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Mathematical Modeling Of Potassium Modulated Viral Infection, Zaira Elizabeth Mather 2022 The University of Texas at El Paso

Mathematical Modeling Of Potassium Modulated Viral Infection, Zaira Elizabeth Mather

Open Access Theses & Dissertations

In recent years, there is a growing interest in the investigation of using potassium to treat virus infections. In the region of infection, there is a biological observation of extracel- lular potassium level being typically very low whereas the intracellular potassium levels are much higher. There are numerous biological studies showing that elevated potassium levels in the extracellular membrane tends to block virus infections. A recent effort in this direction is a collaborative research conducted by mathematicians and biologists from the University of Texas at El Paso, New Mexico State University, and the University of New Mexico, where we develop ...


Cat Covid, Cmv And Chemokines, Oh My!, Trevor Hancock 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Cat Covid, Cmv And Chemokines, Oh My!, Trevor Hancock

Doctoral Dissertations

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen infecting most humans worldwide. CMV infection within immunocompromised individuals can cause severe morbidity and potential mortality. Disease during CMV infection is due to virus dissemination and subsequent inflammation. Host immune cells lie at the intersection potentially mediating both. The CMV-encoded viral chemokine vCXCL-1 is a proposed virulence factor in mouse models increasing immune cell recruitment and disease. However, the primary immune cell mediator is undetermined. To identify targets, Chapter 2 examines CXCR2 expression (receptor for vCXCL-1) among various mouse tissues and human peripheral blood under steady-state conditions. In vitro, isoforms of HCMV’s vCXCL-1 ...


Metabolism In The Colonocyte: Where Bacteria And Diet Meet, Bohye Park 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Metabolism In The Colonocyte: Where Bacteria And Diet Meet, Bohye Park

Doctoral Dissertations

The host-microbiome interaction and the functions of microbial-derived metabolites, including butyrate, are important in colon health. Butyrate is the preferred energy source in colonocytes and has multiple physiological functions in the colon. A metabolic shift in colonocytes toward increased glucose utilization from butyrate oxidation is followed by several critical genetic modifications in cancerous colonocytes. Moreover, it has been suggested that the gut-microbiota composition is influenced by environmental factors, such as diets and the host's physiological status. Therefore, an understanding of the role of colonocyte metabolism toward impacting the host-microbiota commensal relationship would be an important step in understanding the ...


Mechanisms By Which Xenorhabdus Nematophila Interacts With Hosts Using Integrated -Omics Approaches, Nicholas C. Mucci 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Mechanisms By Which Xenorhabdus Nematophila Interacts With Hosts Using Integrated -Omics Approaches, Nicholas C. Mucci

Doctoral Dissertations

Nearly all organisms exist in proximity to microbes. These microbes perform most of the essential metabolic processes necessary for homeostasis, forming the nearly hidden support system of Earth. Microbial symbiosis, which is defined as the long-term physical association between host and microbes, relies on communication between the microbial community and their host organism. These interactions among higher order organisms (such as animals, plants, and fungi) and their bacteria links metabolic processes between interkingdom consortia. Many questions on microbial behavior within a host remain poorly understood, such as the colonization efficiency among different microbial species, or how environmental context changes their ...


Multi-Omic Systems Biological Analysis Of Host-Microbe Interactions, Piet Jones 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Multi-Omic Systems Biological Analysis Of Host-Microbe Interactions, Piet Jones

Doctoral Dissertations

Systems biology offers the opportunity to understand the complex mechanisms of various biological phenomena. The wealth of data that is produced, at an increasing rate, provides the potential to meet this opportunity. Here we take an applied approach to integrate multiple omic level data sources in order to generate biologically relevant hypotheses. We apply a novel analysis pipeline to model both, in concert, the microbial and transcriptomic signature from COVID-19 positive patients. We show patients may suffer from an increased microbial burden, with an increased pathogen potential. Gene expression evidence further shows patients may exhibit a compromised barrier immunity, owing ...


Making Sense Of Soil Microbiome Complexity For Plant And Ecosystem Function In A Changing World, Kendall K. Beals 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Making Sense Of Soil Microbiome Complexity For Plant And Ecosystem Function In A Changing World, Kendall K. Beals

Doctoral Dissertations

Soils contain the highest biodiversity on Earth. While the importance of the soil microbiome for larger-scale ecological phenomena such as nutrient and carbon cycling, plant growth and plant community dynamics is well-established, the fundamental question of the ecological and evolutionary function of this immense belowground microbial diversity for plant and ecosystem function still remains a great challenge in microbial ecology research. The objective of this dissertation is to understand how the importance of soil microbial community composition for plant and ecosystem function and how changes to soil microbial community composition from climate change-induced disturbance events, specifically fire, influence plant and ...


