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The Discovery Of A Novel Bacteria From A Large Co-Assembly Of Metagenomes, Matthew Finkelberg 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Discovery Of A Novel Bacteria From A Large Co-Assembly Of Metagenomes, Matthew Finkelberg

Masters Theses

In the summer of 2022, a co-assembly of metagenome was created using the microbes found at Barres Woods in Harvard Forest. 14 samples were taken, and sample was split into the organic and mineral layer, which totals 28 Bulk MAGs. Within this Co-assembly, 4 different genomes were found which were designated with the phylum of FCPU426. Three of which were considered medium quality and one being assigned high quality. The novel phyla first appeared in NCBI and GTDB databases in June 2018. The name FCPU426 dates to 2010 and was named based on the 16s amplicon sequencing.

The novel phylum …


Climate Change, Giant Viruses And Their Putative Hosts, Sarah K. Tucker 2023 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Climate Change, Giant Viruses And Their Putative Hosts, Sarah K. Tucker

Masters Theses

Viruses hold our attention for the horrific impact they have on human health and welfare. However, viruses are a critical part of our ecosystem and facilitate the cycling of carbon and other important nutrients. The cycle of virus infection, followed by host resistance and the subsequent evolution of new strains enables adaptation to changing hosts and the environment. Giant viruses, some with particle sizes large enough to be visible in light microscopes and their bewildering array of accessory genes, have captivated scientists and the general public since their discovery two decades ago. Giant viruses are part of the Nucleocytoviricota (NCV) …


Mimicking Biofilms: Photosynthetic Assessments Of C. Reinhardtii In 3 Physical Forms, John Michael Roesgen 2023 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Mimicking Biofilms: Photosynthetic Assessments Of C. Reinhardtii In 3 Physical Forms, John Michael Roesgen

Biology ETDs

Oxygenic photosynthesis supports the majority of life on Earth through the capture of energy from sunlight and the assimilation of CO2 into basic building blocks of cells. Microalgae are fast growing and account for about half of global photosynthesis. In addition, they can be cultivated and their metabolism can be redirected to generate additional useful products ranging from biofuels to pharmaceuticals. However, the efficiency of metabolite production is severely impacted by the slow diffusion of CO2 through water and the high energetic costs of harvesting microalgae from liquid cultures. Microalgae grow in open water, but they also form …


Dietary L-Tryptophan Consumption Determines The Number Of Colonic Regulatory T Cells And Susceptibility To Colitis Via Gpr15, Nguyen Van, Karen Zhang, Rachel Wigmore, Anne Kennedy, Carolina DaSilva, Jialing Huang, Manju Ambelil, Jose Villagomez, Gerald O'Connor, Randy Longman, Miao Cao, Adam Snook, Michael Platten, Gerard Kasenty, Luis Sigal, George C Prendergast, Sangwon Kim 2023 Thomas Jefferson University

Dietary L-Tryptophan Consumption Determines The Number Of Colonic Regulatory T Cells And Susceptibility To Colitis Via Gpr15, Nguyen Van, Karen Zhang, Rachel Wigmore, Anne Kennedy, Carolina Dasilva, Jialing Huang, Manju Ambelil, Jose Villagomez, Gerald O'Connor, Randy Longman, Miao Cao, Adam Snook, Michael Platten, Gerard Kasenty, Luis Sigal, George C Prendergast, Sangwon Kim

Department of Microbiology and Immunology Faculty Papers

Environmental factors are the major contributor to the onset of immunological disorders such as ulcerative colitis. However, their identities remain unclear. Here, we discover that the amount of consumed L-Tryptophan (L-Trp), a ubiquitous dietary component, determines the transcription level of the colonic T cell homing receptor, GPR15, hence affecting the number of colonic FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells and local immune homeostasis. Ingested L-Trp is converted by host IDO1/2 enzymes, but not by gut microbiota, to compounds that induce GPR15 transcription preferentially in Treg cells via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Consequently, two weeks of dietary L-Trp supplementation nearly double …


Distinguishing Community Assembly Through Functional Redundancy Models., Sandra A. Tsiorintsoa, Sharon Bewick, Matthew Macauley 2023 Clemson University

Distinguishing Community Assembly Through Functional Redundancy Models., Sandra A. Tsiorintsoa, Sharon Bewick, Matthew Macauley

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Towards Better Detection And Treatment Of Mycobacterial Disease., Laura O'Connell 2023 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland.

