore this experimentally, we performed co-infection of mice with Plasmodium chabaudi and Citrobacter rodentium, an extracellular Gr- bacterial pathogen that infects the large intestine. While single infections are controlled effectively, co-infection results in enhanced virulence that is characterized by prolonged systemic bacterial persistence and high mortality. Mortality in co-infected mice is associated with disrupted iron metabolism, elevated levels of plasma heme, and increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by phagocytes. In addition, iron acquisition by the bacterium plays a key role in pathogenesis because ...


The Influence Of Infant Formula On The Growth Of Commensal And Pathogenic Streptococcus Species In The Infant Oral Cavity, Geneva Waynick Jan 2021

The Influence Of Infant Formula On The Growth Of Commensal And Pathogenic Streptococcus Species In The Infant Oral Cavity, Geneva Waynick

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The oral microbiome is a complex community of microorganisms that can both reflect and greatly influence the health of the human host. A number of diseases are associated with dysbiotic oral microflora in infants and children, including dental (e.g. dental caries, gingivitis, and periodontal disease), and gastrointestinal diseases (e.g. pediatric appendicitis, celiac disease, and pediatric inflammatory bowel disease). A variety of factors can influence the composition of the oral microbial community in infants, including gestation length, mode of delivery, feeding method, and diet. This study focuses on the effects of diet on the growth of a commensal bacterium ...


Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi Dec 2020

Examining Pathogenesis And Preventatives In Spontaneous And Staphylococcus-Induced Bacterial Chondronecrosis With Osteomyelitis In Broilers, Nnamdi Simon Ekesi

Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis is the most important cause of lameness in broilers. This is important to poultry production, as it poses animal welfare issues, and causes a significant loss in revenue. The remediation of this disease requires the study of its etiology with fitting models and evaluating preventatives. The research reported herein covers genomic virulence analysis of BCO isolates, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli retrieved from lame birds. We found that S. aureus isolates were closest to chicken strains in Europe but may have been in the Arkansas area for a decade. Phylogenomics suggest our S. aureus is ...


An Impedimetric Aptasensing System For The Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Typhimurium, America Sotero Dec 2020

An Impedimetric Aptasensing System For The Rapid Detection Of Salmonella Typhimurium, America Sotero

Theses and Dissertations

Salmonella Typhimurium is a foodborne pathogen associated with raw and undercooked eggs, poultry, beef, fruits, and vegetables. In the United States, Salmonella is responsible for approximately 1.2 million illnesses, 23,000 hospitalizations, and 450 deaths annually. For many years, conventional detection methods such as culture-dependent and PCR-based methods have been the “golden standards” for the detection of this pathogen due to their high sensitivity and reliability. However, they still have some disadvantages such as long enrichment steps and high costs that need to be overcome. The development of a rapid and reliable method for the detection of S. Typhimurium ...


Host-Pathogen Genetic Interactions Underlie Tuberculosis Susceptibility In Genetically Diverse Mice [Preprint], Clare M. Smith, Richard E. Baker, Megan K. Proulx, Bibhuti B. Mishra, Jarukit E. Long, Michael C. Kiritsy, Michelle Bellerose, Andrew J. Olive, Kenan C. Murphy, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Frederick Boehm, Charlotte Reames, Christopher M. Sassetti Dec 2020

Host-Pathogen Genetic Interactions Underlie Tuberculosis Susceptibility In Genetically Diverse Mice [Preprint], Clare M. Smith, Richard E. Baker, Megan K. Proulx, Bibhuti B. Mishra, Jarukit E. Long, Michael C. Kiritsy, Michelle Bellerose, Andrew J. Olive, Kenan C. Murphy, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Frederick Boehm, Charlotte Reames, Christopher M. Sassetti

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

The outcome of an encounter with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) depends on the pathogen’s ability to adapt to the heterogeneous immune response of the host. Understanding this interplay has proven difficult, largely because experimentally tractable small animal models do not recapitulate the heterogenous disease observed in natural infections. We leveraged the genetically diverse Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse panel in conjunction with a library of Mtb mutants to associate bacterial genetic requirements with host genetics and immunity. We report that CC strains vary dramatically in their susceptibility to infection and represent reproducible models of qualitatively distinct immune states. Global analysis of ...


Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Cleaves The Decoding Center Of Caenorhabditis Elegans Ribosomes, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Emiliano P. Ricci, Victor R. Ambros Dec 2020

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Cleaves The Decoding Center Of Caenorhabditis Elegans Ribosomes, Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo, Emiliano P. Ricci, Victor R. Ambros

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa advantageously modify animal host physiology, for example, by inhibiting host protein synthesis. Translational inhibition of insects and mammalian hosts by P. aeruginosa utilizes the well-known exotoxin A effector. However, for the infection of Caenorhabditis elegans by P. aeruginosa, the precise pathways and mechanism(s) of translational inhibition are not well understood. We found that upon exposure to P. aeruginosa PA14, C. elegans undergoes a rapid loss of intact ribosomes accompanied by the accumulation of ribosomes cleaved at helix 69 (H69) of the 26S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), a key part of ribosome decoding center. H69 cleavage ...