The Spatial, Temporal, And Ecological Constraints Of Plant-Host Associated Microbial Communities, Jonathan Dickey 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

The Spatial, Temporal, And Ecological Constraints Of Plant-Host Associated Microbial Communities, Jonathan Dickey

Doctoral Dissertations

With the development of next generation sequencing technology, ecologists have recently been able to describe microbial communities across a wide array of niches at an accelerated pace. De-novo-based patterns in richness and relative abundance have been described for bacterial and fungal communities in terrestrial, aquatic, and host-associated microhabitats. A recent synthesis has shown that these communities exhibit similar geographical patterns that have been traditionally described for plant and animals. Yet, there is a lack of hypothesis-based research for host-associated microbial communities. Throughout this dissertation, I will address how spatial scale, sequencing resolution, and manipulative rainfall exclusion govern host-associated microbial communities ...


Bacteriophages: Paving The Road For The Future Of Medicine, Luke Brinkerhoff 2022 Ouachita Baptist University

Bacteriophages: Paving The Road For The Future Of Medicine, Luke Brinkerhoff

Honors Theses

Bacteriophages are a possible solution to antibiotic resistance, which is predicted to be detrimental world-wide by the year 2050. Personal field research was also conducted for a project studying the characteristics of two bacteriophages on a single bacterial host.


Novel Ultraviolet Light Technologies For The Inactivation Of Murine Hepatitis Virus, A Sars-Cov-2 Surrogate, Alexia E. Angelos, Doris H. D'Souza 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Novel Ultraviolet Light Technologies For The Inactivation Of Murine Hepatitis Virus, A Sars-Cov-2 Surrogate, Alexia E. Angelos, Doris H. D'Souza

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Influence Of Nutrients And The Native On E. Coli Survival In The Beach Environment, Brigid Meyers 2022 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Influence Of Nutrients And The Native On E. Coli Survival In The Beach Environment, Brigid Meyers

Theses and Dissertations

E. coli is used as an indicator for water quality to determine if water poses a health risk for pathogens. Past research has shown that E. coli is present in high numbers in freshwater beach sands distinct from fecal pollution events, yet the precise mechanism for their persistence in not well understood. Persistent E. coli populations in sand can resuspend into adjacent water and lead to increased beach closures when no threat is present. This work identifies factors that influence the survival of E. coli in sand using laboratory microcosms to replicate beach conditions. Microcosms were deployed to examine the ...


Mathematical Modeling Suggests Cooperation Of Plant-Infecting Viruses, Joshua Miller, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Tessa Burch-Smith 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Mathematical Modeling Suggests Cooperation Of Plant-Infecting Viruses, Joshua Miller, Vitaly V. Ganusov, Tessa Burch-Smith

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Elevated Levels Of External Cysteine Inhibit Nitrogen Fixation By The Methanogenic Archaeon Methanosarcina Acetivorans, Regan Massey 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Elevated Levels Of External Cysteine Inhibit Nitrogen Fixation By The Methanogenic Archaeon Methanosarcina Acetivorans, Regan Massey

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Methanogens are nitrogen fixing and methane producing archaea that play a key role in the cycling of carbon and nitrogen on earth. The global carbon and nitrogen cycle is vital to all life which makes the methanogen a primary organism of study. Methanogens are the only archaea capable of fixing nitrogen, and in order to do so, methanogens use a vital enzyme called the nitrogenase which fixes dinitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3). Expanding our understanding on metabolic processes of methanogens allows us to understand their environmental impact and advance their use in biotechnological applications. Methanosarcina acetivorans is the model used ...


Exploring Nitrogen Fixation In Methanosarcina Acetivorans, Rylee Cook 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Exploring Nitrogen Fixation In Methanosarcina Acetivorans, Rylee Cook

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

As of 2016, the genomes of over sixty species of methanogenic archaea have been sequenced.4 Research on the genomes of methanogens such as M. acetivorans led to the characterization of numerous genes with unknown functions. Genes similar to those of nitrogenase have been shown to possess functions unrelated to nitrogen fixation, such as F430 biosynthesis genes. 5,6,7 My research focused on the uncharacterized gene clusters ma2032-33 and ma1631-33 (Figure 1). These genes have conserved nitrogenase domains: ma2032 has fused nifH and nifD domains, while ma2033 has a nifD domain. The ma1631-33 gene cluster contains two nitrogenase homologs ...