Towards Better Detection And Treatment Of Mycobacterial Disease., Laura O'Connell

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background

Mycobacterial disease is a major cause of fatality, with 1.5 million deaths per 10 million infections annually. Due to the emergence of multi- and extensively-drug resistant clinical isolates, mycobacteriophage (MP) are being investigated as an alternative to antibiotics.

Objectives

The objectives of this study were: to characterise an emerging cohort of MP, to determine suitable in vivo modes of delivery for MP including encapsulation, to examine the application of a MP-based viability assay, and to examine the functionality of MP in raw milk.

Methods

The fast-growing Mycobacterium smegmatis was used as a host in all assays to demonstrate phage …


Investigating The Ability Of Saltwater Isolates To Inhibit Biofilm Formation By Clinically Significant Pathogens, Monica Murphy 2023 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland.

Investigating The Ability Of Saltwater Isolates To Inhibit Biofilm Formation By Clinically Significant Pathogens, Monica Murphy

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background

Nosocomial pathogens are responsible for chronic and persistent infections partly due to their ability to form protective biofilms which enhance their antibiotic tolerance. Biofilm disruption combats antimicrobial resistance as dispersed cells regain antibiotic susceptibility. The goal of this study was to evaluate the antibiofilm potential of isolates from marine environments against a pathogen panel consisting of MRSA and clinical Staphylococcus aureus strains, Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli pathogens.

Method

A large bank of saltwater bacterial isolates was cultured in glucose-supplemented trypticase soy broth (TSBg) and resulting colonies were screened against the pathogen panel. Isolates of interest were further examined …


Short Chain Fatty Acid Combination Treatment Protects Against 6-Ohda And Wt Α-Synuclein Induced Decreases In Neurite Growth In In Vitro Models Of Parkinson’S Disease., Alex Morris 2023 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland.

Short Chain Fatty Acid Combination Treatment Protects Against 6-Ohda And Wt Α-Synuclein Induced Decreases In Neurite Growth In In Vitro Models Of Parkinson’S Disease., Alex Morris

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by dopaminergic neuron degeneration. This degeneration is partly driven by over expression of α-synuclein (α-syn) and development of α-syn aggregates known as Lewy bodies throughout the substantia nigra. As well as motor dysfunction, PD presents with several chronic gastrointestinal comorbidities, which cause a decline of gut microbial diversity and microbially derived short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Recent in vivo studies have shown SCFAs to be neuroprotective in various degenerative disease states, suggesting that SCFAs may protect against dopaminergic degeneration.

Methods

Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were used as a model of human …


Investigating The Thermotolerance Of Cronobacter Sakazakii In Powdered Infant Formula, Fiona Ryan O'Connor 2023 Department of Physical Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland.

Investigating The Thermotolerance Of Cronobacter Sakazakii In Powdered Infant Formula, Fiona Ryan O'Connor

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background

The powdered infant formula (PIF) sector is a growing global market, with Ireland at the forefront of the European exports market; reaching €1.5bn and accounting for 35% of all dairy exports in 2015. However, a major concern associated with PIF is the risk of contamination with the neonatal pathogen Cronobacter sakazakii. Although PIF undergoes thermal treatment during manufacture, it is possible that re-contamination of the product may occur via later processing measures. We investigated the resistance of C. sakazakii to thermal inactivation following inoculation in commercial PIF as a potential treatment for contaminated powder.

Method

Five strains of C. …


Bactericidal Effects Of Chlorine And Bacteriophages On Mycobacteria In Conventionally Treated Water., Max Kevane-Campbell 2023 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland.

Bactericidal Effects Of Chlorine And Bacteriophages On Mycobacteria In Conventionally Treated Water., Max Kevane-Campbell

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Introduction

Mycobacteria are members of the order Actinomycetales and the only genus in the family Mycobacteriaceae. The distinguishing characteristics that are found in mycobacteria include acid-fastness and the presence of mycolic acids. Mycobacteria can be commonly classified as non-spore-forming, aerobic, slender rod-shaped, and are slow-growers. Natural reservoirs that mycobacteria can be found in are aquatic and terrestrial environments. Recent studies have shown that mycobacteria that can cause skin lesions, immune and/or pulmonary dysfunctions and chronic diseases, i.e., Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis, M. kansasii, and M. xenopi, can be isolated from common household tap water. Tap water can originate from …


Mycobacteriophage: A Demonstration Of The Reduction Of M. Smegmatis In Various Matrices., Laura O'Connell 2023 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland.