Bacteremia And Endocarditis, Steven C. Hatch Nov 2020

Bacteremia And Endocarditis, Steven C. Hatch

PEER Liberia Project

This presentation provides an overview of the pathogens that cause bacteremia and endocarditis. Manifestations, pathology and treatment are discussed. The goals of the presentation are: Consider major pathogens that cause bacteremia and endocarditis in both adults and children; Discuss pathogenesis; Review clinical manifestations; Discuss basic treatment strategies; and Highlight useful sources of information.


Increasing Antibiotic Resistance In Shigella Bacteria In The United States, William J. Pharr Nov 2020

Increasing Antibiotic Resistance In Shigella Bacteria In The United States, William J. Pharr

The Corinthian

Shigella bacteria cause half a million infections, 6,000 hospitalizations, and 70 deaths annually in the United States. These bacteria are of particular concern due to their high survivability, low infectious dose, and high adaptability. Cases of shigellosis from Shigella sonnei are becoming a more prevalent issue in the U.S. as the bacteria continues to develop higher resistance to today’s strongest antibiotics. Much of this resistance is connected to the exchange of genes between strains of Shigella due to insertion sequences (IS), intercontinental travel, and men who have sex with men (MSM). As a result of increased resistance ...


Investigating Microbial And Host Factors That Modulate Severity Of Clostridioides Difficile Associated Disease, Armando Lerma Nov 2020

Investigating Microbial And Host Factors That Modulate Severity Of Clostridioides Difficile Associated Disease, Armando Lerma

Dissertations, Theses, & Student Research in Food Science and Technology

Clostridioides difficile is recognized as one of the most important pathogens in hospital and community healthcare settings. The clinical outcome of infection of toxigenic C. difficile infection (CDI) ranges from asymptomatic colonization to fulminant pseudomembranous colitis and death. In recent studies, it has been suggested that a high proportion of nosocomial CDI cases are transmitted from asymptomatic carriers which might be acting as infection reservoirs. Understanding what causes the different responses to infection could lead to the development of novel prevention and treatment strategies. Although several explanations have been proposed to explain variations in susceptibility, understanding of the exact mechanisms ...


Evaluation Of Semi-Quantitative Compared To Quantitative Cultures Of Tracheal Aspirates For The Yield Of Culturable Respiratory Pathogens - A Cross-Sectional Study, Salima Rattani, Joveria Farooqi, Ghazala Jabeen, Saeeda Chandio, Qaiser Kash, Aijaz Khan, Kauser Jabeen Oct 2020

Evaluation Of Semi-Quantitative Compared To Quantitative Cultures Of Tracheal Aspirates For The Yield Of Culturable Respiratory Pathogens - A Cross-Sectional Study, Salima Rattani, Joveria Farooqi, Ghazala Jabeen, Saeeda Chandio, Qaiser Kash, Aijaz Khan, Kauser Jabeen

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

Background: Diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) depends on the presence of clinical, radiological and microbiological findings. Endotracheal suction aspirate (ETSA) is the commonest respiratory sample sent for culture from intubated patients. Very few studies have compared quantitative and semi-quantitative processing of ETSA cultures for LRTI diagnosis. We determined the diagnostic accuracy of quantitative and semi-quantitative ETSA culture for LRTI diagnosis, agreement between the quantitative and semi quantitative culture techniques and the yield of respiratory pathogens with both methods.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Aga Khan University clinical laboratory, Karachi, Pakistan. One hundred and seventy-eight ...


A Natural Polymorphism Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis In The Esxh Gene Disrupts Immunodomination By The Tb10.4-Specific Cd8 T Cell Response, Rujapak Sutiwisesak, Nathan D. Hicks, Shayla Boyce, Kenan C. Murphy, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Stephen M. Carpenter, Julie Boucau, Neelambari Joshi, Sylvie Le Gall, Sarah M. Fortune, Christopher M. Sassetti, Samuel M. Behar Oct 2020

A Natural Polymorphism Of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis In The Esxh Gene Disrupts Immunodomination By The Tb10.4-Specific Cd8 T Cell Response, Rujapak Sutiwisesak, Nathan D. Hicks, Shayla Boyce, Kenan C. Murphy, Kadamba Papavinasasundaram, Stephen M. Carpenter, Julie Boucau, Neelambari Joshi, Sylvie Le Gall, Sarah M. Fortune, Christopher M. Sassetti, Samuel M. Behar

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

CD8 T cells provide limited protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection in the mouse model. As Mtb causes chronic infection in mice and humans, we hypothesize that Mtb impairs T cell responses as an immune evasion strategy. TB10.4 is an immunodominant antigen in people, nonhuman primates, and mice, which is encoded by the esxH gene. In C57BL/6 mice, 30-50% of pulmonary CD8 T cells recognize the TB10.44-11 epitope. However, TB10.4-specific CD8 T cells fail to recognize Mtb-infected macrophages. We speculate that Mtb elicits immunodominant CD8 T cell responses to antigens that are inefficiently presented by infected ...