Studying The Lysine Acetylation Of Aconitase Isozymes In E. Coli, Sara Ottinger 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Studying The Lysine Acetylation Of Aconitase Isozymes In E. Coli, Sara Ottinger

Chemistry & Biochemistry Undergraduate Honors Theses

The contents of this thesis have been modified from the publication “Araujo J, Ottinger S, Venkat S, Gan Q and Fan C (2022) Studying Acetylation of Aconitase Isozymes by Genetic Code Expansion. Front. Chem. 10:862483”. Though studies have found multiple lysine sites in which acetylation takes place in Escherichia Coli aconitase, acetylation’s effects on the enzyme’s activity have yet to be studied. Aconitase is the dehydratase-hydratase found in the citric acid and glyoxylate cycles responsible for the reversible isomerization of citrate to isocitrate via cis-aconitate intermediate. There are two isoforms of aconitase in E. coli: AcnA and ...


Locked Nucleic Acid Aptamer And 10 Nm Gold Nanoparticles Increases The Sensitivity Of A Prion Protein Detection Assay, Haley Channell 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Locked Nucleic Acid Aptamer And 10 Nm Gold Nanoparticles Increases The Sensitivity Of A Prion Protein Detection Assay, Haley Channell

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Native And Non-Native Ant Impacts On Soil Microbes, Hannah A. Stewart 2022 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

Native And Non-Native Ant Impacts On Soil Microbes, Hannah A. Stewart

Biology Theses

Organisms produce chemical weapons for defense, but target organisms can develop resistance. In their introduced range, non-native species may bring “novel weapons” against which native organisms have not co-evolved resistance. The invasive European fire ant (Myrmica rubra) may have brought antimicrobial secretions to the Northeastern United States that are novel weapons against native fungal and bacterial soil organisms. I hypothesized that M. rubra would better inhibit seed pathogens resulting in greater emergence of native myrmecochorous Viola sororia seeds and, as a side effect, more strongly inhibit arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi than a native seed dispersing ant (Aphaenogaster picea). I also expected ...


Identification Of Critical Points For Bacterial Contamination In The Microbrewery Environment, Alex Ryan Thompson 2022 Clemson University

Identification Of Critical Points For Bacterial Contamination In The Microbrewery Environment, Alex Ryan Thompson

All Theses

There are 8,884 craft breweries producing over 23 million barrels of beer in the United States as of 2020. These 23 million barrels of craft beer account for 12.3% of the United States beer consumption in 2020. The American craft beer industry is substantial and needs to protect its product from bacterial contamination.

Overall, beer is a microbially stable product. Beers pH, ethanol levels, CO2 concentrations, the presence of hop-derived antimicrobial compounds, and low levels of O2 make beer a highly unfavorable environment for most bacterial species. Furthermore, the brewing process, which involves heat treatments and ...


Mechanistic Insights On The Role Of Ambrisentan, An Endothelin Type-A Receptor Antagonist, In Breast Cancer, Ruba Saleem Lutfi Amer 2022 United Arab Emirates University

Mechanistic Insights On The Role Of Ambrisentan, An Endothelin Type-A Receptor Antagonist, In Breast Cancer, Ruba Saleem Lutfi Amer

Theses

The activation of the endothelin receptor type A (ETAR) by its ligand endothelin-1 (ET-1) is well known for its role in vasoconstriction. Interestingly, ET-1 and ETAR are over-expressed in various human tumours, including breast cancer. Several studies described the important role of ETAR in cancer progression and metastasis. The extensive network of interactions that exist between the ET-1 axis and other signalling pathways can trigger autocrine and paracrine signalling that modulates different tumorigenesis processes, such as cellular proliferation and survival, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and chemoresistance. The main objective of this study was to investigate the antitumor effects of Ambrisentan, a ...


The Effect Of Cognitive Status And Residency On Oral Health In Patients With Dementia, Nicole Stephens 2022 The Texas Medical Center Library

The Effect Of Cognitive Status And Residency On Oral Health In Patients With Dementia, Nicole Stephens

The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Poor oral health is a predictor of cognitive decline in elderly populations and has been shown to precede dementia. As cognitive decline progresses, patients are likely to move from the community into nursing facilities. We hypothesize that severity of dementia and residency type will impact the oral health of patients with dementia. Fifty-two participants of two dementia levels were recruited from the UTHealth Neurocognitive Disorders Center and two Houston-area nursing homes. A standardized oral health assessment, plaque index, and oral bacteria analysis determined participants’ oral health status. Further, data was collected on participants’ medical history, oral hygiene habits, dietary habits ...


Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Time Course Investigation Of The Dermal Leukocyte Response To Lipoteichoic Acid In Chickens, Ian Gilbert

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria that stimulates inflammation during bacterial infection. However, few studies have investigated the in vivo immune response to LTA, and none of the in vivo studies done have been performed in birds. For this project, the pulp (a skin-derivative) of growing feathers (GFs) of chickens were used as a test site to investigate the in vivo effects of intradermally injected LTA. In Study 1, the pulp of 12 GFs of 11-week-old Light-brown Leghorn (LBL) males were injected with 10 μL of differing concentrations of LTA (0.1, 1.0 ...


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