Mycobacteriophage: A Demonstration Of The Reduction Of M. Smegmatis In Various Matrices., Laura O'Connell

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background

Mycobacterial disease is a major cause of fatality worldwide, with approximately 1.5 million deaths for every 10 million infections. These infections are difficult to treat due to the intrinsic resistance of its mycolic acid rich cell wall to many antibiotics. There is potential for mycobacteriophage (MP) to be used therapeutically for multidrug- and extensively-drug resistant infections. Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2 155 is a useful substitute for slow-growing pathogenic mycobacteria, as it propagates quickly under lab conditions. This feature of M. smegmatis increases the pace of analysis, by ensuring the quick isolation and characterisation of MP and acting as a …


In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Of Cell-Free Supernatants From Asymptomatic Bacteriuria (Abu) Isolates Against Multi-Drug Resistant Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli (Upec), Ciara Kenneally 2023 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland.

In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity Of Cell-Free Supernatants From Asymptomatic Bacteriuria (Abu) Isolates Against Multi-Drug Resistant Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli (Upec), Ciara Kenneally

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background

Multi-drug resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) cause > 80% of community acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs) and > 40% of nosocomial UTIs. Preliminary evidence suggests a beneficial role for UPEC’s commensal counterparts, asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), in establishing bacterial interference against UPEC. The aim of this study was to analyse the antimicrobial activity of cell free supernatants (CFS) from ABU isolates against UPEC.

Methods

In vitro antagonistic effects of nine uncharacterised ABU isolates were compared against the inhibitory affect induced by the prototype ABU isolate, E. coli 83972. Turbidimetric growth assays were performed using the CFS of the ABU isolates against eight …


Urobiome Screening For Antimicrobial Peptides Against Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Jennifer Jones 2023 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Bishopstown, Cork, Ireland

Urobiome Screening For Antimicrobial Peptides Against Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli, Jennifer Jones

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections worldwide. As global incidences of UTIs caused by multidrug resistant bacteria continue to increase, so too does the demand for novel antimicrobial therapies.

Due to its relatively understudied nature, the urinary microbiome represents a niche with an untapped source of potentially novel antimicrobials (e.g., bacteriocins). Improvements to bacterial culturing and sequencing techniques have highlighted these potential alternative treatments and control strategies to target antibiotic resistant uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC).

METHODS: Expanded quantitative urine culture (EQUC) was used to culture bacterial isolates from mid-stream urine samples. Urinary isolates …


Examining The Absorbance Maximum, Protein Concentration And Antimicrobial Activity Of Seaweed Extracts, Claudia Kenneally 2023 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland.

Examining The Absorbance Maximum, Protein Concentration And Antimicrobial Activity Of Seaweed Extracts, Claudia Kenneally

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Background

The emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has highlighted the need for novel antimicrobials. Antimicrobial compounds can be isolated from various marine sources, including seaweed, which contain pigments and proteins. This study focuses on screening seaweeds for potential antimicrobial compounds.

Methods

Four seaweed types (A, B, C, D) were collected from beaches in Cork, Ireland, and extracts of each were prepared using both methanol (-M) and water (-H2O). The absorbance maximum (λmax)of seaweed extracts was determined from 220 – 800 nm to investigate potential pigment interference at 600 nm. The bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay was preformed …


Bioengineered Nisin A Derivatives Display Enhanced Activity Against Clinical Neonatal Pathogens, Anna Desmond 2023 Department of Biological Sciences, Munster Technological University, Cork, Ireland.