Immunometabolism In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Sarah M. Anderson, Read Pukkila-Worley Oct 2020

Immunometabolism In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Sarah M. Anderson, Read Pukkila-Worley

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

Here, we discuss 5 concepts that have emerged in studies of metabolic and immune interactions in C. elegans. The major emerging theme is that the immune response and the ability to survive pathogen infection is heavily influenced by pathogen-induced changes in host metabolism.


Microbial Diversity In The Sawmill Environment: Implications On The Health Of Sawmill Workers And Merchants, Nigeria, Ebere J. Okafor-Elenwo Ej, Odaro S. Imade Os, Osazee E. Izevbuwa Eo Sep 2020

Microbial Diversity In The Sawmill Environment: Implications On The Health Of Sawmill Workers And Merchants, Nigeria, Ebere J. Okafor-Elenwo Ej, Odaro S. Imade Os, Osazee E. Izevbuwa Eo

Journal of Bioresource Management

There is an increasingly high suspicion of occupational health diseases amongst workers in sawmill factories. Hence this study aimed to determine the microbial diversity in some sawmill factories in Okada, Edo State, Nigeria to evaluate potential implications of the factory’s processing area on the health of the workers and wood merchants. Bacteria and fungi count in the bioaerosols within the processing area of each factory was performed with the passive air sampling technique. While in the sawdust samples, microbial counts were carried out with the pour plate technique. Identification of the microbes was performed with macroscopic and microscopic examinations ...


Antibody Responses In Covid-19 Patients, Shuying Liu, Shan Lu Sep 2020

Antibody Responses In Covid-19 Patients, Shuying Liu, Shan Lu

COVID-19 Publications by UMMS Authors

Measuring virus-specific antibody responses to emerging pathogens is a well-established and highly useful tool to diagnose such infections, understand interactions between the immune system and pathogens, and provide potential clues for the development of vaccines or therapeutic agents against such pathogens. Since the beginning of 2020, the discovery of SARS-CoV-2 as the emerging virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic has provided new insight into the complexity of antibody responses to this dangerous virus. The current review aims to sort out diverse and sometimes seemingly confusing findings to put together a cohesive understanding on the profile of antibody responses elicited in ...


Contributions Of Ifn-Gamma And Granulysin To The Clearance Of Plasmodium Yoelii Blood Stage, Natalia Satchiko Hojo-Souza, Patrick Orestes De Azevedo, Julia Teixeira De Castro, Andrea Teixeira-Carvalho, Judy Lieberman, Caroline Junqueira, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli Sep 2020

Contributions Of Ifn-Gamma And Granulysin To The Clearance Of Plasmodium Yoelii Blood Stage, Natalia Satchiko Hojo-Souza, Patrick Orestes De Azevedo, Julia Teixeira De Castro, Andrea Teixeira-Carvalho, Judy Lieberman, Caroline Junqueira, Ricardo T. Gazzinelli

Open Access Publications by UMMS Authors

P. vivax-infected Retics (iRetics) express human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I), are recognized by CD8+ T cells and killed by granulysin (GNLY) and granzymes. However, how Plasmodium infection induces MHC-I expression on Retics is unknown. In addition, whether GNLY helps control Plasmodium infection in vivo has not been studied. Here, we examine these questions using rodent infection with the P. yoelii 17XNL strain, which has tropism for Retics. Infection with P. yoelii caused extramedullary erythropoiesis, reticulocytosis and expansion of CD8+CD44+CD62L- IFN-gamma-producing T cells that form immune synapses with iRetics. We now provide evidence that MHC-I expression by iRetic ...


Did You Wash Your Caving Suit? Cavers’ Role In The Potential Spread Of Pseudogymnoascus Destructans, The Causative Agent Of White-Nose Disease, Violeta Zhelyazkova, Antonia Hubancheva, Georgi Radoslavov, Nia Toshkova, Sebastien J. Puechmaille Sep 2020

Did You Wash Your Caving Suit? Cavers’ Role In The Potential Spread Of Pseudogymnoascus Destructans, The Causative Agent Of White-Nose Disease, Violeta Zhelyazkova, Antonia Hubancheva, Georgi Radoslavov, Nia Toshkova, Sebastien J. Puechmaille

International Journal of Speleology

White-Nose Disease (WND) has killed millions of hibernating bats in the US and Canada. Its causative agent, the fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans was introduced to North America, but is native to Europe and Asia, where it is not associated with mass mortality. Although it is nearly impossible to eradicate an emerging wildlife disease, research on P. destructans spread mechanisms can aid in prevention of new introductions and development of better environmental management strategies. It is of particular importance to quantify the potential role of people visiting caves (cavers, tourists, bat researchers, etc.) whom inadvertently move P. destructans spores between sites, and ...