Bioengineered Nisin A Derivatives Display Enhanced Activity Against Clinical Neonatal Pathogens, Anna Desmond

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Neonatal infection is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity in infants. Globally, neonatal pathogens are increasingly becoming multi-drug resistant, indicating the need to discover novel alternative treatment strategies. Nisin is an antimicrobial peptide that exhibits broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including a wide variety of clinical pathogens. Nisin can be used in combination with antibiotics to improve their efficacy. This study examined the activity of nisin and bioengineered derivatives against multi-drug resistant Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus capitis isolates and investigated the potential synergy between nisin peptides and selected antibiotics. Whole genome sequence analysis of the strains revealed …


Development Of A Protocol For The Extraction Of Genomic Material From Fecal Matter For Metagenome And Virome Sequencing, Keith Coughlan 2023 APC Microbiome Ireland and School of Microbiology, University College Cork, Ireland.

Development Of A Protocol For The Extraction Of Genomic Material From Fecal Matter For Metagenome And Virome Sequencing, Keith Coughlan

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

With the advent of increasingly more accurate and reliable sequencing methods, the requirement for extraction methods yielding large volumes of high-quality genomic material has become progressively more significant. While the analysis of genomic material through bioinformatics can offer some methods of “cleaning” and standardizing data, it is essential that the “wet lab” aspects of data produce abundant amounts of high-quality genetic material. Therefore, the purpose of this project is to develop an optimized method of DNA extraction for fecal material sequencing in microbiome and virome investigations. The samples used for the optimized protocol are infant fecal samples collected and stored …


Plastic Recycling Using Waxworms: Biotechnology Solutions, Lance Wood 2023 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Plastic Recycling Using Waxworms: Biotechnology Solutions, Lance Wood

Sustainability Conference

As small particles that do not degrade, microplastics harm the environment. Plastics are physically broken down rather than chemically during the traditional recycling process. An insect naturally found in honeybee hives known as the waxworm can break down the most common plastic: polyethylene. A literature review was conducted on a new method to recycle plastics involving the waxworm Galleria mellonella. Literary review studies suggest that recycling using waxworms is more efficient and faster than traditional methods due to oxidation by enzymes. After conducting a literature review, a bioinformatics study was carried out using published DNA and protein sequences. Two promising …


Tracing Evolution Of Gene Transfer Agents Using Comparative Genomics, Roman Kogay 2023 Dartmouth College

Tracing Evolution Of Gene Transfer Agents Using Comparative Genomics, Roman Kogay

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

The accumulating evidence suggest that viruses and their components can be domesticated by their hosts, equipping them with convenient molecular toolkits for various functions. One of such domesticated system is Gene Transfer Agents (GTAs) that are produced by some bacteria and archaea. GTAs morphologically resemble small phage-like particles and contain random fragments of their host genome. They are produced only by a small fraction of the microbial population and are released through a lysis of the host cell. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that GTAs are especially abundant in the taxonomic class of Alphaproteobacteria, where they are vertically inherited and evolve …


Connecting The Nebraska Water Quality Index To The Aquatic Microbial Community Of The North Platte River Basin, Nebraska, Paula R. Guastello 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Connecting The Nebraska Water Quality Index To The Aquatic Microbial Community Of The North Platte River Basin, Nebraska, Paula R. Guastello

School of Natural Resources: Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The Nebraska Water Quality Index, under development by the Nebraska Department of Environment and Energy, summarizes in a single value eight environmental parameters that have been monitored in Nebraska for nearly 20 years. Water quality parameters including those used in the Nebraska Water Quality Index have been shown in previous studies to impact bacterial growth. As such, this index has the potential to correlate with the freshwater microbial community. Here, I relate the Nebraska Water Quality Index to microbial community composition and structure using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequence data collected from the North Platte River Basin, Nebraska. This index …


Regulated Intramembrane Proteolysis By M82 Peptidases: The Role Of Prss In The Staphylococcus Aureus Stress Response, Baylie M. Schott 2023 University of South Florida

Regulated Intramembrane Proteolysis By M82 Peptidases: The Role Of Prss In The Staphylococcus Aureus Stress Response, Baylie M. Schott

USF Tampa Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Staphylococcus aureus is a major threat to human health, which is only exacerbated by its resistance to methicillin and other frontline antibiotics. Consequently, annual hospitalizations resulting from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been recorded in the hundreds of thousands for decades. However, the global impact of this opportunistic pathogen cannot solely be attributed to its antibiotic resistance, as S. aureus is also an expert at adapting to host conditions and responding to external stress. Here we attempt to gain a better understanding of a S. aureus factor that aids in circumventing such external insult - PrsS - a membrane protease …


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